This study analyses the cumulative abnormal return (CAR) to Swedish and German bidders and the impact of method of payment. Cash and Stock as means of financing have been discussed widely in the last decades. More recently the contingent payment form earnout has come to focus of research, and will be further investigated in this study. The study involves a sample of 927 transactions of which 346 bids are made by German and 581 bids are made by Swedish acquirers. Moreover, the sample compromises 24 German and 49 Swedish earnout deals. The sample period is chosen from 01/01/1986 to 31/12/2012 whereby a German or Swedish company acquires a domestic or foreign target of any listing status.
The topic of error correction in the second language (L2) classroom tends to spark controversy among both language teachers and learners. Teachers may have very strong views about error correction, based on their own previous L2 learning experiences, or they may be more ambivalent. However, learners may have a totally different view from their teachers. Thus learners' and teachers' perspectives about error correction are essential in order to investigate the best reaction to students' error. In a bid to address this issue, this study was conducted to investigate whether the learners' and teachers' perspectives about error correction in speaking with regard to language proficiency level and academic degree differ or not. Methodologically, this study is based on the requirements of quantitative research paradigm. To this end, a sample of 83 teachers and 93 learners attempted a 22-item questionnaire. The findings revealed controversies over the teachers' and learners' perspectives; suggesting more attention to these controversies between teachers' and learners' opinion about error correction and to learners' preferences for error correction based on their language proficiency level.
Provides an in-depth treatment of ANOVA and ANCOVA techniques from a linear model perspective ANOVA and ANCOVA: A GLM Approach provides a contemporary look at the general linear model (GLM) approach to the analysis of variance (ANOVA) of one- and two-factor psychological experiments. With its organized and comprehensive presentation, the book successfully guides readers through conventional statistical concepts and how to interpret them in GLM terms, treating the main single- and multi-factor designs as they relate to ANOVA and ANCOVA. The book begins with a brief history of the separate development of ANOVA and regression analyses, and then goes on to demonstrate how both analyses are incorporated into the understanding of GLMs. This new edition now explains specific and multiple comparisons of experimental conditions before and after the Omnibus ANOVA, and describes the estimation of effect sizes and power analyses leading to the determination of appropriate sample sizes for experiments to be conducted. Topics that have been expanded upon and added include: Discussion of optimal experimental designs Different approaches to carrying out the simple effect analyses and pairwise comparisons with a focus on related and repeated measure analyses The issue of inflated Type 1 error due to multiple hypotheses testing Worked examples of Shaffer's R test, which accommodates logical relations amongst hypotheses ANOVA and ANCOVA: A GLM Approach, Second Edition is an excellent book for courses on linear modeling at the graduate level. It is also a suitable reference for researchers and practitioners in the fields of psychology and the biomedical and social sciences.
The test statistics that are used to test hypotheses, which are about the equality of the coefficients of variation, have been introduced and compared . A simulation has been prepared for the comparative study. The simulation has been designed for a different numbers of population (k=2, 3, 4, 5 and 6), a different sample sizes (n=10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 100) and a different levels of type I. error (α=0,01, 0,05 and 0,10). The purpose of the study is to compare the test statistics that are used to test the equality of coefficient of variation in terms of type I. error and the power of the test.
