Forests reduce impacts of climate change by sequestering CO2 from the atmosphere and storing carbon in their different parts which include above ground biomass, belowground biomass, forest understory and soil. This storage depends on forest ecosystem management, disturbances and climate variation among others. The impact of forest management activities on the ability of forests to sequester and store atmospheric carbon is of increasing scientific concern. A quantitative understanding of how forest management enhances carbon storage is lacking for most forest types because few studies have been conducted. Therefore, this study estimated and compared the above ground biomass (AGB)/carbon stock of two forest types under different forest management regimes. Very high resolution Geoeye satellite images and airborne LiDAR data were used for this study. Total AGB was estimated by allometric equation using DBH and tree height measured in the field. The average carbon stock was found to be 244 t C/ha and 140 t C/ha for community and government forest respectively. Based on the findings, the conclusion is that forest management significantly affects the carbon stock of a forest.
Over the last two decades, global warming and climate change issues are hot topics of discussions among the people of developing as well as developed countries. Since tropical forests are valuable assets for carbon sink and sources both, demand for developing robust methods of carbon stock estimation is increasing day by day. In this context, this book provides the knowledge for estimation and mapping of above ground forest carbon using active and passive Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS).
Tropical forest cover is declining in many parts of the world. This process is of global concern, as it is considered to be one of the main drivers of climate change. The effects of climate change are threats to both present and future human generations. But, these can be controlled, if and only if, there are adequate data to ensure effective planning, budgeting and implementation of climate policies. Hence, radar remote sensing (RS) is useful to monitor forest coverage since the presence of clouds often limits a continuous and periodic monitoring by optical sensors. In this book, radar RS technique was applied to map tropical forest degradation signs in a part of Africa, with a view as to contribute to the development of alternative monitoring strategies in support of the monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) framework of UN-REDD+. Thus, the results in this book are useful to environmentalists, policy makers, regulatory agencies, natural resources managers, university lecturers, forestry students and NGOs. Also, if you are one who is passionate about safeguarding the future of our children from the impacts of climate change; then this book might be of interest to you.
The frequent and repetitive assessment of forest surveying and mapping is important. The traditional practices for surveying and mapping of forests are cumbersome and time taking, therefore, the satellite remote sensing techniques and GIS seems to be the need of the time for early, accurately and inexpensively mapping of landuse and vegetation of forests. Measurement of both qualitative and quantitative aspects of forest for any locality is important. In this regard the present study was carried out to characterize the land use and vegetation of a dry tropical forest ecosystem in India through satellite remote sensing techniques and GIS. The variations in structure, diversity, standing volume, above ground biomass and Carbon storage in different forest types/classes were quantified by adopting quadratic sampling procedures. This book is extremely helpful and targeted to the group working in the field of vegetation analysis, landuse assessment, forest mapping and estimation of volume, biomass and carbon in forests. This book is particularly useful to the target group concerned with carbon sequestration and carbon business.
Forests are natural carbon sink and play an important role in sequestrating the atmospheric carbon into biomass and soil. The goal of reducing carbon source and increasing carbon sink can be achieved through effective protection and conservation of carbon pools in the existing forest, and managing a forest in a sustainable way. Quantification of sequestrated carbon in different forest types with different management regimes and soil profile could be important for better planning of natural resources, and the making of good mitigation strategy for climate change effects. This book presents soil and vegetation carbon pools of different forest types in mountain forest ecosystems. It also provides the effect of altitude and aspect in carbon storage, and relationship of species diversity on carbon stock. This book is useful for development policy maker, non-governmental organization, forestry professionals as well as academicians in the field of forestry, climate change and natural resource management.
Scientific consensus is that the recently observed increase in levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide is caused primarily by burning of fossil fuels, industrial processes and deforestation. However, the rate of this increase has been much slower than would be expected from a simple tally of known carbon sources and sinks, suggesting that carbon is “missing” from the existing carbon budget. New research indicates that tropical forests are absorbing significantly more carbon than previously thought, a finding that could help account for the missing carbon. A critical question remains: how much carbon sequestration is carried out by mature versus by regenerating forests? This work begins to answer this question by improving our understanding of the role that regenerating forests play in the carbon budget of tropical forests. The author presents an operational methodology for mapping carbon pools of tropical regenerating forests at regional scales. Integrating site-level forest inventory measurements with satellite imagery in the Amazon and the Congo Basin, the author presents wall-to-wall maps of carbon pools at different stages of forest regeneration in both regions.
