Local governments are challenged by how services are delivered to the citizens and meeting development indicators of their localities. Extending services which add economic value to the welfare of the citizen is still a complex function because of the limited resources. As a result, the need to decentralize evolved and everyone should have a say on the development agenda of the community.To achieve sustainable development and equally distributed resources, citizens should have a say on how local government budget is decided on. Hence, the three critical issues of local government budgeting, citizen participation and poverty alleviation are the critical questions of this work taking local governments in Rwanda as pivotal point of interest. The objective of the study was to analyze how local government budgeting is responding to poverty alleviation in the course of the citizen participation and questions related to the budgeting process and citizen participation, budget financing and local government expenditures, budget communication, budget execution, reporting and accountability and poverty alleviation were analyzed.
Poverty is a situation where individuals or house hold lack enough resources in form of land and income to satisfy their basic needs like food, medical care, children schooling and suffer under other shortages of social, economic, infrastructure and natural resources. Poverty as a main obstacle to the economic development in Rwanda, The most affected by it, is people living in rural areas. NGOs have been sought as adequate tool to alleviate poverty, but they failed to reach the most affected people because of donors and limited sources of intervention. During the past few years, a new strategy for poverty reduction has emerged and viewed to be successful; this is an idea of NGOs. The large and successful reaching the poor in Rwanda has relied on the support of donors and government. therefore,in Rwanda NGO's has contributed poverty reduction through different intervention including agriculture technology,infrastructure, health services, social protection.
There is a growing interest in poverty alleviation which is given high priority in current development assistance programmes. The United Nations has also declared 1997 – 2006 as the first UN decade for the eradication of poverty. Yet, inspite of this new commitment, the performance of poverty alleviation efforts are often disappointing. The latest estimates on world poverty indicate that 1.4 billion people had incomes below the poverty line in the year 2000. About 80 per cent of the poor live in rural areas in developing countries; half of them is in less favoured rural area. [World Bank] numerically, the most important sub groups of the “rural poor” are small holder farmers and the landless. Other sub groups include artisan fisherman; nomadic pastoralists, indigenous ethnic tribal; refugees fleeing from civil strife, war or droughts and disabled person and other families. It is estimated that 70 per cent of the world’s poor are women. India is the home to 22 per cent of the world’s poor. Such a high incidence of poverty is a matter of concern in view of the fact that poverty eradication has been one of the major objectives of the development planning process.
The primary objective of this book is to explore and discuss the historical, legal and constitutional role of the traditional leaders in the rural local government structure of the new South Africa. This book further demonstrates how the institution of traditional leadership was transformed by the 1996 Constitution and the subsequent relevant legislation to comply with the constitutional imperatives. Despite the existence of the constitutional framework which defines the scope and role of the traditional leaders in local government structures, there is an inevitable tension between the politically elected councillors and the traditional leaders. It seems that the new dispensation of local governance has introduced two bulls in one kraal of the rural local government. Whether the traditional leaders will be able to perform their functions in line with both the legislative and constitutional demands is a development to be seen.
Much critique has been raised about the good governance agenda in development aid. But the critiques are rarely grounded in the experiences of the local people in the development context. From an actor-oriented perspective this research put emphasis on how a good governance project in Uganda, influences local community members, who take active part in the project as local community monitors. The research points to the fact that the conditions, which enable political action of the poor exists in this specific project arena. Furthermore, the project and the political action of the poor thereby creates channels through which the poor can influence local politics. It can thereby be argued, that the political space created for the poor can help enable poverty reduction. The analysis should help shed light on the good governance agenda in development aid, seen from an actors perspective. The analysis can be especially useful to professionals in the fields of Development, Sociology and Political Science. It is directed at both researchers and development specialists, with the hope of bridging the fields of research and development work.
A Comparative Study of Family Size and Poverty among the Tiv and Jukun people in Benue State of Nigeria is a holistic analysis of the nexus between large family size and poverty.The book seeks to acquaint students,government and the general public on the factors that account for the relationship between family size and poverty.The book has made a lucid analysis of the effects of family size and poverty on the education, housing, health, feeding and savings among the Tiv and Jukun tribes in Benue state.
Both poverty research and social policy delivery employ a variety of poverty definitions using various quantitative poverty indicators. The choice of a specific definition has major consequences for the identification and location of the vulnerable poor and the types of poverty alleviation programmes to apply. Research on poverty has historically depended upon econometric analysis for both absolute and relative poverty definitions. This has been the global industry standard by many poverty researchers and institutions and has consequently spawned the subsequent paradoxical definitions. However, if poverty is so simple to research, analyse, scientifically conclude and understand, then why can’t we solve the phenomenon of poverty? There is a strong probability that a clear understanding of the multidimensional causes of poverty has not been achieved. The success of poverty alleviation programmes depends profoundly on the spatial determinants, the geospatial location and the identification of the component of vulnerability that affect the poor in their respective communities.
