Objective of present study was to determine the drug utilization patterns and outcomes of treatment diabetic patients on hypoglycemic agents in the outpatient department in the tertiary care hospital. Patients with diabetes (n=168) visiting the outpatient department of a hospital who were willing to give the consent were enrolled in the study. Demographic data, Prescription predictors and other useful information were collected in case record form and then analysed. Present study was carried out with 168 patients, Majority of them belongs to type 2 diabetes having average age between 41-60 years, majority were having history of disease more than five years, with coexisting hypertension as a major complication. Patients in this setting were treated with a multiple hypoglycemic agents. The most commonly prescribed oral hypoglycemic agent was biguanides (metformin) followed by sulfonylureas (glimepiride), thiazolidinediones (pioglitazone), alpha glucosidase inhibitors (voglibose) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (Sitagliptin). As monotherapy metformin was the most common choice followed by glimepiride and voglibose.
The prescribing behavior of physicians working in selected health centers of the Diabetic Association of Bangladesh were studied along with the factors affecting those behaviors in the present study. It was an observational study on 818 prescriptions given by 49 physicians working in 17 healthcare facilities. The M±SD of the total prescribing score (expressed as percentage) was 60±11. Physicians scoring around or below 60% belonged to lower age (
The Book entitled MANAGEMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS WITH INDIGENOUS HERBAL FORMULATION is mainly the outcome of Research Project conducted on the large number of patients of Diabetes by the author. The study was conducted with the certain Herbal Drug with classical reference. The compound formulation was prepared and administered in the patients of Diabetes for one month and found effective on clinical symptoms as well as on Laboratory parameters including Diabetes Profile. I have no doubt that this Book will be proven as good reference book for the patients of Diabetes and also to the Students of Ayurveda, Academicians and Research Scholars of Ayrveda.
Alternative medicines for diabetes; Diabetes is a serious metabolic disorder with micro- and macrovascular complications that result in significant morbidity and mortality. Statistical Projections for India suggest that the number of diabetics will rise from 15 million in 1995 to 57 million in the year 2025 (King et al., 1998). Since time immemorial, individuals with diabetes have been treated orally in folk medicine with a variety of plant extracts. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the use of medicinal plants. In the present study the authors tried to investigate the anti diabetic properties of Ocimum sanctum and Aegle marmelos by evaluating the comparative anti hyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of these herbs in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The authors believe that these plants may complement the use of such effective anti diabetic drug as tolbutamide or chlorpropamide in the treatment of diabetes and also contribute to the development of new prescription drugs for treatment of diabetes as either biochemical models or templates for drug synthesis.
Type2 Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the epidemic of civilization being the primary driver of the epidemic is the rapid epidemiological transition associated with changes in dietary patterns and decreased physical activity etc. Appropriate lifestyle intervention and homoeopathic medicine would greatly help in preventing or postponing the onset and progress of type2 diabetes mellitus. Accessory circumstances like mode of living & habits, occupation, diet, moral & intellectual character etc as stated by Dr Christian Friedrich Samuel Hahnemann, the founder of Homoeopathy are regarded as prime preventable factors of Type2DM.
The Present book is designed to provide authoritative, comprehensive, concept regarding glaucoma and drug utilization research.The purpose of the book is to emphasize the practical aspects of medical therapy for glaucoma. In the present era, newer and newer drugs are introduced every year and doctors are in dilemma to select and prescribe rational, cost effective medicine depending upon the individual requirements. With this book, we have attempted to highlight two important aspects: medical therapy and cost effectiveness of prescribed drugs. We are hopeful that the book will be helpful for all researchers, Doctors, nurses and paramedical staff. Lastly Suggestions and criticism are most welcome. Rajesh Kumar Suman
The research presented in this book is comprised of two parts. Part A is related to research focused on protein glycation which is one of the major causes of diabetic complications. standard bio-assay was established to screen natural and synthetic compounds to discover new lead molecules with high potency and low toxic effects. More than 1000 compounds were investigated and detailed studies were performed. As a result several promising inhibitors of protein glycation belonging to different classes were identified and their cytotoxic effects were determined for their safer use. Part B of this book is related to receptor-based studies on type-2 diabetes mellitus. In this case we used glucagon and GLP-1 receptors.New mutants of these receptors were prepared by site-directed mutagenesis. These new mutants along with parent DNA were expressed in Human Embryonic Kidney cells which were tested for cAMP (secondary messenger) production. cAMP is responsible for the release of glucose from liver in case of glucagon receptor while in case of GLP-1 receptor cAMP is responsible for the release of insulin. Synthetic compounds were also tested against both receptors for cAMP production.
