The book documents and explains, in three parts, geochemical anomaly and mineral prospectivity mapping by using a geographic information system (GIS). Part I reviews and couples the concepts of (a) mapping geochemical anomalies and mineral prospectivity and (b) spatial data models, management and operations in a GIS. Part II demonstrates GIS-aided and GIS-based techniques for analysis of robust thresholds in mapping of geochemical anomalies. Part III explains GIS-aided and GIS-based techniques for spatial data analysis and geo-information sybthesis for conceptual and predictive modeling of mineral prospectivity. Because methods of geochemical anomaly mapping and mineral potential mapping are highly specialized yet diverse, the book explains only methods in which GIS plays an important role. The book avoids using language and functional organization of particular commercial GIS software, but explains, where necessary, GIS functionality and spatial data structures appropriate to problems in geochemical anomaly mapping and mineral potential mapping. Because GIS-based methods of spatial data analysis and spatial data integration are quantitative, which can be complicated to non-numerate readers, the book simplifies explanations of mathematical concepts and their applications so that the methods demonstrated would be useful to professional geoscientists, to mineral explorationists and to research students in fields that involve analysis and integration of maps or spatial datasets. The book provides adequate illustrations for more thorough explanation of the various concepts. *explains GIS functionality and spatial datastructures appropriate regardless of particular GIS software is in use*simplifies explanation of mathematical concepts and application*illustrated for more thorough explanation of concepts
Montane forests such as those on Mt. Pohen Bali have become increasingly important for conserving Indonesia’s biodiversity. The importance of the tropical montane forest for Indonesia is understandable, considering that much of its tropical lowland forest has been cleared for more than 30 years. However, scientific knowledge in this field is still limited, particularly in volcanic tropical montane forest. Mt. Pohen at Batukahu Nature Reserve is located in a high plateau at the center of Bali Island. Disturbance in this nature reserve mostly originated from anthropogenic activities. Fires, establishment of geothermal mining plant, and over extraction of forest products are some of the threats to this nature reserve. As a result, the trajectory of the ecosystem may have swift to an alternative state where alien invasive species are abundant and tree species decreasing as well as the declining of some native or naturalized species. This book presents research study on the effects and the ecological consequences of disturbances on plant at high-elevation forest. The study is significant in terms of generating useful baseline data for the management of montane ecosystems in this region.
Agricultural production becomes increasingly important as the world demand increases. Monitoring of crop species and soil moisture greatly assists agricultural management. The current study results in a software model, which conveniently extracts agricultural land cover from radar imagery. Based on the same data, soil-moisture, a key parameter of plant growth, can be assessed. Synthetic Aperture Radar data (TerraSAR-X and ALOS PALSAR) have been used. One principal key to information extraction is multi-direction/multi-distance texture analysis on a plot basis. Resulting sets of texture measures are stored in attribute tables. The subsequent classification imbeds elaborate approaches of the “R Environment”. Within the classification module various approaches such as SVM and ANN are available, in addition to different feature selection methods. The model is fully integrated to an ArcGIS user interface. On the other hand, from the TerraSAR data soil-moisture mapping has been performed. This important parameter was calculated for the study area using linear regression equations related to corresponding land-cover types. All results have been verified by synchronous field measurements.
This book “Wasteland Mapping using Remote Sensing and GIS: A case study Sirsa district of Haryana, India” is the outcome of five years research experience of Dr*(Er.) K.S. Rawat and Er. Shashi Vind Mishra in Remote Sensing and GIS science. This book “Wasteland Mapping using Remote Sensing and GIS” has been written for Haryana (India), a state known for Natural Resources Management. This book is intended for use in graduate level course in wasteland Management, and for researchers who wish to work in wasteland Mapping.
