Present research was done to assess the effect of maternal perception & child feeding practices on weight status of preschoolers.102 mothers were questioned about family background, nutrition awareness, perception of their child''s weight, feeding practices on weight status of children & factors affecting these were assessed through statistical analysis. In comparison with WHO growth standards, 30% children were obese, but 69% mothers wrongly perceived their child''s weight. Mothers of overweight sons had more wrong perception than those with overweight daughters. Perception that children were underweight was associated with maternal BMI. Child''s weight was found unrelated to feeding practices followed by mothers. But, there were associations between different subscales of feeding practices & family characteristics. Despite mounting public health concern about childhood obesity in India, most of surveyed mothers were not concerned about their children''s weight, and many did not perceive their overweight children any different from their peers. This may have implications for interventions that rely on acknowledging child''s overweight as a first step to change.
Nutritional status of children is greatly depended on nutritional knowledge and feeding practices of the mother which vary substantially between population due to socio-demographic, economic and cultural variations. Childhood malnutrition is a major health problem in Bangladesh, but the relationship between maternal knowledge and practices with the nutritional status of children have not been adequately studied in Bangladeshi population. This relationship along with factors affecting the maternal knowledge and practices, have been addressed in this work including 400 mothers of >2years children. This study has also identified misconception regarding mothers' nutritional knowledge and underlying reasons of improper child feeding practices. The work emphasizes on the importance of providing nutritional knowledge to the mothers (irrespective of educational status) and it also highlights the need for policy and strategy adaptation to provide more effective behavior change education targeted particularly to the people with lower education levels.
Education is universally accepted as a critical element for human development. It simultaneously addresses ignorance, poverty and disease. It empowers the individual and the society especially when it is accessed by women. This book looks at the reducing effect of maternal education on the risk of infant and child mortality in rural Kenya. In exerting its influence, maternal education works through enhanced hygiene, modern medical practices, environmental health, economic empowerment and adequate nutritional practices. In this book, Dr. Kiptui argues that education has a reducing effect on under-five mortality and it is a critical measure and indicator of a county''s level of development. This book is recommended for post-graduate scholars in public health, epidemiology, medical education, demography, child welfare practitioners and education policy makers.
The diet of a woman during different stages of life and especially during pregnancy plays a key role in modulation of maternal health and achieving successful outcome of pregnancy. In Ayurveda along with quantity of food, its elemental constitution, mode of preparation, combination, psychic consideration, manner, time and season of intake etc are also considered, in the acceptability of wholesome diet. Month wise dietary regimen has been described for pregnant women to keep mother and child free from natal and postnatal complications. The risk of early mortality and later morbidity of offspring increases with low birth weight. The results of this study reveal that quality of maternal Ahara has an impact on maternal health and their progeny. The health status of pregnant woman who had taken Satvika-Rajasika Ahara during pregnancy was better as compared to those women who had taken Satvika-Tamasika or Rajasika-Tamasika Ahara, and anthropometric measurements of their neonates were also higher. The guidelines and results of this study will definitely help in worldwide propagation of the knowledge of Ayurveda related to maternal and child health care.
Improper breast feeding and feeding practices are one of the major reasons for childhood malnutrition. The present study was undertaken to assess the feeding practices of newborn babies. A pilot study was conducted on 120 newborns (weight, M±SD, 2.82±0.50kg; boys 58%; girls 42 %) and their mothers collected. The data was expressed as the mean ± SD or median (range). ? 2 test was done to detect significant difference between the different groups whenever required. Among the newborns birth weight was normal (?2.5 kg) in 75% babies and 25% babies were found to have LBW. About 58.3% were exclusive breast fed. Only 40.8% babies were breast fed within half an hour and 12.5% started within one hour after birth and 42% mother used prelacteal fed like sugar water and honey. The breasts fed frequency of the 52% babies were 8-12times/day. The prelacteal (water, juice, sugar water etc) fed were given to 48% of newborn babies. There was a positive association between mother’s education-occupation and feeding practice of her baby (?2= 14.5, p= 0.02 and ?2= 30.63, p= 0.00). Feeding practices for newborn babies in Dhaka Medical College are nearby standard as suggested in the WHO Guidelines.
This book focuses on the physical growth, feeding practices or behavior, and dietary intake of children aged 12-71.9 months in the island of Tobago, Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. By means of a stratified proportional random sampling method, 466 children and their parents were selected. Dietary data, and anthropometrics were measured. Underweight, stunting and wasting were defined as ? 2 z-scores below the median of the NCHS/WHO reference population. Feeding practice/behavior scores are defined as appropriateness, responsiveness and control of parents through force feeding and restriction of food during child feeding. Dietary intake data were compared to the Caribbean RDA for age and gender. Findings indicated 5.8% were underweight, 2.6% stunted, and 11.6% wasted. Children between ages 48-71.9 months had the highest rates of nutrition onslaughts. Income and education had significant effect (p
The study described in this book was conducted in Pemba Island, Tanzania. Pemba has a relatively high rate of newborn mortality. The study investigated infant feeding within the context of newborn care. In the first part of the study, I interviewed a small sample of mothers to whom no prior instruction or advice about infant feeding had been provided. This part of the study allowed a description of women''s beliefs about the vulnerability of the newborn, and the implication of these. In the second part of the study, a small sample of Pemban mothers who were provided with in-depth, personalized information about exclusive breastfeeding using an approach inspired by the “Trial of Improved Practices” were interviewed. The study results highlight the practices that women found most difficult to adopt following recommendations for behavior change and those that fitted well with local cultural understandings.
