Forests reduce impacts of climate change by sequestering CO2 from the atmosphere and storing carbon in their different parts which include above ground biomass, belowground biomass, forest understory and soil. This storage depends on forest ecosystem management, disturbances and climate variation among others. The impact of forest management activities on the ability of forests to sequester and store atmospheric carbon is of increasing scientific concern. A quantitative understanding of how forest management enhances carbon storage is lacking for most forest types because few studies have been conducted. Therefore, this study estimated and compared the above ground biomass (AGB)/carbon stock of two forest types under different forest management regimes. Very high resolution Geoeye satellite images and airborne LiDAR data were used for this study. Total AGB was estimated by allometric equation using DBH and tree height measured in the field. The average carbon stock was found to be 244 t C/ha and 140 t C/ha for community and government forest respectively. Based on the findings, the conclusion is that forest management significantly affects the carbon stock of a forest.
Over the last two decades, global warming and climate change issues are hot topics of discussions among the people of developing as well as developed countries. Since tropical forests are valuable assets for carbon sink and sources both, demand for developing robust methods of carbon stock estimation is increasing day by day. In this context, this book provides the knowledge for estimation and mapping of above ground forest carbon using active and passive Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS).
The frequent and repetitive assessment of forest surveying and mapping is important. The traditional practices for surveying and mapping of forests are cumbersome and time taking, therefore, the satellite remote sensing techniques and GIS seems to be the need of the time for early, accurately and inexpensively mapping of landuse and vegetation of forests. Measurement of both qualitative and quantitative aspects of forest for any locality is important. In this regard the present study was carried out to characterize the land use and vegetation of a dry tropical forest ecosystem in India through satellite remote sensing techniques and GIS. The variations in structure, diversity, standing volume, above ground biomass and Carbon storage in different forest types/classes were quantified by adopting quadratic sampling procedures. This book is extremely helpful and targeted to the group working in the field of vegetation analysis, landuse assessment, forest mapping and estimation of volume, biomass and carbon in forests. This book is particularly useful to the target group concerned with carbon sequestration and carbon business.
ABSTRACT Recent attempts to mitigate global climatic change have brought forestry based carbon sequestration into sharp focus due to its potential to absorb CO2 from the atmosphere. Although a number of studies have been done on carbon stock estimation, the National Park carbon stock has not been properly addressed. This paper was conducted to estimate the carbon stock in forest of the Gambella National Park with 76 plots in the categories of riverine and terrestrial forest. The total mean carbon stock in forest part of the National Park was 394.85±24.34ton/ha. The carbon stocks in each pool exhibited distinct patterns between the forest Stratum (riverine and terrestrial). The total carbon stock in the riverine forest and forest land/wood land was 454.51±26.01ton/ha and 324.89±17.25 ton/ha respectively. The results of LULCC (Land use land cover change) analysis indicated that the forest and woodland decreased at an average rate of 120,470.6ha. This study concluded that despite the rapid decline in the forest land and woodland coverage, the existing forest/wood land has a huge potential sequestration of carbon for mitigation of climate change.
Scientific consensus is that the recently observed increase in levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide is caused primarily by burning of fossil fuels, industrial processes and deforestation. However, the rate of this increase has been much slower than would be expected from a simple tally of known carbon sources and sinks, suggesting that carbon is “missing” from the existing carbon budget. New research indicates that tropical forests are absorbing significantly more carbon than previously thought, a finding that could help account for the missing carbon. A critical question remains: how much carbon sequestration is carried out by mature versus by regenerating forests? This work begins to answer this question by improving our understanding of the role that regenerating forests play in the carbon budget of tropical forests. The author presents an operational methodology for mapping carbon pools of tropical regenerating forests at regional scales. Integrating site-level forest inventory measurements with satellite imagery in the Amazon and the Congo Basin, the author presents wall-to-wall maps of carbon pools at different stages of forest regeneration in both regions.
