Mathematical models can take many forms, including but not limited to dynamical systems, statistical models, differential equations. These and other types of models can overlap, with a given model involving a variety of abstract structures. In general, mathematical models may include logical models. One of these models the effect of diseases in ecological system Which is an important issue from mathematical and experimental point of view. Such models are called eco-epidemiological models. Eco-epidemiological model is comparatively a new branch in mathematical biology which simultaneously considers the ecological and epidemiological processes.
When the data is analysed, it shows that the younger people (30-44 years) in the population are dying. These deaths are due mainly to infectious diseases and parasitic disease such as tuberculosis, intestinal infections, HIV and malaria. Diseases of the respiratory as well as cardiovascular system feature predominantly among the young. The emergence of neoplastic conditions cannot be overlooked as all have profound impact on public health spending. Diabetes melllitus caused 67% of the deaths associated with endocrine, nutritional and metabolic disorders. A total of 10242 perinatal deaths occured during the study period and was associated with 363 maternal deaths.Congenital pneumonia was the common cause of perinatal deaths whereas oedema, proteinuria and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium were the leading underlying causes of maternal deaths.
The dynamical behavior of some eco-epidemiological models is investigated. Two types of prey-predator models involving infectious disease in predator population, which divided it into two compartments; namely susceptible population and infected population , are proposed and analyzed. The first proposed model deals with SIS infectious disease that transmitted directly from external sources, as well as, through direct contact between susceptible and infected individuals using linear type of incidence rate. While, the second proposed model deals with SIS infectious disease that transmitted through the direct contact between susceptible and infected individuals only using nonlinear type of incidence rate. Both the models are represented mathematically by the set of nonlinear differential equations. The existence, uniqueness and boundedness of the solution of these two models are investigated. The local and global stability conditions of all possible equilibrium points are established. The occurrence of local bifurcation and Hopf bifurcation near each of the equilibrium points are discussed. Finally, numerical simulation is used to study the global dynamics of the both models.
Various types of nosocomial infections are acquired by hospitalized patients after 48-72 hours of their admission, in addition to their prior ailments. The immuno suppressed, immuno compromised and even the patients with normal immune system are vulnerable to nosocomial infections under certain circumstances. The potential impact of nosocomial infections is considerable in terms of incidence, morbidity, mortality, and financial burden (Wenzel R P, 2003). Nosocomial infections have been a serious problem ever since sick patients first congregated in the hospitals (Semmelweiss, 1861; Nightingale, 1863; Simpson and Spensor, 1869). Interest in nosocomial infection grew at a very rapid rate from earlier twentieth century, when new basis of hospital infections was reported, and alarming increase in the number of serious cases of Streptococcus pyogenes infections in hospitals were noted (Cruickshank, 1935). Urinary tract infections (UTI) are considered to be the most common infections which are acquired from the hospitals. The causal pathogens of those infections have been reported as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. Proteus spp.
At the turn of this century, in September 2000, representatives from 189 countries met at the Millennium Summit at New York and adopted 'Millennium Development Goals'. Out of 8 goals, one of the important is improve 'Maternal Health'. Maternal Mortality is chosen as one of the indicator towards the progress of the goal. Present research study throws light on all the aspects of health of females of reproductive age group including pregnant women. In this study, the causes of maternal deaths (medical causes) and social factors influencing the maternal deaths like age at child birth, parity, lack of spacing ,Malnutrition socio-cultural, socio - economical, poverty, illiteracy, male dominance, gender bias, ignorance & prejudice, lack of maternity services, poor environmental sanitation, poor communication & transportation facility etc, has been delicately revealed by intense efforts. This study also emphasizes that by timely intervention like early registration of pregnancy, regular ANC Visits & safe institutional deliveries, many maternal deaths can be prevented. This study will be useful for all medical and social stakeholders who are concerned with female & maternal health.
Promoting the health of children through schools has been an important goal of WHO, UNESCO, UNICEF and other international agencies since 1950s. Major international meetings to improve school health include: the WHO Expert Committee on School Health Services in 1950, the WHO Expert Committee on Health Education in 1954, the Joint WHO/UNESCO Expert Committee on Teacher Preparation for Health Education in 1959, the UNESCO/ WHO collaboration to publish Planning for health education in schools in 1966, the WHO Expert Committee on New Approaches to Health Education in Primary Health Care in 1983, the WHO/UNICEF International Consultation ON Health Education for school age Children in 1985, the Technical Discussion on The Health of Youth at the Forty second World Health Assembly in 1989, the WHO/UNESCO/ILO World Consultation on Strategies for Implementing Comprehensive School Health Education / Promotion Programmes in 1991 and the WHO/UNESCO Global Conference on School Health and HIV Prevention in 1995.