The role of forests in mitigating the effect of climate change depends on the carbon sequestration potential and management. This study was conducted to estimate the carbon stock and its variation along the environmental gradients in Arba Minch Ground Water Forest. The data was collected from the field by measuring plants with a DBH of >5cm in quadrat plots of 10 X 20 m and the carbon stocks of each plant were analyzed by using allometric equations. From this study the mean total carbon stock density of Arba Minch Ground Water Forest was found to be 583.27 t ha-1, of which 829.12 t ha-1, 165.88 t ha-1, 1.28 t ha-1, 83.80 t ha-1 was contained in the above ground carbon, belowground carbon, litter carbon and soil organic carbon (0-30 cm depth) respectively. This study will serve as a potential entry point for the engagement of the forest in REDD project.
Deforestation is today a worldwide problem and despite increasing efforts regarding forest management and forest conservation, the issue remains. Human activities are a major cause and forests are continuously turning into other land uses such as agriculture and pasture. Africa is a continent with fast growing population and during the last century major impacts has been seen in the African landscape. This study was conducted in Kenya in eastern Africa in cooperation with SCC-Vi Agroforestry. The study area is located in Marakwet district which holds one of the largest remaining natural forests in the country. This forest is experiencing a severe ongoing illegal deforestation. The study investigated the forest degradation during the period 1986-2009. Satellite data was used to detect the deforestation and GIS software was used for mapping and analysis. The results indicate great changes in forest cover. During the 23 year period, 4 149 hectares of forest was cleared – representing a 14 percent decrease of forest cover. The created future scenario indicates that if nothing is done to prevent the ongoing deforestation, 45 percent of the forest will be cut down until the year 2100.
In the forestry sector, avoiding deforestation is recognized under the regulations of the CDM. This means that countries like Nepal that promote CFM and contribute to reducing global emission by biological sequestration of carbon through forest management can claim carbon credits under the CDM. The problem that this study addresses is whether CFM can be integrated into the market-based mechanism under the new climate change treaty for reducing global emission. It will analyses whether the carbon trading from REDD Strategy will actually benefit the local community.The total carbon stock of the forest was 122.29 ton/ha including SOC and below ground carbon of 45.18 ton/ha and 12.85 ton/ha, respectively. Rich, medium and poor HH were willing to pay 25.97 %, 51.95 %, 22.08 % of total WTP respectively for the ecological services provided by the forest. The annual total benefit and cost in 2010 was US $ 7300 and 2456 respectively. BCR measured directly without discounting and with discounting was 2.97 and 3.91 respectively. CF had already benefitted in the current state. If REDD scheme is implemented, it will provide additional benefit to the local people in the future.
In the context of climate change, particular attention is given to carbon which is a major constituent of greenhouse gases (GHG). The forest has a very important role in mitigation of this phenomenon. But the assessment of carbon stocks in the forest ecosystems is not yet known satisfactorily, for countries with this heritage can access the "carbon credit" which is another way to take advantage of the forest. Very little information exists in the field of forest carbon about the Republic of Congo. The results of this study will be useful to the National Congolese Program about the carbon forest sequestration by MEFDD-REDD+/WRI Project which is managed by The Congolese Ministry of Forest Economy and Sustainable Development. Within the carbon market, this study (Carbon stocks evaluation in tropical forest of Congo) could allow the Republic of Congo to get the carbon credit.
Tropical forests are well known for their rich biodiversity, contribution to global carbon stock and various ecosystem services they render to humanity and to wildlife. There are 16 major forest types in India ranging from dry tropical scrubs to montane wet temperate forest. Among them the tropical dry evergreen forest (TDEF) on the Coromandel Coast of India constitute one of the under-studied forest types. Yet various sites of TDEF have been subjected to different levels of anthropogenic disturbances ranging from pristine, relatively undisturbed to highly disturbed. This book is an attempt to fill up scientific gap in our knowledge on the biodiversity and ecology of this unique forest type, pooling our hardcore research data generated over 25 years on biodiversity and functional ecology aimed towards conservation of forests and valuable bio-resources they offer. In twenty chapters, this book covers a wide range of topics that include plant and animal diversity and their complex interactions, ecosystem services offered, including economic good services for human welfare. It concludes on the conservation need and future of this forest type under the changing environmental scenario.