This book contains the following issues. Total carbon stock potentials of Tara Gedam forest, different carbon pools,environmental factors that affects the carbon stock potentials of Tara Gedam forest in each pool. In addition, the book also contains woody species diversity, status and species composition of this natural forest and its implication for climate change mitigation. Furthermore, recommendations are also written well to protect this natural forest from human intervention.
The role of forests in mitigating the effect of climate change depends on the carbon sequestration potential and management. This study was conducted to estimate the carbon stock and its variation along the environmental gradients in Arba Minch Ground Water Forest. The data was collected from the field by measuring plants with a DBH of >5cm in quadrat plots of 10 X 20 m and the carbon stocks of each plant were analyzed by using allometric equations. From this study the mean total carbon stock density of Arba Minch Ground Water Forest was found to be 583.27 t ha-1, of which 829.12 t ha-1, 165.88 t ha-1, 1.28 t ha-1, 83.80 t ha-1 was contained in the above ground carbon, belowground carbon, litter carbon and soil organic carbon (0-30 cm depth) respectively. This study will serve as a potential entry point for the engagement of the forest in REDD project.
Forests are natural carbon sink and play an important role in sequestrating the atmospheric carbon into biomass and soil. The goal of reducing carbon source and increasing carbon sink can be achieved through effective protection and conservation of carbon pools in the existing forest, and managing a forest in a sustainable way. Quantification of sequestrated carbon in different forest types with different management regimes and soil profile could be important for better planning of natural resources, and the making of good mitigation strategy for climate change effects. This book presents soil and vegetation carbon pools of different forest types in mountain forest ecosystems. It also provides the effect of altitude and aspect in carbon storage, and relationship of species diversity on carbon stock. This book is useful for development policy maker, non-governmental organization, forestry professionals as well as academicians in the field of forestry, climate change and natural resource management.
This research was carried out in the Bandevi buffer Zone Community Forest (BZCF) and Satkanya Community Forest (SCF) of Barandabhar corridor area in Chitwan district of Nepal to assess and compare the status of floristic diversity in buffer zone community forest and community forest in Barandabhar corridor in Chitwan district of Nepal, managed under different rules and regulations. Primary data were collected from reconnaissance survey, direct observation, forest inventory, interviews with forest user group members and key informant interview. Secondary data were collected from the forestry stakeholders working in community forestry and buffer zone sectors. The floral diversity was assessed by using Simpson’s Diversity Index (SI), Shannon Weiner Diversity Index (WI) and Margalef Species Richness Index (MI). Information on management practices were assessed by field observation, key informant interview and review of operational plan of respective forests. Diversity index (SI=0.9367 and WI =3.3714) and species richness index of (MI=10) of BZCF were found higher than the diversity index (SI=0.8749 and WI =3.0099) and species richness index (MI=9.0491) of SCF.
Dry tropical forest constitutes one of the most important forest types of the world. Tropical dry forests are characterized by functional traits like deciduousness and drought tolerance. Deciduousness is a phenological attribute expressing adaptation to seasonality and drought, resulting in minimized activities during the unfavourable season and resumption of growth with variable rates of resource use during the short favourable season. The present investigation suggested that the studied leaf traits and physiological attributes were strongly influenced by soil moisture availability across sites. Soil moisture availability was also the key driver for the variation in soil processes (litter decomposition and soil respiration). Leaf traits and soil processes were positively related with carbon sequestration across sites, and therefore in tropical dry forests leaf traits selected in the present study can be used to indicate carbon sequestration.
In the context of climate change, particular attention is given to carbon which is a major constituent of greenhouse gases (GHG). The forest has a very important role in mitigation of this phenomenon. But the assessment of carbon stocks in the forest ecosystems is not yet known satisfactorily, for countries with this heritage can access the "carbon credit" which is another way to take advantage of the forest. Very little information exists in the field of forest carbon about the Republic of Congo. The results of this study will be useful to the National Congolese Program about the carbon forest sequestration by MEFDD-REDD+/WRI Project which is managed by The Congolese Ministry of Forest Economy and Sustainable Development. Within the carbon market, this study (Carbon stocks evaluation in tropical forest of Congo) could allow the Republic of Congo to get the carbon credit.