Expectant mothers who have never had diabetes before in their life and experience elevated blood glucose levels during pregnancy are at risk of developing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM). What triggers it? Does it harm the mother and the baby? Is continuing education part of a successful strategy to improve quality of care? GDM can be a source of anxiety for pregnant women. In oder to relieve anxiety, knowledgeable nurses working hand in hand with other interdisciplinary staff can help to turn the concern into a healthy pregnancy for the mother to be and a healthy life for the newborn.
Diabetes Mellitus is one of mankind's most common yet least understood diseases which leaves behind a trail of mortality and morbidity if left untreated at an early age.It presents with a spectrum of oral manifestations therefore it is imperative on the part of the oral physician to recognize and treat these manifestations. Also, regular health check ups and periodic monitoring of blood sugar levels is essential to enable a person lead a normal life.
Diabetes is one of the major causes of death and disability in the world. The global figure ofpeople with diabetes is set to rise from the current estimate of 150 million to 220 million in 2010 and 300 million in 2025. Most cases will be of type II diabetes, with a sedentary lifestyle and obesi. A plethora of antidiabetic drugs are used in clinic, of which metformin hydrochloride is a very widely used and accepted drug. In spite of its favorable clinical response and lack of significant drawbacks, chronic therapy with metformin hydrochloride suffers from certain specific problems of which, the most prominent being the high dose, short biological half life low bioavailability and high incidence of gastrointestinal side effects (30% cases) Also the main site of its absorption is reported to be proximal small intestines Thus, the development of controlled-release dosage forms in form of gastro-retentive system would clearly be advantageous.
Diabetes is a silent epidemic affecting huge portion of population all over the world.Prolonged use of oral antidiabetic drugs elicits various side effects & that of insulin leads to resistance.So alternate treatment is needed. The present study, performed on wistar rats, reveals that Irbesartan, primarily an antihypertensive drug, & Curcumin, a polyphenol present in frequently used household Indian herb Haldi/turmeric (Curcuma longa), possess the antihyperglycemic & antihyperlipidemic actions, alone and in combination, without causing adverse effects. So far we have very scanty number of studies. These effects have also been compared with those of standard allopathic drugs. Descriptions of physiology of glucose metabolism, pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus, Insulin resistance, general properties and proposed mechanisms of antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic action of Irbesartan & Curcumin, fasting plasma glucose level measurement using Glucose oxidase method, lipid profile measurement using automatic analyzer have also been added which should be useful for the students and readers from the corresponding discipline.
This monograph considers well-known biochemical and pathophysiological data in terms of diabetes mellitus type 2 as a disease characterized primarily violation of energy metabolism of cells in which the main actor and conductor of «pathogenic ensemble» is endogenous cortisol. From this perspective, explains all the manifestations of diabetes mellitus type 2 and mechanisms for the development of complications. The new theory is based on fundamental universally recognized facts and does not contradict the existing experimental and clinical data.
Awareness and early identification of periodontal diseaseIn diabetic patients is necessary to improve the quality of life, as treating chronic periodontal infections is essential for managing diabetes and to prevent or minimize the systemic complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy,fatigue, weakness, memory loss, cardiovascular disease and need for amputations, periodontal infection and tooth loss.
The aim of this study was to assess the ocular manifestations of diabetes and follow-up the results of treatment. Diabetes mellitus is a major cause of blindness in the USA and the leading cause of new blindness in working-aged Americans. Diabetic retinopathy alone accounts for at least 12% of new cases of blindness each year in the USA. This study focuses on progress and challenges in basic and clinical research on the ocular complications of diabetes. DR is one of the most common causes of visual loss in adults; therefore, the earlier the diagnosis, the better the management. Vascular leakage could impair neuronal function and also vision. Early detection of DR and timely intervention can reduce the incidence of moderate visual loss and severe visual loss in PDR. Diabetes mellitus is associated with measurable adverse impact on several common and important tasks of daily living, further implicating this condition as an important public health problem deserving increased attention and resources.
The term diabetes mellitus describes a metabolic disorder of multiple aetiology characterized by chronic hyperglycemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. It is a leading public healthcare problem with increasing incidence and long term complications of various organs such as kidney, neuron, eye, heart. These complications are mainly a consequence of macro and micro vascular damages of the target organs and also associated with ongoing malfunction of them . The prevalence of diabetes is increasing world-wide. It is surprising that there is no age limitation for presentation of type 2 diabetes. I think the study will help to create awareness among the physicians and also the diabetic patients regarding the damaging effect of diabetes on lung functions. This may also help earlier diagnosis and proper management of pulmonary complications in this group of patients. The peoples also be aware of silent killing effect of diabetes.