This map appears in the map series world mapping project in travel expertise. Characteristic is the high-quality, clear and modern cartographic representation. Contour lines with elevation Coloured elevation levels Classified road network with distances Places of interest Detailed local index GPS capability by longitude and latitude UTM mark on the edge of the map
This is a research carried out as a part of Master's dissertation in a sub-watershed of Gorkha District representing the Midhill geographic region of Nepal. It explores the dynamics and driving forces of the forest cover change; documents the changing livelihood patterns; analyze the climate change at local level as well as documents the non-climatic climate change indicators.It is a unique study which gives the true picture of the changing face of the 'Midhills' of Nepal which covers over 68% of Nepal's area.
The research aimed at determining the changes of habitat in ANP, Oryx population trend, habitat selection and delineation of its suitable habitat. Vegetation change detection in ANP was done by using remote sensing and GIS applications. Four habitat categories were used for habitat selections which include vegetation type, ground cover, slope and distance from water. The trends of Oryx population and vegetation change including other factors were correlated. The result of vegetation change has showed that there is a significant change in most vegetation types. Grassland and wooded grassland with short grass cover in flat slopes between 3 – 6kms away from water is the most preferred habitat for Oryx in ANP. Oryx population has significantly declined between the years 1966 to 2011 and its range has highly decreased. Based on habitat suitability analysis, the current available habitat for Oryx can be substantially increased by interventions of different alternatives. It was recommended that, proper habitat management and sufficient protection are required to maintain the declining Oryx population and grassland habitats.
Common (bread) wheat is an allohexaploid species (Triticum aestivum L.) with 3 compensating genomes AABBDD (2n=6x=42 chromosomes). Traditionally genetic and physical mapping in this most important cereal crop has been based on molecular markers (RFLPs, PCR, Insitu hubridisation etc). The recent development in producing deletion lines of common wheat (using Aegilops cylindricum genome) has revolutionized the physical mapping of wheat chromosomes. During present study, deletion lines of chromosomes 2A of common wheat were used to identify RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA) based molecular markers specific for short and/or long arm of chromosome 2A. Out of the 7 RAPD primers used, OPA-07 showed useful polymorphism. By comparing the C-banding karyotype of the deletion lines, it is inferred that the primer (OPA-07) anneals to the distal half of the long arm of chromosome 2A.
Climate change is among the major global issues of the 21st century. Anthropogenic activities have led to notable changes in the earth’s climate including increase in the global temperature over the 20th century. Carbon sequestration is the long-term storage of carbon in oceans, soils, vegetation (especially forests), and geologic formations. Although oceans store most of the Earth’s carbon, soils contain approximately 75% of the carbon pool on land — three times more than the amount stored in living plants and animals. Therefore soil is an important component for carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. This book is an attempt to know the impacts of anthropogenic disturbances on the vegetation patterns. It assesses different parameters of the soil especially the percent organic carbon. This book can serve as baseline information for the upcoming studies and research work in the coming years.
The study was conducted in post-monsoon, pre-monsoon and monsoon of 2008/09 to determine the ecological status and assess human impact by using the benthic macroinvertebrates and social survey in and around reservoir. Diversity indices and biotic index were used to determine taxa richness and ecological status of the reservoir respectively. Altogether 50, 53 and 42 macroinvertebrates taxa were recorded from littoral and profundal zone, inlet, outlets and surrounding wetlands of reservoir respectively. The GRS BIOS/ASPT for all sample sites ranged between 2.50 and 3.99 indicating 'Quality class IV' and described as poor water quality. Social survey showed that human activities (commercial fish farming, excessive use of pesticides and fertilizers, bathing and washing clothes) were the key factors behind degradation. Reservoir is rich in biodiversity in terms of benthic macroinvertebrates taxa composition with low abundance. Variation in the water level, siltation and human activities in and around the reservoir has aggravated wetland's deterioration. This study will be helpful for the freshwater researchers in biomonitoring, using benthic macroinvetrebrates as indicator species.
