The recent turmoil on financial markets has made evident the importance of efficient liquidity risk management for the stability of banks. The measurement and management of liquidity risk must take into account economic factors such as the impact area, the timeframe of the analysis, the origin and the economic scenario in which the risk becomes manifest. Basel III, among other things, has introduced harmonized international minimum requirements and has developed global liquidity standards and supervisory monitoring procedures. The short book analyses the economic impact of the new regulation on profitability, on assets composition and business mix, on liabilities structure and replacement effects on banking and financial products.a??
Robust management of liquidity risk within the changing regulatory framework Liquidity Management applies current risk management theory, techniques, and processes to liquidity risk control and management to help organizations prepare in case of future economic crisis and changing regulatory framework. Based on extensive research conducted on banks' datasets, this book addresses the practical challenges and critical issues that frequently go unmentioned, and discusses the recent impact of sovereign crises on banks' liquidity processes and approaches. Market practices and regulatory stances are reviewed and compared to bank treasuries' response to liquidity crunches, refinancing risks are explored in the context of Basel 3, and alternative funding is analyzed in terms of resilience and allocation. Coverage includes the recent crisis, new regulations, and the techniques, processes, and strategies banks use in managing liquidity risk. The 2008 and 2010 crises brought liquidity risk out of the shadows as even profitable and well-capitalized banks were swept away with breathtaking speed. This book reviews modeling and internal process design in the context of the structural change in market conditions on banks' refinancing and control requirements, helping readers rethink and re-design their organization's approach to liquidity risk. Understand the new liquidity regulatory framework and the implications for banks Study the latest liquidity measurement models, with stress testing and scenario analysis Discover the effect of illiquid financing markets and possible lasting impacts Compare market liquidity and warning signals that detect further deterioration With much of the world still reeling from history, it's important that liquidity risk become a major focus going forward. This practical guide provides valuable information, but also real, actionable steps that can be taken today to forecast and mitigate risks with an eye toward greater stability and security. Liquidity Management is a thorough, comprehensive guide to a more robust management of liquidity risk.
Liquidity risk is in the spotlight of both regulators and management teams across the banking industry. The European banking regulator has introduced and implemented a stronger liquidity regulatory framework and local regulators have made liquidity a top priority on their supervisory agenda. Banks have accordingly followed suit. Liquidity risk is now a topic widely discussed in boardrooms as banks strive to set up a strong and efficient liquidity risk management framework which, while maintaining sufficient resources, does not jeopardize the necessary profitability and return targets. The Liquidity Risk Management Guide: From Policy to Pitfalls is practical guide for banks and risk professionals to proactively manage liquidity risk in a systemic way. The book sets out its own comprehensive framework, which includes all the various and critical components of liquidity risk management. The recommendations are based on experiences from the recent financial crises, best practices and compliance with current and future regulatory requirements, with special emphasis on Basel III. Using the new 6 Step Framework, the book provides step-by-step guidance for the reader to build their liquidity management framework into a new overarching structure, which brings all the different parts of liquidity risk into one approach. Special attention is given to the challenges that banks currently face when adopting and implementing the Basel III liquidity requirements and guidance is given on how the new metrics can be integrated into the existing framework, providing the most value to the banks instead of being a regulatory reporting matter.
In Banking, Asset and Liability Management (often abbreviated ALM) is the practice of managing risks that arise due to mismatches between the assets and liabilities (debts and assets) of the bank. Banks face several risks such as the liquidity risk, interest rate risk, credit risk and operational risk. Asset liability management (ALM) is a strategic management tool to manage interest rate risk and liquidity risk faced by banks, other financial services companies and corporations. Banks manage the risks of asset liability mismatch by matching the assets and liabilities according to the maturity pattern or the matching of the duration, by hedging and by securitization. . Modern risk management now takes place from an integrated approach to enterprise risk management that reflects the fact that interest rate risk, credit risk, market risk, and liquidity risk are all interrelated.
The most up-to-date, comprehensive guide on liquidity risk management—from the professionals Written by a team of industry leaders from the Price Waterhouse Coopers Financial Services Regulatory Practice, Liquidity Risk Management is the first book of its kind to pull back the curtain on a global approach to liquidity risk management in the post-financial crisis. Now, as a number of regulatory initiatives emerge, this timely and informative book explores the real-world implications of risk management practices in today's market. Taking a clear and focused approach to the operational and financial obligations of liquidity risk management, the book builds upon a foundational knowledge of banking and capital markets and explores in-depth the key aspects of the subject, including governance, regulatory developments, analytical frameworks, reporting, strategic implications, and more. The book also addresses management practices that are particularly insightful to liquidity risk management practitioners and managers in numerous areas of banking organizations. Each chapter is authored by a Price Waterhouse Coopers partner or director who has significant, hands-on expertise Content addresses key areas of the subject, such as liquidity stress testing and information reporting Several chapters are devoted to Basel III and its implications for bank liquidity risk management and business strategy Includes a dedicated, current, and all-inclusive look at liquidity risk management Complemented with hands-on insight from the field's leading authorities on the subject, Liquidity Risk Management is essential reading for practitioners and managers within banking organizations looking for the most current information on liquidity risk management.