This research seeks adaptability of e-government policy in Mongolia, based on comparative study with Japan by representing historical facts in logical and chronological sequences counting both nations'' culture, tradition and mentality. Research consists of 4 key parts. First, the research summarizes e- government literatures. Second, research reviews recent trends of the Mongolian public sector, ICT development and e-government, and conducts study on Japanese ICT sector, e-government with case studies on e-local government projects in Okayama prefecture and Yokosuka city. Third, the research analyzes Mongolian e-government key challenges in comparison to Japan. The findings of study suggest that Mongolian government must seriously take into reconsideration of working style, business process reengineering, human resource management and financing arrangements. Finally, research argues that what lessons can Japan offer us about e- government policies in general.
Budgeting is at the heart of the performance management process for most companies. However, some argue that many companies today are dissatisfied with budgeting. It is seen to be costly and time-consuming; it inhibits action and causes organisational problems. The influence of the "Beyond Budgeting" model has caused many major companies, including Toyota, to abandon traditional budgeting altogether. Should other companies follow suit? This report explores the changes in budgeting through a survey of financial and non-financial managers. Concerns include: The attitudes of managers towards budgeting models; How budgetary practices have changed; What problems budgeting can cause; The effects of budgets on overall company performance. This report reveals that there's little evidence to suggest widespread dissatisfaction with traditional budgeting. However, to enable a company to perform at its best, understanding budgeting in context is essential and it is imperative that budgeting works in tandem with other control systems and organisational structure. Original research funded by the Chartered Institute of Management Accounting; Reveals the realities of budgeting models in practice; Includes interviews and surveys of actual businesses.
In the past decades, the theme of capital budgeting has been the subject of much interest and there has been a proliferation of research on the subject. Many of the studies on capital budgeting have, however, been done on the private sector businesses.The South African economy has seen substantial growth in the last decade which has necessitated the expansion of infrastructure to support the growing economy. A significant responsibility for the expansion in the infrastructure rests with state-owned companies (SOCs). The study seeks to determine the capital budgeting techniques employed by selected SOCs in South Africa and to explore the methods used by these entities to determine the weighted average cost of capital (WACC), with special focus on the cost of equity or its proxy. The results provide a useful insight into the techniques used by these companies and the gaps that may exist between what is taught academically and what is actually used in practice.
In recent years, as government agencies have encouraged faith-based organizations to help ensure social welfare, many black churches have received grants to provide services to their neighborhoods' poorest residents. This collaboration, activist churches explain, is a way of enacting their faith and helping their neighborhoods. But as Michael Leo Owens demonstrates in God and Government in the Ghetto, this alliance also serves as a means for black clergy to reaffirm their political leadership and reposition moral authority in black civil society. Drawing on both survey data and fieldwork in New York City, Owens reveals that African American churches can use these newly forged connections with public agencies to influence policy and government responsiveness in a way that reaches beyond traditional electoral or protest politics. The churches and neighborhoods, Owens argues, can see a real benefit from that influence—but it may come at the expense of less involvement at the grassroots. Anyone with a stake in the changing strategies employed by churches as they fight for social justice will find God and Government in the Ghetto compelling reading.
Integrated watershed development program has been launched in different states of India over last two decades for managing natural resources to increase overall productivity and to improve the socioeconomic development of the native population following the participatory planning principles. watershed is taken as a spatial planning unit with focus on natural resources such as land, water, forest, agriculture, livestock, horticulture and other sectoral activities with linkages to rural poverty alleviation through employment and income generation. In general, the institutional framework is well structured for implementing different projects in the watershed involving line agencies, NGOs and local people as the beneficiary and active participants of development process.With this background, an attempt has been made in this research to study and analyze the development activities undertaken by the technical agencies in a micro-watershed and the outcomes of the interventions.
The rural poor in Bangladesh are the worst victim of exploitation and poverty. Due to their poverty, they have to struggle hard for satisfying their basic needs like food. These ultra poor people have been provided with financial and technological supports for improving their food security status and income-earning opportunities through the rural development program of an NGO known as ‘MACCA’. Financial support has been provided to the poor in order to accelerate their income-generating activities for ensuring food security in the form of zakat which is based on the Islamic philosophy. Unlike other financial programs, zakat system requires no collateral and it is obtainable at zero interest rate. Difference in Difference (DiD) technique has been used to assess the impact of zakat system on the living-standard of the program participants. This book provides the evidence that zakat system, which has been overlooked as one of the important tools of poverty alleviation by the Muslim and Western thinkers, has a significant potential in improving the living-standard of the poor.