The traditional division of labor between the database (which only stores and manages SQL and XML data for fast, easy data search and retrieval) and the application server (which runs application or business logic, and presentation logic) is obsolete. Although the books primary focus is on programming the Oracle Database, the concepts and techniques provided apply to most RDBMS that support Java including Oracle, DB2, Sybase, MySQL, and PostgreSQL. This is the first book to cover new Java, JDBC, SQLJ, JPublisher and Web Services features in Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (the coverage starts with Oracle 9i Release 2). This book is a must-read for database developers audience (DBAs, database applications developers, data architects), Java developers (JDBC, SQLJ, J2EE, and OR Mapping frameworks), and to the emerging Web Services assemblers. Describes pragmatic solutions, advanced database applications, as well as provision of a wealth of code samples; Addresses programming models which run within the database as well as programming models which run in middle-tier or client-tier against the database; Discusses languages for stored procedures: when to use proprietary languages such as PL/SQL and when to use standard languages such as Java; also running non-Java scripting languages in the database; Describes the Java runtime in the Oracle database 10g (i.e., OracleJVM), its architecture, memory management, security management, threading, Java execution, the Native Compiler (i.e., NCOMP), how to make Java known to SQL and PL/SQL, data types mapping, how to call-out to external Web components, EJB components, ERP frameworks, and external databases; Describes JDBC programming and the new Oracle JDBC 10g features, its advanced connection services (pooling, failover, load-balancing, and the fast database event notification mechanism) for clustered databases (RAC) in Grid environments; Describes SQLJ programming and the latest Oracle SQLJ 10g features , contrasting it with JDBC; Describes the latest Database Web services features, Web services concepts and Services Oriented Architecture (SOA) for DBA, the database as Web services provider and the database as Web services consumer; Abridged coverage of JPublisher 10g, a versatile complement to JDBC, SQLJ and Database Web Services.
EEG signal processing is one of the hottest areas of research in digital signal processing applications and biomedical research. Analysis of EEG signals provides a crucial tool for diagnosis of neurobiological diseases. The problem of EEG signal classification into different sleep stages is primarily a pattern recognition problem using extracted features. Many methods of feature extraction have been applied to extract the relevant characteristics from a given EEG data. The EEG data was collected from publicly available source. The data consists of different age male & female recordings for a whole night of 8 hrs. The feature extraction was done by computing the Discrete Wavelet Transform and ANN using BP algorithm.The wavelet transform coefficients compress the number of data points into few features. The Approximation & Detailed coefficients obtained from Sub-band coding method provide important features of the EEG signals. In this project we have applied optimization techniques to reduce the computation complexity of the network without affecting the accuracy of the classification. Classification of the EEG data using neural network provides robust and improved Performance
This is a cross-sectional study was designed among college level students, aged 15-24 years. This study was carried out in 13 colleges in the Kathmandu valley. In total, 626 self-administered questionnaires were collected and 6 focus group discussions were held to collect data. In this study the researcher had maintained privacy and confidentiality of respondents. All The study shows that masturbation is a common practice among the youth and they need appropriate counseling about taboos and misconceptions. It should be delivered through the textbooks. Youth-friendly service centers should be promoted to share their experiences. This study gives the scenario of Nepal. It has enough samples to generalise the data and both qualitative and qualitative methods were used for triangulation of study. This is a first study in Nepal in this area. Researcher obtained a in depth knowledge in sexual health of Nepal through this study.
First-order basin morphology has been relatively ignored in geomorphological researches, particularly in complicated geology areas. Therefore, this study was done with an aim to explore geomorphology of the first-order basins in the Siwalik Hills. Using multivariate morphological analysis, the study found that 11,200 first-order basins in the Siwalik Hills were represented by seven morphometric variables and eight basin types. The study demonstrated that a unit of first-order basin is suitable to detect morphological characteristics of geologically complex area. Leading morphometric variables of the basins demonstrated the influence of the neo-tectonics, geological structure (dipping), lithostratigraphy, and landslide process in the Siwalik Hills. Morphology of the Siwaliks is more variable than the resistant units of the Lesser Himalaya. This study contributed to the systematic study of the first-order basins, which can be applied elsewhere.
I wrote this book to understand the concept of digital data security using watermarking. The implemented approach in this book is about invisible data hiding using the concept of visual cryptography and histogram based reversible data hiding. The presented approach makes students ease of understanding about video watermarking. This book also describes other hybrid approaches of video watermarking.