A comprehensive examination of high-dimensional analysis of multivariate methods and their real-world applications Multivariate Statistics: High-Dimensional and Large-Sample Approximations is the first book of its kind to explore how classical multivariate methods can be revised and used in place of conventional statistical tools. Written by prominent researchers in the field, the book focuses on high-dimensional and large-scale approximations and details the many basic multivariate methods used to achieve high levels of accuracy. The authors begin with a fundamental presentation of the basic tools and exact distributional results of multivariate statistics, and, in addition, the derivations of most distributional results are provided. Statistical methods for high-dimensional data, such as curve data, spectra, images, and DNA microarrays, are discussed. Bootstrap approximations from a methodological point of view, theoretical accuracies in MANOVA tests, and model selection criteria are also presented. Subsequent chapters feature additional topical coverage including: High-dimensional approximations of various statistics High-dimensional statistical methods Approximations with computable error bound Selection of variables based on model selection approach Statistics with error bounds and their appearance in discriminant analysis, growth curve models, generalized linear models, profile analysis, and multiple comparison Each chapter provides real-world applications and thorough analyses of the real data. In addition, approximation formulas found throughout the book are a useful tool for both practical and theoretical statisticians, and basic results on exact distributions in multivariate analysis are included in a comprehensive, yet accessible, format. Multivariate Statistics is an excellent book for courses on probability theory in statistics at the graduate level. It is also an essential reference for both practical and theoretical statisticians who are interested in multivariate analysis and who would benefit from learning the applications of analytical probabilistic methods in statistics.
Academic Paper from the year 2017 in the subject Medicine - Neurology, Psychiatry, Addiction, grade: -, University of Murcia, language: English, abstract: Objective: To perform a meta-analysis of all published genetic association studies of NRNX1 variants and psychotic spectrum disorders (PSD). Methods: Potential studies were identified through PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, HuGeNet, GeneCard and WoS up from 1980 until June 2015 (week 5). Published observational studies reporting NRXN1 variants in PSD cases and in non-PSD controls were all considered eligible for inclusion in this systematic review. Two reviewers selected studies for possible inclusion and extracted data independently following a standardized protocol. Different meta-analyses were performed for each NRXN1 variant and PSD and controls, with a random-effect model to calculate the pooled OR and its corresponding 95% CI. Forest plots and Cochran's Q-Statistic and I2 index were calculated to check for heterogeneity. Subgroup analyses and chi-square test were carried out to analyze potential moderators. Publication bias and quality of reporting were also analyzed. Results: 19 studies met our inclusion criteria, providing a total sample of 25208 patients with PSD and 56971 controls. Meta-analyses of NRXN1 deletions (OR = 3.36), exons (OR = 3.53) and introns (OR = 2.02) showed evidence of an association between NRXN1 gene and PSD. Only one study influed in a meta-analysis (NRXN1 deletions) and no quality criterion affec...
Explores the uses of TXRF in micro- and trace analysis, and in surface- and near-surface-layer analysis • Pinpoints new applications of TRXF in different fields of biology, biomonitoring, material and life sciences, medicine, toxicology, forensics, art history, and archaeometry • Updated and detailed sections on sample preparation taking into account nano- and picoliter techniques • Offers helpful tips on performing analyses, including sample preparations, and spectra recording and interpretation • Includes some 700 references for further study
Bioanalysis of Pharmaceuticals: Sample Preparation, Separation Techniques and Mass Spectrometry is the first student textbook on the separation science and mass spectrometry of pharmaceuticals present in biological fluids with an educational presentation of the principles, concepts and applications. It discusses the chemical structures and properties of low- and high-molecular drug substances; the different types of biological samples and fluids that are used; how to prepare the samples by extraction, and how to perform the appropriate analytical measurements by chromatographic and mass spectrometric methods. Bioanalysis of Pharmaceuticals: Sample Preparation, Separation Techniques and Mass Spectrometry: Is an introductory student textbook discussing the different principles and concepts clearly and comprehensively, with many relevant and educational examples Focuses on substances that are administered as human drugs, including low-molecular drug substances, peptides, and proteins Presents both the basic principles that are regularly taught in universities, along with the practical use of bioanalysis as carried out by researchers in the pharmaceutical industry and in hospital laboratories Is aimed at undergraduate students, scientists, technicians and researchers in industry working in the areas of pharmaceutical analyses, biopharmaceutical analyses, biological and life sciences The book includes multiple examples to illustrate the theory and application, with many practical aspects including calculations, thus helping the student to learn how to convert the data recorded by instruments into the real concentration of the drug substances within the biological sample.
