Thermal Processing of Ready-to-Eat Meat Products provides critical technical information on all aspects of thermal processing of RTE meat products. Edited and authored by the most experienced and knowledgeable people in the meat industry on this subject, the book addresses all technical and regulatory aspects of the production of RTE meat products, such as heat and mass transfer, pathogen lethality, post-packaging pasteurization, sanitary design, predictive equations and supportive documentation for HACCP.
The benefits of food irradiation to the public health have been described extensively by organizations such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the USA and the World Health Organization. The American Medical Association and the American Dietetic Association have both endorsed the irradiation process. Yet the potential health benefits of irradiation are unknown to many consumers and food industry representatives who are wary of irradiated foods due to myth-information from “consumer-advocate” groups. This updated second edition of Food Irradiation Research and Technology reviews the latest developments in irradiation technologies as they are applied to meat, seafood fish, fruits, vegetables and nuts. Experts from industry, government, and academia define the basic principles and public health benefits of irradiation. New chapters in this edition address irradiation chemistry, including furan formation due to irradiation, irradiation of packaging materials, processing irradiation technologies and parameters, and ready-to-eat meat products. Coverage of safety and quality of fresh fruits and vegetables, phytosanitary applications and consumer acceptance has been expanded to address recent interest and development. The book is designed to appeal to a broad readership: industry food scientists involved in the processing of meat and fish, fruits and vegetables; food microbiologists and radiation processing specialists; and government and industry representatives involved in the import and export of food commodities.
The food industry has utilized automated control systems for over a quarter of a century. However, the past decade has seen an increase in the use of more sophisticated software-driven, on-line control systems, especially in thermal processing unit operations. As these software-driven control systems have become more complex, the need to validate their operation has become more important. In addition to validating new control systems, some food companies have undertaken the more difficult task of validating legacy control systems that have been operating for a number of years on retorts or aseptic systems. Thermal Processing: Control and Automation presents an overview of various facets of thermal processing and packaging from industry, academic, and government representatives. The book contains information that will be valuable not only to a person interested in understanding the fundamental aspects of thermal processing (eg graduate students), but also to those involved in designing the processes (eg process specialists based in food manufacturing) and those who are involved in process filing with USDA or FDA. The book focuses on technical aspects, both from a thermal processing standpoint and from an automation and process control standpoint. Coverage includes established technologies such as retorting as well as emerging technologies such as continuous flow microwave processing. The book addresses both the theoretical and applied aspects of thermal processing, concluding with speculations on future trends and directions.
Meat has been a long sought after source of nutrients in human diets. Its nutrient-dense composition of protein, fats, vitamins and minerals makes it an integral part to healthy and balanced diets. As demand for meat continues to increase globally, a better understanding of efficiently producing quality meat products is becoming increasingly important. The Science of Meat Quality provides comprehensive coverage of meat quality from the biological basis of muscle development to end-product-use topics such as preparation and sensory analysis. The Science of Meat Quality explores the basis of meat quality long before it hits grocery store shelves. The book opens with a look at cellular muscle tissue development, metabolism and physiology. Subsequent chapters look at topics surrounding the development of tenderness, water-holding capacity, lipid oxidation and color in meat products. The final chapters discuss producing a good-tasting end product from preparing meat to preventing food-borne illness. Each chapter contains not only the theory behind that topic, but also detailed lab methodologies for measuring each meat quality trait. The Science of Meat Quality is an essential resource and reference for animal scientists, meat scientists, food scientists, and food industry personnel. Meat has been a long sought after source of nutrients in human diets. Its nutrient-dense composition of protein, fats, vitamins and minerals makes it an integral part to healthy and balanced diets. As demand for meat continues to increase globally, a better understanding of efficiently producing quality meat products is becoming increasingly important. The Science of Meat Quality provides comprehensive coverage of meat quality from the biological basis of muscle development to end-product-use topics such as preparation and sensory analysis. The Science of Meat Quality explores the basis of meat quality long before it hits grocery store shelves. The book opens with a look at cellular muscle tissue development, metabolism and physiology. Subsequent chapters look at topics surrounding the development of tenderness, water-holding capacity, lipid oxidation and color in meat products. The final chapters discuss producing a good-tasting end product from preparing meat to preventing food-borne illness. Each chapter contains not only the theory behind that topic, but also detailed lab methodologies for measuring each meat quality trait. The Science of Meat Quality is an essential resource and reference for animal scientists, meat scientists, food scientists, and food industry personnel.