The recent market turmoil caused by the sub-prime crisis highlighted how several key factors can strongly affect the banks’ capability to preserve their financial equilibrium under stress. Current liquidity risk models demonstrated to undervalue extreme events affecting funding and market risk in global scenarios. There was not an integrated measurement tool able to cover all the dimensions of liquidity risk and commonly adopted by the majority of institutions. This work, therefore, intends to highlight the most significant features to consider in order to implement an effective liquidity risk measurement and management.
The management of operational value-at-risk (OpVaR) in financial institutions is pre-sented by means of a novel, robust calculation technique and the influence of this value on the capital held by a bank for operational risk. A clear distinction between economic and regulatory capital is made as well as the way OpVaR models may be used to calculate both types of capital. Under the Basel II Advanced Measurement Approach (AMA) banks may employ OpVaR models to calculate regulatory capital; this study therefore illustrates the differences in regulatory capital when using the AMA and the Standardised Approach (SA) by means of an example. Economic capital is found to converge to regulatory capital using the AMA, but not if the SA is used.
To the extent that financial institutions have a crucial role in the development and stability of the economy, poor performance of banks affects the financial fragility of the whole economy. In turn, accounting and regulatory bodies propose an array of regulations to shape banks’ operations and risk. This book investigates financial accounting, regulation and governance issues in banks. It comprises three studies that cover these issues. In the first study, there is strong evidence of regulatory capital management and income smoothing behavior using loan loss provisions in US bank holding companies. The procyclicality inherent in loan loss provisions tends to accentuate regulatory capital management during economic downturns. In the second study, The results reveal that the association between the regulatory capital ratio and bank distress becomes significant if the bank holding company has a capital ratio of less than 6 percent, below which U.S. bank regulators do not regard banks as being well capitalized. In the third study, concentrated shareholders discourage banks from investing in risky positions with respect to total assets, loans and off-balance-sheet items.
This book presents the results of the study on influence of Environmental Risk Management on the general performance of commercial banks in Uganda. Quantitative research approaches were adopted and a method of data collection, consisting of a survey questionnaire was used. The results from the research provide some evidence that commercial banks in Uganda incorporate environmental issues into lending decisions and are aware of environmental risks and opportunities. It further revealed that good Environmental Risk Management(ERM)contributes to better overall performance of banks and that consideration of environmental issues when making lending decisions is important to banks. The study recommended development and implementation of a comprehensive environmental risk management system and frameworks, adoption environmental management procedures, adoption of appropriate strategy and consideration of structured community participation in monitoring funded projects for enhancing ERM.
With over 30 years’ experience of risk management in banks, Mark Laycock provides a comprehensive but succinct non-technical overview of risk and its governance in financial institutions. Bridging the gap between texts on governance and the increasingly technical aspects of risk management the book covers the main risk types experienced by banks – credit, market, operational and liquidity – outlines those risks before considering them from a governance perspective including the Board and Executive Management. Addressing terminology issues that can confuse dialogue, and by providing a bibliography alongside each chapter for more detailed discussion of the topic this book will ground readers with the knowledge they require to understand the unknown unknowns.
Liquidity risk is always present in our financial system and has in the last years been a major contribution to the financial crisis. Market liquidity risk has an effect on for example security prices, risk management, and the speed of arbitrage. The banks and their funding liquidity drives the market liquidity risk. Liquidity crisis arises through losses, increasing margins, tightened risk management, and increased volatility. When this happens the traditional liquidity providers becomes liquidity demanders which affect prices in a negative way. To get a sound understanding of liquidity risk we have to specify and describe liquidity. Market liquidity and funding liquidity are two kinds of liquidity. Market liquidity can be described as good when a security is easy to trade. Easy to trade is defined as small bid ask spread, small price impact and high resilience. If a bank or investor have good funding liquidity they have good availability of funds by their own capital or from loans. The main objective in this paper is to show if liquidity risk has a significant impact on option price and depends on a real supply curve.
