Local governments are challenged by how services are delivered to the citizens and meeting development indicators of their localities. Extending services which add economic value to the welfare of the citizen is still a complex function because of the limited resources. As a result, the need to decentralize evolved and everyone should have a say on the development agenda of the community.To achieve sustainable development and equally distributed resources, citizens should have a say on how local government budget is decided on. Hence, the three critical issues of local government budgeting, citizen participation and poverty alleviation are the critical questions of this work taking local governments in Rwanda as pivotal point of interest. The objective of the study was to analyze how local government budgeting is responding to poverty alleviation in the course of the citizen participation and questions related to the budgeting process and citizen participation, budget financing and local government expenditures, budget communication, budget execution, reporting and accountability and poverty alleviation were analyzed.
Poverty is an issue of national concern. Given the enormity and complexity of the problem, there hasn''t been any administration of government that can succeed without initiation of one or more poverty alleviation programmes, either as a direct attack on poverty or indirectly. And evidence has shown inadequacies of the various approaches to poverty alleviation. This research work therefore, attempt an appraisal of the various poverty alleviation programmes and their effectiveness in improving the condition of living of the people.
Poverty and Poverty Alleviation Strategies in North America
Decentralisation of government has been a major policy direction of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) as an adjunct to the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) imposed on low income countries. Decentralisation has become an important means of improving the effectiveness of services and of empowering the poor to participate in the development processes that affect their lives. The pivot of the local government system in Ghana is the District Assembly which has been set up to provide an enabling environment for socio-economic development. This study examines the extent to which the District Assemblies have achieved success. The study notes that there are perception gaps between the elites and the rural poor with respect to poverty and poverty alleviation strategies.It examines the fact that those who define poverty and then formulate poverty reduction policies for the designated population have no lived experience of poverty. The state has employed structures of grassroots participation without achieving active participation or conceding real power to the local people. The poor are, therefore, rendered anonymous in the design of poverty alleviation programmes.
Poverty in the developing countries has been a major cankerworm, eating deep into the lives of so many people. Local Economic Development (LED) is a fairly recent concept in the process of poverty alleviation, which tries to combine the efforts of both government and non-profit organisations (NPOs) in the face of available local resources to improve people's living standard. This book exposes the extent to which the concept of LED has been embraced in a typical Local Government Area in South-western Nigeria. It reveals the extent of local government intervention and that of NPOs, especially the Community-Based Organisations (CBOs), in the process of working to improve living standard in local communities. Various initiatives employed in the LED process are highlighted in the face of existing constraints encountered by the participating NPOs. Analyses reveal the extent to which the LED initiatives have impacted upon people's economy in the region. This book would be especially useful to policy makers in government, researchers in poverty or LED studies, non-for-profit organisations and anyone with similar interest.
This study investigated the role of Community Development Associations (CDAs) in the initiation and execution of policies and programmes aimed at poverty alleviation at the grassroots’ in selected communities in Akwa Ibom State. It relied mainly on the use of primary and secondary data collection. The study revealed that CDAs could act as catalyst of rural development and poverty alleviation if properly positioned. It was also discovered that the positive impact of CDAs is not felt equally across various communities in Akwa Ibom State. Thus, CDAs in urban Local Government Areas have much impact on poverty alleviation than their counterparts in rural LGAs. Again, when the intended beneficiaries are allowed to play active role in the administration of the poverty alleviation programmes, such programmes stand better chances of succeeding. The study recommended, as a way forward, proper repositioning of various rural development committees in the state, partnership of the CDAs with some NGOs and development agencies as well as popular election of CDAs leaders across the state.
The book highlights the interrelationship between the poor and their surrounding local environmental condition. The book documents how the poor person degrades their local environment and on the contrary how local environmental degradation influences on their daily life. To avoid hypothetical studies, the evidence of poverty alleviation activities by UNDP/GOB brings to light in the book. Many success programs by them are talked about in the content. Delphi technique is used to find out the scholars views and thinking on poverty and local environment nexus. In the view point of nexus and by the participation of the poor, two scenarios are established from theoretical viewpoint as well as hypothetical scrutiny; these are: One-Environmental Scenario and two-Poverty Scenario. In the scenarios, it is talked about that how the poor people can contribute to reduce poverty and to improve environment.
Public budgeting structure, process, legal framework and policy with examples from industrialized and developing countries Public Budgeting in Context examines budgeting at all levels of U.S. government—federal, state, and local—and in a sample of governments around the world. The book assesses the context of public budgeting in these governments, especially the legal foundations for its practice and how the process and final budgets are impacted by governance structures, laws, various budget actors and different branches of government. The author presents focused attention on the influences on government budgets of the executive, legislative and judicial branches of government, the bureaucracy, the public and the media. In light of worldwide fiscal malaise, especially during and since the Great Recession, this book illustrates the heightened complexity of the budgeting environment that pervades all governments today—industrialized or developing, large or small. For those who like to dive into the details, the book presents numerous examples of public budgeting as practiced and points to the wealth of data available for analyses of the budgetary context and process, budget shares and results regarding virtually any government of interest. Chapters cover the constitutional and statutory provisions for budgeting in selected governments. Budget and policy agenda setting and executive leadership, legislative budget powers and the influence of the judiciary on modern government budgets are exposed. Budget execution requirements of the bureaucracy, the input of customers, clients and citizens to government budgets, and media influences on public budgets and agencies are highlighted. Budget mechanics—budget types, formats, timelines and reforms—are introduced and compared. Taxes and intergovernmental revenues are considered, with predominant tax choices at every level of government in the United States and those in a select, developing country represented. The book introduces an emerging method for investigating the outcomes of government spending—human rights budget analysis—and includes as an example the assessment of budget reform and results of public health spending in one selected government. Highlights of Public Budgeting in Context Offers a comprehensive text for understanding public budgeting in governments of a variety of contexts and capacities and across different levels Written by a noted expert in the field of public budgeting and financial management Contains illustrative examples from industrialized and developing countries Guides to innumerable datasets with information about governments and their budgets Includes a companion website filled with templates for budget and fiscal analysis Unravel the complex issues of modern public budgeting using this unique presentation of its practice in a variety of governments in the U.S. and a select sample from around the world.