Thermal processing remains the most important method of food preservation in use today, and the scale of the industry is immense. The large scale of these production operations makes it more important than ever that the process is performed perfectly every time: failure will lead to product deterioration and loss of sales at best, and at worst to serious illness or death. This volume is a definitive modern-day reference for all those involved in thermal processing. It covers all of the essential information regarding the preservation of food products by heat. It includes all types of food product, from those high in acid and given a mild heat process to the low-acid sterilised foods that require a full botulinum cook. Different chapters deal with the manufacturing steps from raw material microbiology, through various processing regimes, validation methods, packaging, incubation testing and spoilage incidents. The authors have extensive knowledge of heat preservation covering all parts of the world and represent organisations with formidable reputations in this field. This book is an essential resource for all scientists and technologists in the food manufacturing industry as well as researchers and students of food science and technology.
This book seeks to address the challenges facing the international seafood industry via a two pronged approach: by offering the latest information on established technologies and introducing new ideas and technologies. An introductory chapter sets the tone for the book by presenting the background against which fish processing will exist in the near future. Chapter two looks at the environmental and sustainability issues relating to conventional fish processing, including processing efficiency and better use of the outputs currently considered wastes. The impact of mechanisation and computerisation on environmental sustainability is also addressed. Subsequent chapters examine the latest developments in established fish processing technologies such as canning, curing, freezing and chilling, with an emphasis on the environmental aspects of packaging and the process itself. In addition, quality and processing parameters for specific species, including new species, are described. The second part of the book gives authors the opportunity to introduce the potential technologies and applications of the future to a wider audience. These include fermented products and their acceptance by a wider audience; the utilisation of fish processing by-products as aquaculture feeds; and the use of by-products for bioactive compounds in biomedical, nutraceutical, cosmetic and other applications.
Dense phase carbon dioxide (DPCD) is a non-thermal method for food and pharmaceutical processing that can ensure safe products with minimal nutrient loss and better preserved quality attributes. Its application is quite different than, for example, supercritical extraction with CO 2 where the typical solubility of materials in CO 2 is in the order of 1% and therefore requires large volumes of CO 2. In contrast, processing with DPCD requires much less CO 2 (between 5 to 8% CO 2 by weight) and the pressures used are at least one order of magnitude less than those typically used in ultra high pressure (UHP) processing. There is no noticeable temperature increase due to pressurization, and typical process temperatures are around 40°C. DPCD temporarily reduces the pH of liquid foods and because oxygen is removed from the environment, and because the temperature is not high during the short process time (typically about five minutes in continuous systems), nutrients, antioxidant activity, and vitamins are much better preserved than with thermal treatments. In pharmaceutical applications, DPCD facilitates the production of micronized powders of controlled particle size and distribution. Although the capital and operating costs are higher than that of thermal treatments, they are much lower than other non-thermal technology operations. This book is the first to bring together the significant amount of research into DPCD and highlight its effectiveness against microorganisms and enzymes as well as its potential in particle engineering. It is directed at food and pharmaceutical industry scientists and technologists working with DPCD and other traditional or non-thermal technologies that can potentially be used in conjunction with DPCD. It will also be of interest to packaging specialists and regulatory agencies.
In Hydrocolloids in Food Processing, a group of the most experienced and impartial experts explains what stabilizers should be used and how they should be used, food product by food product. Numerous actual product formulations are packed into each chapter and the processing procedures to make these formulations are clearly described. Food manufacturers are shown how to accurately use food stabilizers to make the highest quality food products. Coverage includes all the practical details needed to ensure the most accurate QA standards and testing procedures for each hydrocolloid. Finally, Hydrocolloids in Food Processing explains how to navigate the often tricky area of dealing with hydrocolloid suppliers. An informative discussion of how hydrocolloid companies think and operate today is followed by precise strategies to ensure that the most mutually beneficial relationships can be obtained between specific customer types and appropriate types of suppliers.