ABSTRACT Recent attempts to mitigate global climatic change have brought forestry based carbon sequestration into sharp focus due to its potential to absorb CO2 from the atmosphere. Although a number of studies have been done on carbon stock estimation, the National Park carbon stock has not been properly addressed. This paper was conducted to estimate the carbon stock in forest of the Gambella National Park with 76 plots in the categories of riverine and terrestrial forest. The total mean carbon stock in forest part of the National Park was 394.85±24.34ton/ha. The carbon stocks in each pool exhibited distinct patterns between the forest Stratum (riverine and terrestrial). The total carbon stock in the riverine forest and forest land/wood land was 454.51±26.01ton/ha and 324.89±17.25 ton/ha respectively. The results of LULCC (Land use land cover change) analysis indicated that the forest and woodland decreased at an average rate of 120,470.6ha. This study concluded that despite the rapid decline in the forest land and woodland coverage, the existing forest/wood land has a huge potential sequestration of carbon for mitigation of climate change.
This book aims to analyze the contribution of spatial data and GIS in strategic forest management at a regional planning level considering topical issues: windthrow, carbon sequestration and climate change and recommends how the methodologies might be transferred to other countries. A macro-based geographical information system (GIS) is proposed as a suitable tool for modeling the interaction between wind and the forest area of the Snowdonia National Park in North Wales, UK (affected by endemic windthrow). Another, GIS-Spreadsheet organic carbon model, to estimate the organic carbon stock of the woodland, was presented considering tree, litter and soil to a depth of one meter. Moreover, the book presented how spatial data with climate change scenarios as decisive factor in sketching future Kyoto consistent forests. The accommodative ability of stated models enable the manager an easy understanding and present them to policy maker within short notice. It was suggested that spatial data sets and GIS might contribute significantly in forest management, furthermore accommodating week-by-week activities into the database to derive regional forest ecosystem management decisions.
This research was carried out in the Bandevi buffer Zone Community Forest (BZCF) and Satkanya Community Forest (SCF) of Barandabhar corridor area in Chitwan district of Nepal to assess and compare the status of floristic diversity in buffer zone community forest and community forest in Barandabhar corridor in Chitwan district of Nepal, managed under different rules and regulations. Primary data were collected from reconnaissance survey, direct observation, forest inventory, interviews with forest user group members and key informant interview. Secondary data were collected from the forestry stakeholders working in community forestry and buffer zone sectors. The floral diversity was assessed by using Simpson’s Diversity Index (SI), Shannon Weiner Diversity Index (WI) and Margalef Species Richness Index (MI). Information on management practices were assessed by field observation, key informant interview and review of operational plan of respective forests. Diversity index (SI=0.9367 and WI =3.3714) and species richness index of (MI=10) of BZCF were found higher than the diversity index (SI=0.8749 and WI =3.0099) and species richness index (MI=9.0491) of SCF.
In recent years the problem of forests degradation, tropical deforestation has been recognized. At the same time, there is a general acceptance of numerous benefits of these forests primarily Community Managed Forests (CFM). However, contributions of these forests are still debated and are not recognized yet in Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). In this context, this research is an attempt to identify the existing condition of CFM; estimation of carbon content, species identification that has more carbon storage capacity. In this study, pine forest had higher carbon stock as compared to broadleaf forest and species; Quercus floribunda, Quercus glauca has high carbon storing capacity. The research signifies carbon sequestration, any shrinkage of forests have an enormous impact on Co2 emission with long term consequences. Therefore, this research is useful for policy makers and scientific community to take early recognition of CFM. It could establish a mechanism which works on principle of carrot and sticks; benefit to the adjacent community and globally, at large, in carbon mitigation and as a way forward to Kyoto Protocol.