Banking industry serves as the backbone of the financial sector that accumulates saving from surplus economic units in the form of deposits and provides it to deficit economic units in the form of advances. So it is of great importance to keenly observe the performance of the banks and their compliance with the regulatory requirements. Performance of the banks is measured at two levels, one is at the management and regulatory level of the banks and another is at external rating agencies. It is of great importance that both these ratings present the same results about the condition of the banks to provide clear information to investors and management. CAMELS is the supervisory and regulatory rating system implemented by State Bank of Pakistan. It takes into account six important components of a bank when it evaluates performance of the bank. These components are Capital, Assets, Management, Earning, Liquidity and Sensitivity to market risk. PACRA rating agency is the dominant credit rating agency of Pakistan that performs ratings for most banks. In our research we examine the similarities in the results generated by CAMELS rating system and PACRA rating agency.
Financial risk has become a focus of financial and nonfinancial firms, individuals, and policy makers. But the study of risk remains a relatively new discipline in finance and continues to be refined. The financial market crisis that began in 2007 has highlighted the challenges of managing financial risk. Now, in Financial Risk Management, author Allan Malz addresses the essential issues surrounding this discipline, sharing his extensive career experiences as a risk researcher, risk manager, and central banker. The book includes standard risk measurement models as well as alternative models that address options, structured credit risks, and the real-world complexities or risk modeling, and provides the institutional and historical background on financial innovation, liquidity, leverage, and financial crises that is crucial to practitioners and students of finance for understanding the world today. Financial Risk Management is equally suitable for firm risk managers, economists, and policy makers seeking grounding in the subject. This timely guide skillfully surveys the landscape of financial risk and the financial developments of recent decades that culminated in the crisis. The book provides a comprehensive overview of the different types of financial risk we face, as well as the techniques used to measure and manage them. Topics covered include: Market risk, from Value-at-Risk (VaR) to risk models for options Credit risk, from portfolio credit risk to structured credit products Model risk and validation Risk capital and stress testing Liquidity risk, leverage, systemic risk, and the forms they take Financial crises, historical and current, their causes and characteristics Financial regulation and its evolution in the wake of the global crisis And much more Combining the more model-oriented approach of risk management-as it has evolved over the past two decades-with an economist's approach to the same issues, Financial Risk Management is the essential guide to the subject for today's complex world.
The most complete, up to date guide to risk management in finance "Risk Management and Financial Institutions" explains all aspects of financial risk and financial institution regulation, helping readers better understand the financial markets and potential dangers. This new fourth edition has been updated to reflect the major developments in the industry, including the finalization of Basel III, the fundamental review of the trading book, SEFs, CCPs, and the new rules affecting derivatives markets. There are new chapters on enterprise risk management and scenario analysis. Readers learn the different types of risk, how and where they appear in different types of institutions, and how the regulatory structure of each institution affects risk management practices. Comprehensive ancillary materials include software, practice questions, and all necessary teaching supplements, facilitating more complete understanding and providing an ultimate learning resource. All financial professionals need a thorough background in risk and the interlacing connections between financial institutions to better understand the market, defend against systemic dangers, and perform their jobs. This book provides a complete picture of the risk management industry and practice, with the most up to date information. Understand how risk affects different types of financial institutions Learn the different types of risk and how they are managed Study the most current regulatory issues that deal with risk. Risk management is paramount with the dangers inherent in the financial system, and a deep understanding is essential for anyone working in the finance industry; today, risk management is part of "everyone's" job. For complete information and comprehensive coverage of the latest industry issues and practices, "Risk Management and Financial Institutions" is an informative, authoritative guide.
A comprehensive overview of key developments in Islamic banking In Islamic Banking in Indonesia, renowned economist Dr. Rifki Ismal explores current issues in Islamic banking and financial products with a particular focus on the danger of liquidity risk in Indonesia. It approaches liquidity risk from the conventional perspective of international banking standards, as well as from the Islamic banking perspective. Dr. Ismal also covers the issues of asset-liability balancing, liquidity risk index, organizational structures for managing liquidity, industrial analysis, withdrawal risk, bankruptcy risk, moral hazard risk, and market risk. Compiling all the latest academic research on liquidity risk and other risks in Islamic banking, the book provides a theoretical foundation for managing risk that will is highly useful for researchers on Islamic banking and practitioners and academics. Written by a renowned expert on Islamic banking who works on monetary policy at the central bank of Indonesia Covers the latest developments in Islamic banking, particularly liquidity risk, for a rapidly expanding market Ideal for European and American readers, in addition to Asian readers, who need a fuller understanding of Islamic banking institutions, markets, and products With the latest academic research and the expertise of a leading practitioner in Islamic banking, this book offers in-depth coverage of the most pressing issues in the field.