Filling a gap on the market, this handbook and ready reference is unique in its discussion of the usefulness of various heterocyclic systems in the synthesis of natural products. Clearly structured for easy access to the information, each chapter is devoted to a certain class of heterocycle, providing a tabular presentation of the natural products to be covered containing the particular heterocyclic ring system along with their biological profile, occurrence and most important physical properties, backed by the appropriate references. In addition, the application of the heterocyclic system to the synthesis of natural products ic covered in detail. Of great interest to organic, natural products, medicinal and biochemists, as well as those working in the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industry.
Covering the latest technologies in process engineering, this handbook and ready reference features high pressure processing, alternative solvents and processes, extraction technologies and biotransformations – describing greener, more efficient and sustainable techniques. The result is an expert account of engineering details from lab-scale experiments to large-scale industrial design. The major focus is on the engineering aspects of extraction with organic and supercritical solvents, ionic liquids or surfactant solutions, and is supplemented by aspects of both up- and downstream processing, biotransformation, as well as a survey of typical products in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. This is rounded off by market developments, economic considerations and regulations requirements in the field Authored by experts from leading industrial and academic institutions, this is essential reading for the hands-on scientist and office manager alike.
This book provides a balanced account of analog, digital and mixed-mode signal processing with applications in telecommunications. Part I Perspective gives an overview of the areas of Systems on a Chip (Soc) and mobile communication which are used to demonstrate the complementary relationship between analog and digital systems. Part II Analog (continuous-time) and Digital Signal Processing contains both fundamental and advanced analysis, and design techniques, of analog and digital systems. This includes analog and digital filter design; fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithms; stochastic signals; linear estimation and adaptive filters. Part III Analog MOS Integrated Circuits for Signal Processing covers basic MOS transistor operation and fabrication through to the design of complex integrated circuits such as high performance Op Amps, Operational Transconductance Amplifiers (OTA's) and Gm-C circuits. Part IV Switched-capacitor and Mixed-mode Signal Processing outlines the design of switched-capacitor filters, and concludes with sigma-delta data converters as an extensive application of analog and digital signal processing Contains the fundamentals and advanced techniques of continuous-time and discrete-time signal processing. Presents in detail the design of analog MOS integrated circuits for signal processing, with application to the design of switched-capacitor filters. Uses the comprehensive design of integrated sigma-delta data converters to illustrate and unify the techniques of signal processing. Includes solved examples, end of chapter problems and MATLAB® throughout the book, to help readers understand the mathematical complexities of signal processing. The treatment of the topic is at the senior undergraduate to graduate and professional levels, with sufficient introductory material for the book to be used as a self-contained reference.
Balanced coverage of natural cosmetics, and what it really means to be «green» The use of natural ingredients and functional botanical compounds in cosmetic products is on the rise. According to industry estimates, sales of natural personal care products have exceeded $7 billion in recent years. Nonetheless, many misconceptions about natural products—for instance, what «green» and «organic» really mean—continue to exist within the industry. Formulating, Packaging, and Marketing of Natural Cosmetic Products addresses this confusion head-on, exploring and detailing the sources, processing, safety, efficacy, stability, and formulation aspects of natural compounds in cosmetic and personal care products. Designed to provide industry professionals and natural product development experts with the essential perspective and market information needed to develop truly «green» cosmetics, the book covers timely issues like biodegradable packaging and the potential microbial risks they present, the use of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to identify biomarkers, and chromatographic methods of analyzing natural products. A must-read for industry insiders, Formulating, Packaging, and Marketing of Natural Cosmetic Products provides the reader with basic tools and concepts to develop naturally derived formulas.
The Basics of Troubleshooting in Plastics Processing is a condensed practical guide that gives the reader a broad introduction to properties of thermoplastics plastics, additives, the major processes (extrusion, injection molding, rotational molding, blow molding, and thermoforming), as well as troubleshooting. The main goal is to provide the plastics processor with an improved understanding of the basics by explaining the science behind the technology. Machine details are minimized as the emphasis is on processing problems and the defects in an effort to focus on basic root causes to problems and how to solve them. The book’s framework is troubleshooting in plastics processing because of the importance it has to the eventual production of high quality end products. Each chapter contains both practical and detailed technical information. This basic guide provides state-of-the-art information on: Processing problems and defects during manufacturing Plastics materials, their properties and characterization The plastics processing techniques Plastics additives Troubleshooting of the 5 main plastics processes References for further reading