Local governments are challenged by how services are delivered to the citizens and meeting development indicators of their localities. Extending services which add economic value to the welfare of the citizen is still a complex function because of the limited resources. As a result, the need to decentralize evolved and everyone should have a say on the development agenda of the community.To achieve sustainable development and equally distributed resources, citizens should have a say on how local government budget is decided on. Hence, the three critical issues of local government budgeting, citizen participation and poverty alleviation are the critical questions of this work taking local governments in Rwanda as pivotal point of interest. The objective of the study was to analyze how local government budgeting is responding to poverty alleviation in the course of the citizen participation and questions related to the budgeting process and citizen participation, budget financing and local government expenditures, budget communication, budget execution, reporting and accountability and poverty alleviation were analyzed.
Decentralisation of government has been a major policy direction of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) as an adjunct to the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) imposed on low income countries. Decentralisation has become an important means of improving the effectiveness of services and of empowering the poor to participate in the development processes that affect their lives. The pivot of the local government system in Ghana is the District Assembly which has been set up to provide an enabling environment for socio-economic development. This study examines the extent to which the District Assemblies have achieved success. The study notes that there are perception gaps between the elites and the rural poor with respect to poverty and poverty alleviation strategies.It examines the fact that those who define poverty and then formulate poverty reduction policies for the designated population have no lived experience of poverty. The state has employed structures of grassroots participation without achieving active participation or conceding real power to the local people. The poor are, therefore, rendered anonymous in the design of poverty alleviation programmes.
This study investigated the role of Community Development Associations (CDAs) in the initiation and execution of policies and programmes aimed at poverty alleviation at the grassroots’ in selected communities in Akwa Ibom State. It relied mainly on the use of primary and secondary data collection. The study revealed that CDAs could act as catalyst of rural development and poverty alleviation if properly positioned. It was also discovered that the positive impact of CDAs is not felt equally across various communities in Akwa Ibom State. Thus, CDAs in urban Local Government Areas have much impact on poverty alleviation than their counterparts in rural LGAs. Again, when the intended beneficiaries are allowed to play active role in the administration of the poverty alleviation programmes, such programmes stand better chances of succeeding. The study recommended, as a way forward, proper repositioning of various rural development committees in the state, partnership of the CDAs with some NGOs and development agencies as well as popular election of CDAs leaders across the state.
South Africa is characterised by inequitable growth and development, a high degree of poverty and the challenge of integration. The need for improved standards of living and access to better infrastructure which are seen as crucial issues in addressing poverty have necessitated the introduction of Integrated Development Planning (IDP). The IDP looks at the economic and social development of the area as a whole. It aims to coordinate the work of the local government in a coherent plan to improve the quality of life for all the people living in the community. In view of that, there is a need for proper planning and implementation of projects, as well as monitoring and assessment of success on the part of local government in order to help to eliminate poverty. In this book I investigated the implementation of IDP as a mechanism to alleviate poverty in Port Elizabeth in the Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan Municipality (NMBMM). As the implementation of IDP in NMBMM appears to have formidable challenges and the extensive nature of the geographical area of Port Elizabeth, the research study focused exclusively on Motherwell and KwaZakhele.
Poverty in the developing countries has been a major cankerworm, eating deep into the lives of so many people. Local Economic Development (LED) is a fairly recent concept in the process of poverty alleviation, which tries to combine the efforts of both government and non-profit organisations (NPOs) in the face of available local resources to improve people's living standard. This book exposes the extent to which the concept of LED has been embraced in a typical Local Government Area in South-western Nigeria. It reveals the extent of local government intervention and that of NPOs, especially the Community-Based Organisations (CBOs), in the process of working to improve living standard in local communities. Various initiatives employed in the LED process are highlighted in the face of existing constraints encountered by the participating NPOs. Analyses reveal the extent to which the LED initiatives have impacted upon people's economy in the region. This book would be especially useful to policy makers in government, researchers in poverty or LED studies, non-for-profit organisations and anyone with similar interest.
For centuries, poverty has been a vast problem throughout the world and there is little indication of the problem being solved in this 21st century. The political and historical roots of South Africa make poverty endemic and woven into the very fabric of the South African economy. Since the dawning of the new democratic dispensation, the Government of South Africa has as part of its efforts to reduce poverty developed policies towards its reduction. First were the Reconstruction and Development Policy (RDP), followed by a new macroeconomic strategy – the Growth, Employment and Redistribution Policy (GEAR), and the Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa (ASGISA). Despite all these efforts made by the Government and other stakeholders, modest progress is visible and widespread poverty is still evident. Inequality levels in South Africa remains unacceptably high and are reported to be amongst the highest in the world. Amongst all concerned there is a growing acknowledgement that poverty is a multi-dimensional and multi-faceted approach that needs a many pronged effort by a range of stakeholders including the government and the private sector to reduce it.
Poverty and Poverty Alleviation Strategies in North America
Provides a comprehensive theoretical and practical framework for informing budget decisions based on the efficiency and effectiveness of service delivery. The authors enliven the text with references to their original research and personal experiences with performance measurement, citizen satisfaction surveys, and financial management practices. This edition includes increased coverage of cost accounting procedures and of citizen participation in performance management.