Masterarbeit aus dem Jahr 2013 im Fachbereich Geowissenschaften / Geographie - Sonstiges, Note: 1,0, Leopold-Franzens-Universität Innsbruck (Institut für Geographie), Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: This study analyses the spatial expansion in bicycle tourism due to the innovation of electric bicycles (e-bikes) in German-speaking countries. Until recently cycling destinations were mainly limited to flatter regions. This study's objective is to evaluate whether the advent of electric bicycles expands the spatial potential for (electric) cycle tourism in any topographic setting. By means of an online survey of e-bike rental companies and expert interviews with the regional project coordinators, this study compares supply and demand of three sample destinations with different landscape types: the Tauber River valley region and the southern Black Forest Mittelgebirge in Germany as well as the Schladming-Dachstein alpine region in Austria. The results show that most tourists used the e-bike offers spontaneously and chose the destination by other motivations. However, the study also shows that many of these tourists would not consider a bike tour on a normal bicycle. Thus, for many tourists e-bikes hold the potential to extend the radius of the actively usable tourist areas in mountainous destinations. Although all sample regions record a slowly growing demand of e-bike users, the outcome did not quite meet most tourism service provider's expectations. Therefore, it is conclude...
This accessible introductory textbook provides a straightforward, practical explanation of how statistical analysis and error measurements should be applied in biological research. Understanding Statistical Error – A Primer for Biologists: Introduces the essential topic of error analysis to biologists Contains mathematics at a level that all biologists can grasp Presents the formulas required to calculate each confidence interval for use in practice Is based on a successful series of lectures from the author’s established course Assuming no prior knowledge of statistics, this book covers the central topics needed for efficient data analysis, ranging from probability distributions, statistical estimators, confidence intervals, error propagation and uncertainties in linear regression, to advice on how to use error bars in graphs properly. Using simple mathematics, all these topics are carefully explained and illustrated with figures and worked examples. The emphasis throughout is on visual representation and on helping the reader to approach the analysis of experimental data with confidence. This useful guide explains how to evaluate uncertainties of key parameters, such as the mean, median, proportion and correlation coefficient. Crucially, the reader will also learn why confidence intervals are important and how they compare against other measures of uncertainty. Understanding Statistical Error – A Primer for Biologists can be used both by students and researchers to deepen their knowledge and find practical formulae to carry out error analysis calculations. It is a valuable guide for students, experimental biologists and professional researchers in biology, biostatistics, computational biology, cell and molecular biology, ecology, biological chemistry, drug discovery, biophysics, as well as wider subjects within life sciences and any field where error analysis is required.
Seminar paper from the year 2015 in the subject Business economics - Economic Policy, grade: 2.1, , course: Public Administration, language: English, abstract: The establishment of public enterprises by governments of developing economies has been identified as a strategic approach to accelerated economic and national development. The main prop was the fostering and harnessing of economic potentials, balancing and control of strategic and social interest of the country, full employment as well as generation of revenue for the development of infrastructure.With the exception of some episodic successes recorded at inception, structural legacy of public enterprises and their corresponding impact on the Nigerian economy have been burdensome. This research was therefore inspired by the need to critically evaluate the factors leading to the dismal performance of public enterprises using the Cross River Newspaper Corporation as a case study. A sample of 360 persons was used for the study. The data for this study was generated from a well structured questionnaire which was administered on the sample. Research hypotheses were tested using Parsons Correlation Coefficient method. The result of the analyses revealed a positive correlation between the dependent and independent variables. Accordingly, the four Null Hypotheses were rejected. Recommendations were made in line with the findings.