Thai government has perceived poverty as a high priority area of action. Urgent policies and programs has been launched to combat poverty. The programs includes: Debt Suspension for Farmers, the Village and Urban Revolving Fund, the One District – One Product program, the People''s Bank, and the Universal Health Assurance program. However, these programs are being questioned as to whether they reach the poor or not. This research could fill the gap of knowledge in term of whether the policy and programmes of government have contributed to empower the poor in the rural communities.
Bangladesh is a developing country characterized by over population, massive illiteracy, poor health, frequent natural disaster, low agricultural productivity, underdeveloped industry based society and unemployment which form the vicious circle of abject poverty in the rural communities of the country. In Bangladesh, poverty is an economic phenomenon unable to satisfy even a minimum standard of living. Since the 1990s, alleviating poverty has been the top priority in 21st Century. Within this framework, various initiatives have already been taken by the Government. The main objective of this study is to identify and investigate the missions, goals and activities of NGOs operating in Bangladesh to help reduce poverty and enhance development. Authors have conceptually analyzed the terms, activities, background of NGOs and concept of rural poverty, poverty alleviation, and development in Bangladesh. Thus aim of book is to understand the causal linkages between poverty alleviation and development in the context of NGO operations, the prospect and challenges ahead and also to identify the steps essential to overcome the challenges in poverty alleviation in Bangladesh.
South Africa is characterised by inequitable growth and development, a high degree of poverty and the challenge of integration. The need for improved standards of living and access to better infrastructure which are seen as crucial issues in addressing poverty have necessitated the introduction of Integrated Development Planning (IDP). The IDP looks at the economic and social development of the area as a whole. It aims to coordinate the work of the local government in a coherent plan to improve the quality of life for all the people living in the community. In view of that, there is a need for proper planning and implementation of projects, as well as monitoring and assessment of success on the part of local government in order to help to eliminate poverty. In this book I investigated the implementation of IDP as a mechanism to alleviate poverty in Port Elizabeth in the Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan Municipality (NMBMM). As the implementation of IDP in NMBMM appears to have formidable challenges and the extensive nature of the geographical area of Port Elizabeth, the research study focused exclusively on Motherwell and KwaZakhele.
This research was carried out in Iwo Local Government, Osun State, Nigeria with the aim of assessing Iwo''s poverty situation and recommending ways by which its poverty can be reduced. Primary source was used to collect data through the use of questionnaires and interviews. The questionnaires were collated and coded. Data was electronically processed with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) using the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) method. The analysis of the results, revealed that poverty in Iwo is predicated on knowlege base of the critical variables. This was reflected mostly in the parameters (0.468, 0.158, -0.077 and 0.0101) for education, housing, feeding and healthcare respectively.
This book assesses the impact of rural empowerment on poverty reduction in Benue State of Nigeria. It addresses issues such as poverty, improvement in the standard of living, ways of empowering the rural dwellers and factors that militates against rural empowerment schemes. Also Its positive effect on poverty reduction in Benue state of Nigeria. In light of the findings, it was recommended that government should do more to initiate poverty alleviation programs and as well ensure adequate funding of such programs to alleviate poverty. This book is a must read for individuals,policy makers, government and the general public not just of less developed economies but also of the developed economies.
Decentralization in forest management policies started as a response to institutional malfunction; and during the last decade, institutional changes like people oriented forest management (PFM) paradigms have become major policy trends in many of the world’s developing countries. This book first outline the different actors’ involved in PFM process, and then explores the impacts of PFM on the livelihoods and poverty alleviation of forest dependent people. The overall livelihoods analysis revealed that PFMs are not sufficient to develop sustainable livelihoods of participants and conserve Sal forests. The book also analyzes the ability of agroforestry program towards poverty alleviation at local level and the results shows that agroforestry program alleviated 63.36% poverty compared to the previous situation of participants and 32.87% compared with control farmers. Finally, based on the overall findings and Indian experiences, it would be highly recommend promoting PFM program with proper government facilities and also empowering local community in which local people plays the central role in governing all of their development activities.
Poverty is a situation where individuals or house hold lack enough resources in form of land and income to satisfy their basic needs like food, medical care, children schooling and suffer under other shortages of social, economic, infrastructure and natural resources. Poverty as a main obstacle to the economic development in Rwanda, The most affected by it, is people living in rural areas. NGOs have been sought as adequate tool to alleviate poverty, but they failed to reach the most affected people because of donors and limited sources of intervention. During the past few years, a new strategy for poverty reduction has emerged and viewed to be successful; this is an idea of NGOs. The large and successful reaching the poor in Rwanda has relied on the support of donors and government. therefore,in Rwanda NGO's has contributed poverty reduction through different intervention including agriculture technology,infrastructure, health services, social protection.