Poverty alleviation in the context of this study is the step taken to reduce or remove poverty not only like a lack of food, shelter, medical care, education and employment, but also to eradicate poverty in terms of oppression, deprivation, injustice and marginalization. The major cause of poverty in Uganda has been the “South-North divide” fuelled by poor political leadership that divides people along the lines of politics and ethnicity. Poverty has caused many young people of Northern Uganda to resort to rebellion against the government currently in power. This has led to unending political instability and civil strife most especially in Northern Uganda. The solution is that since “violence has failed, dialogue must be applied”. The issue of ethnicity, tribalism and sectarianism would be addressed by creating an atmosphere of “unity in diversity”, good governance, upholding democratic values and human rights as well as caring for the basic needs of the youth. This could further contribute towards poverty reduction.
Poverty anywhere in the world is threat to prosperity everywhere. (International labour organisation, 1919). This book highlights the concept of poverty, tourism concepts and utilising sustainable tourism as a tool for reducing poverty of the local community in urban areas, where the concept is seldom found. The scope of research in this book is limited to city of Kolkata, for identifying tool of poverty alleviation. The research takes local cuisine & local handicraft as independent variable effecting Tourism as the dependent variable ultimately leading to a research model for poverty alleviation. The research design uses both qualitative and quantitative technique to reach to an in depth & conclusive finding of the problem. The findings have been wrapped up in strategic marketing forum using the 7ps' which can be pulled up into a structured model to be used by future researchers across the globe. This book is a result of 5.5 years of intense research & hard toil of the author. This book can be intended for students of MBA Program or Master level in the field of Economics, Marketing, or Tourism Management as an apprehensive tool.
Over the years there has been an attempt to increase people's participation in how they are governed. Hence, the concept of participatory budgeting is one of the numerous participatory methodologies that are designed to allow residents to directly participate and influence local government decisions. Harare City Council is agonisingly coming to terms with the inescapable need to involve the people in budgeting and budget implementation. The desire to promote good governance with resppect to accountability, transparency, participation, responsiveness and quality service delivery to residents or ratepayers' needs gave impetus to PB. This book seeks to examine the way residents' participation is handled in the Harare City Council budget formulation process and assess the impact of participation on policies and budgets in meeting community needs. The book is important to local authorities administrators, councillors, local government researchers/practitioners, policy makers, students of local government and residents associations who engage in the expedition for superior service delivery promotion of transpaprent and accountability.
Nowadays, Worsening socioeconomic and environmental circumstances have underscored the urgency of understanding of the interactions between these factors to prepare a successful land management strategies can be variously help to implementing a development paradigm in appropriate pathways that leads to environmental sustainability with conservation objectives and poverty alleviation. Generally, there is scarcity of studies on socio-economical factors affecting Non Wood Forest Products (NWFPs) as a renewable resource in semi-arid and their values from the local to national level. However beside their importance for food and medicinal uses promotion of the value of such products will have an enormous effect on income generation. In addition to enhancing the general environment through encouraging conservation of the tree cover. This is specially a valid expectation in areas where other land-based resources are meager or are of lower value. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of NWFPs for rural livelihoods in Nuba Mountains of Sudan. More emphasis on local knowledge and natural ingredients for such trees products could contribute on rural development and cure the
It is not easy to overcome poverty in Indonesia, which consists of 33 provinces, 401 districts and 97 cities that have different characteristics from each region on social culture and geographical barrier. For three decades, various efforts have been made to reduce poverty in Indonesia through some approaches, such as; 1). basic needs approach, 2). income approach, 3). human capability approach, and 4). welfare approach. This study examines Bappenas approaches to poverty on the basis of international theoretical debates on human development and tests some indicators to evaluate disparity at provincial level. Human Development Index (HDI) is one indicator of development that can be used to analyze the comparative socio-economic development status of a region and also describe human development in that region. If we depend heavily on GRDP per capita when discussing rural poverty and disparity in Indonesia, it may result in a misleading picture of the provincial status in Indonesia.
Poverty is a situation where individuals or house hold lack enough resources in form of land and income to satisfy their basic needs like food, medical care, children schooling and suffer under other shortages of social, economic, infrastructure and natural resources. Poverty as a main obstacle to the economic development in Rwanda, The most affected by it, is people living in rural areas. NGOs have been sought as adequate tool to alleviate poverty, but they failed to reach the most affected people because of donors and limited sources of intervention. During the past few years, a new strategy for poverty reduction has emerged and viewed to be successful; this is an idea of NGOs. The large and successful reaching the poor in Rwanda has relied on the support of donors and government. therefore,in Rwanda NGO's has contributed poverty reduction through different intervention including agriculture technology,infrastructure, health services, social protection.
Nigeria is believed to host the largest population of the poor in the West Africa Sub region. To this end federal, state and local governments have developed poverty eradication policies yet not much has been achieved. Among them is the establishment of microfinance institutions expected to provide credits for small and medium scale enterprises that could not fulfill the requirement of commercial banks for facilities. Intervention of microfinance banks in poverty alleviation in Nigeria needs to be appraised. This study examined poverty alleviation as a function of loan acquisition, understanding the concept by operators, determinants of standard practices and loan repayment. Exploratory cross sectional research design was adopted. The population consisted of 53 microfinance banks and 4016 beneficiaries in Ogun State, Nigeria. Stratified random sampling techniques were used to select ten (10) microfinance banks in Ogun State whose operation spans from 2008-2012. Sample size of 2000 was arrived at using Yaro Yemane Formula. Structured questionnaire titled ‘Microfinance Banking and Poverty Alleviation’ (MIBPOVA) on a six- point Likert scale were used and the response rate was 89.5%.