Bachelor Thesis from the year 2011 in the subject English - Miscellaneous, grade: 1,0, University of Wuppertal (Anglistik/Amerikanistik), language: English, abstract: As a way of establishing a general framework of the development of politeness research, I will give an overview of different theories: the first being the conversationalist maxim view, including the work of Grice, Lakoff and Leech; and the second being the face- saving view of politeness, including Brown and Levinson's model. Then, I will investigate how politeness is realised in German and English. For this purpose, I will firstly consider cultural specificities that determine linguistic politeness, examining dimensions of cross- cultural difference as proposed by Juliane House and critically evaluate these dimensions. Secondly, I will look at how politeness is reflected in the realisation of the speech act of request, drawing on results from a contrastive study on politeness markers by Juliane House and Gabriele Kasper. These will subsequently be compared to findings gained in other empirical works. Following the critical evaluation, I will also take a closer look at the significant role of modal particles in the modification of requests in order to account for some of the prevalent linguistic choices observed in the contrastive study. Finally, the paper ends with a summarising conclusion.
Master's Thesis from the year 2017 in the subject Business economics - Business Management, Corporate Governance, grade: Very Good, , course: Project Planning and Management, language: English, abstract: Micro and small industries have a significant and vital role in the economies of developed countries. Especially in developing countries small scale industries considered as a backbone of their economies. In regard of this, the study intends to examine the challenges and prospects of Micro and Small enterprises in construction sector, specifically on the construction material producer enterprises in Yeka and Bole sub-cities. To satisfy the objectives of this study, descriptive and inferential analyses were used. The information was collected from the sample of 150 MSEs with face to face interviews. The sampled MSEs were selected by simple random sampling technique. Besides that, the study draws out with nine key challenges which seem to influence the profitability of MSEs in both sub-cities. The results point to that, there is a strong relationship between the independent and dependent variable. Furthermore, the selected explanatory variables may significantly explain the variations of the explained variance at 5% and 10% level of significance. Based on the results, financial, managerial, raw material, work premises and technologies are the main challenges of MSEs, those to be profitable and successful. Therefore, recommendations are forwarded to government bodies, micro ...
The Handbook of Intercultural Discourse and Communication brings together internationally-renowned scholars from a range of fields to survey the theoretical perspectives and applied work, including example analyses, in this burgeoning area of linguistics. Features contributions from established researchers in sociolinguistics and intercultural discourse Explores the theoretical perspectives underlying work in the field Examines the history of the field, work in cross-cultural communication, and features of discourse Establishes the scope of this interdisciplinary field of study Includes coverage on individual linguistic features, such as indirectness and politeness, as well as sample analyses of IDC exchanges
A comprehensive and practical resource for analyses of crossover designs For ethical reasons, it is vital to keep the number of patients in a clinical trial as low as possible. As evidenced by extensive research publications, crossover design can be a useful and powerful tool to reduce the number of patients needed for a parallel group design in studying treatments for non-curable chronic diseases. This book introduces commonly-used and well-established statistical tests and estimators in epidemiology that can easily be applied to hypothesis testing and estimation of the relative treatment effect for various types of data scale in crossover designs. Models with distribution-free random effects are assumed and hence most approaches considered here are semi-parametric. The book provides clinicians and biostatisticians with the exact test procedures and exact interval estimators, which are applicable even when the number of patients in a crossover trial is small. Systematic discussion on sample size determination is also included, which will be a valuable resource for researchers involved in crossover trial design. Key features: Provides exact test procedures and interval estimators, which are especially of use in small-sample cases. Presents most test procedures and interval estimators in closed-forms, enabling readers to calculate them by use of a pocket calculator or commonly-used statistical packages. Each chapter is self-contained, allowing the book to be used a reference resource. Uses real-life examples to illustrate the practical use of test procedures and estimators Provides extensive exercises to help readers appreciate the underlying theory, learn other relevant test procedures and understand how to calculate the required sample size. Crossover Designs: Testing, Estimation and Sample Size will be a useful resource for researchers from biostatistics, as well as pharmaceutical and clinical sciences. It can also be used as a textbook or reference for graduate students studying clinical experiments.