Effect of various tillage practices on soil Physical properties, root growth and yield of wheat - maize rotation were studied during 1996 - 99 at NWFP Agricultural University Research Farm, Peshawar, Pakistan. Tillage implements were used in the experiments moldboard plow, disk plow, disk harrow, rotavator and cultivator. Lowest average bulk density and soil strength of 1.46, 1.57 g/cm3 and 62.9, 121 N/cm2 respectively were recorded in deep tillage plots while the highest of 1.52, 1.62 g/cm3 and 75.6, 140.7 N/cm2 respectively were found in shallow tillage plots for two depths (i.e. 0 - 21 and 22 - 42 cm). Significantly higher root length and dry root weight of wheat were found in deep tillage (moldboard plow and rotavator once, M1R1) and the minimum root length and dry root weight were recorded in the shallow tillage (C2). Highest grain yield of wheat and maize (4422 and 4827 kg/ha) were found in the deep tillage (M1R1) while the lowest (3806 and 3966 kg/ha) were noted in the shallow tillage (C2). In general, deep tillage improved the soil physical conditions. Therefore, it is recommended for optimum yield of wheat and maize under irrigated clay loam soil condition.
Obesity is a major public health problem. It can be defined as an excess accumulation of body fat cells. Obesity is considered the fifth leading risk for global death. At least 2.8 million adults die each year as a result of being overweight or obese. Maternal obesity affect the health of mother in pregnancy and developing fetus that adversely increase risk of gestational diabetes, preeclampsia toxemia, macrosomic baby and birth defect. this study aimed to reveal the effect of maternal obesity on pregnancy outcome. The study found some factors that are associated with adverse maternal outcome. Increasing in obesity degree will risk of hypertensive disorder, gestational diabetes; and having macrosomic new born.the study provides possible intervention strategies that could contribute to reduce effect of maternal obesity on pregnancy outcome.
Around the world Bangladesh has high rate of infant and child malnutrition due to inappropriate breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices. AED, BRAC in partnership with Alive and Thrive works from 2009-2013, to improve child feeding situation and reduce stunting. Frontline health workers of BRAC (Shasthya Shebika, SS) works on voluntary basis but gets some monetary return by selling health products to the community. Another community nutrition worker named Pusti Kormi (PK) also delivers more customized services. Findings revealed that SSs lagged behind PKs in programme activities. Again due to heavy work load, SSs were demoralized and also price hike in recent time made their day-to-day life difficult to be involved in voluntary work. This has lessened their interest in extra work for this project. It can say that some performance-based incentives may motivate them to work effectively for this very intensive and time consuming behavior change programme.
Child malnutrition persists in Ebenat woreda since 1980s and currently reached to the level of 16% of Global Acute Malnutrition (GAM). Little has been done in identifying maternal perception on child malnutrition and its impact. The central objective of this study was to examine the mothers’ perception about malnutrition and its impact on nutritional intervention programs in Ebenat woreda of South Gondar Zone of the Amhara region. The study employed both qualitative and quantitative approach to analyze the data gathered through five focus groups and, four key informant questionnaires. The data were collected from 324 mothers whose ages were between 15 to 80 from 5 kebeles of the woreda, in two months time from January to February 2011. SPSS plus 16 windows were used for analysis purpose. The findings of the study revealed that in the majority of the mothers were found in high illiteracy level with poor understanding of proper child feeding and caring habits/practices. Children were found to be susceptible to diseases like diarrhoea, malaria, coughing and TB as interrelated childhood health hazards.mothers used traditional healing techniques to prevent malnutrition.
Breastfeeding is a natural way of feeding to a new born baby. Breast Milk contains natural that a baby needs for first few months of life and it is quickly digested. A number of studies have amply demonstrated the important role that breast feeding plays in child survival. WHO and UNICEF in 1992 launched a Baby Friendly Hospital initiative to strengthen maternity practices to support breast-feedings. The foundations are the Ten Steps to Successful Breast feeding. Currently approximately twenty thousand hospitals worldwide have achieved Baby Friendly Status. We conducted this study to evaluate the role of Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative on feeding and weaning practices of mothers in improving health status of children under five years of age. Our conclusion is Baby Friendly Hospital initiative has a beneficial effect on feeding practices of mothers and duration of exclusive breastfeeding. But some areas of optimal breastfeeding practices are not taken care well especially initiation of breastfeeding within half to one hour of birth needs attention.
Feeding Practices and Malnutrition of Children in the Tropics is a situation analysis study that was carried out in the rural community of Eastern Uganda with the aim of providing information on feeding practices commonly practiced in some households and communities. The author has endeavored to expound on the varied factors at play that affect the availability of foods in households in relationship to the nutrient distribution in meals for a cross section of the population.The information documented will help equip Extension or Community Workers and other concerned authorities with background knowledge and design practical relevant solutions that will solve the malnutrition problem.
It is a fact that mothers are pre-disposed to respond to their babies'' needs in one way or the other. However, do all mothers perceive and become aware of their babies'' needs in the same way? This book attempts to explore how differences in socio- economic factors affect mothers and the ways they respond to the behaviour patterns of their infants. It uses research data to argue that differences in marital, employment and educational statuses affect mothers differently in interpreting and perceiving the behaviour patterns of their infants resulting in some babies being at risk because of failure by these mothers to respond to them appropriately and adequately. It is therefore the belief of the authors that after going through this book, the readers, especially mothers with infants, will have no doubt in their minds of how best they can respond to their babies in manners that are most satisfying and most rewarding.