Tropical forests are well known for their rich biodiversity, contribution to global carbon stock and various ecosystem services they render to humanity and to wildlife. There are 16 major forest types in India ranging from dry tropical scrubs to montane wet temperate forest. Among them the tropical dry evergreen forest (TDEF) on the Coromandel Coast of India constitute one of the under-studied forest types. Yet various sites of TDEF have been subjected to different levels of anthropogenic disturbances ranging from pristine, relatively undisturbed to highly disturbed. This book is an attempt to fill up scientific gap in our knowledge on the biodiversity and ecology of this unique forest type, pooling our hardcore research data generated over 25 years on biodiversity and functional ecology aimed towards conservation of forests and valuable bio-resources they offer. In twenty chapters, this book covers a wide range of topics that include plant and animal diversity and their complex interactions, ecosystem services offered, including economic good services for human welfare. It concludes on the conservation need and future of this forest type under the changing environmental scenario.
Carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystem can be defined as absorption of the carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by photosynthesis or technology based sequestration activities such as deep-sea gas bed storage of liquefied carbon dioxide (Bass et al, 2000). Terrestrial ecosystem, in which carbon is retained in above ground biomass, underground biomass and in soil, plays a vital role in Carbon Cycle. Most of the community forests in Nepal are recognized as major contributors for fuel wood, fodder, timber and non-timber forest products. Furthermore, Community forests help to conserve wild fauna, soil and water, and also provide an opportunity for income generating activities and institutional development. Also, there is a high potentiality in making income from carbon credit in Community Forestry System under market adoption of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), a frame work of the Kyoto Protocol. The CDM allows industrialized countries to meet their targets via, projects in developing countries like Nepal. The study entitled “Carbon Sequestration in Community Forest System” was carried out in Kusunde Community Forest, Bharat Pokhari VDC, Kaski District, Nepal.
As population expands,demands for resources such as food,water,timber, fuel etc. increases posing high pressure on the landscape. NFI was carried out in early nineties in Nepal. Since then,forests data haven’t been updated yet at national level & early nineties data do not represent present situation & growing demands of national/international data needs. The main aims of this study were to analyze the trend of forest cover change, relationship between forest cover/land use change and population dynamics and predict its future scenario in the GCA, Nepal using GIS & RS from Landsat satellite images. Prediction of land cover dynamics for the year 2020 was carried out using CA_MARKOV model available in IDRISI software. This study investigates linkages between population and forest condition which is the major driving factor to influence forest land use changes. It provides basic information on the human population, forest cover and land use of the GCA from 1977 to 2010. So, the study is useful to researcher, naturalist, academician, local communities and all national & international development sectors for the purpose of knowledge base and planning the future strategy and policies.
The dissertation work entitle, "An Assessment of Reducing Emissions through Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD)+ in context of Community Managinng Forests, Western Nepal (a case from Gorkha district", is my own original work except referred. Promotion of carbon conservation, sustainable forest management and carbon enhancement are the additional requirements of REDD+ to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) in developing countries recognized in the Copenhagen Accord (COP 15) of December 2009. Baseline information and preparedness for REDD+ are the basic steps of mitigation and adaptation measures of global climate change. For Community Forests to be considered in the new climatic agreement under REDD+, it is essential to examine whether CFs could be moulded as per the pre-requisite in the REDD+ context. Therefore, I have examined the present carbon stock, enhancement scenarios, potentiality to manage forest sustainably, and comparison of plantation and naturally regenerated forest in REDD+ con different forests. This work is not a completed output and solution of the REDD+ mechanism but a priliminary guide forward to REDD+.