A community-based, cross-sectional, descriptive study was undertaken among adult male population in the slum of Chetla, Kolkata,West Bengal,India.This study was conducted to find out the prevalence of alcohol consumption, association of alcohol consumption with different socio demographic variables,different patterns of consumers and the socio economic consequences of alcohol consumption. Male population aged 18 years & above were interviewed(n=228)with a schedule based on Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT). Overall, the presence of a considerable proportion of alcohol dependents (14%), low mean age of initiation in years(18.7±7.3), paternal influence on drinking habit (66.4%), habit of drinking in public places (41%) and the habit of verbal abuse towards closest family members very frequently by alcohol dependents (57%) as revealed by the study remained the main areas of concern.A comprehensive national level programme to eliminate this social evil is the need of the hour. The programme should include legal and educational measures to reduce accessibility of alcohol,screening of different patterns of drinkers by AUDIT & management of hazardous & dependent drinkers.
The main aim of this study to conduct surveillance program of surgical wound infections and to improve surgical practice by surgeons and otherhealthcare professionals. This study describes the results obtained in an epidemiological study of surgical wound infections through an active surveillance program lasting one year in surgical unit of a rural teaching hospital. It is a prospective observational study including patients of surgery ward of Rajah Muthaiah Medical College Hospital who have developed surgical wound infections during hospitalization. Among admissions in surgery ward, 300 cases were screened to have developed surgical wound infections. The most common microorganisms responsible for the infections observed were mainly gram negative and the most commonly isolated were Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli Highest numbers of cases were observed after Wound debridement and Incision and Drainage operative procedures. Among wound Classes, dirty wounds have found to be highest . Superficial incision site infections were highest among other surgical sites. These nosocomial infection surveillance programs of nosocomial infections in rural setting are very rarely
Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are common in the community, are of chronic nature and pose a significant health care burden. The causes and pathogenetic mechanisms of FGIDs are not fully known. FGID are classified into three major domains: functional dyspepsia, functional bowel disorders including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and heartburn. The aim was to study the natural history of FGID in the Icelandic population over a 10-year period. Only one other study has been performed on FGIDs using the same methodology, in Olmsted County Minnesota, USA and thus providing the possibility of a direct comparison. Secondary objectives of the study were: 1) to compare the prevalence and stability of IBS according to the Manning criteria, Rome II, Rome III subtypes, and self-reported IBS over a 10 year period: 2) to study IBS and dysmenorrhea in women and to assess the change in IBS over menopause: 3) to study if and how physicians use the IBS criteria and to assess treatment strategies among physicians for IBS patients. This book should help shed some light on this health care problem, and should be especially useful to professionals in gastroenterology.
Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of disease frequency in human populations and the application of this study to control health problems. The term study includes both surveillance, whose purpose is to monitor aspects of disease occurrence and spread that are pertinent to effective control, and epidemiologic research, whose goal is to harvest valid and precise information about the causes, preventions, and treatments for disease. The term disease refers to a broad array of health-related states and events including diseases, injuries, disabilities, and death.
India has the highest number of road accidents in the world. Road accidents have earned India a dubious distinction, with over 135,000 deaths annually. The country has overtaken china and now has the worst road traffic accident rate worldwide. Every hour, 40 people under the age of 25 die in road accidents around the globe. This is the second important cause of death for 5 to 29 years old. In India death toll is 14 deaths per hour (2009) i.e. 4 deaths /min. While trucks and two wheelers were responsible for over 40% of deaths. Peak traffic during the afternoon and evening rush hour is most dangerous time to be on roads. In victims dying within half an hour of the accident, multiple injuries involving head; chest and abdomen were common including fractures of skull associated with lacerations of brain, liver and lungs. In victims surviving up to one week, the incidence of subdural haematoma and herniation of brain increased whereas incidence of lacerations of brain, liver, lung decreased.
The epidemiology of schistosomiasis is well documented and its geographic distribution has been mapped and there is an ongoing mapping in Ethiopia. Nevertheless, new transmission foci have been discovered in different parts of the country. The objective of this study was to assess the establishment of transmission and determine the prevalence of S. mansoni infection in school children from Sanja Town, northwest Ethiopia. In this study, Stool specimens were collected and microscopically examined using Kato-Katz and SAF concentration methods. Malacological survey was also carried out to identify snail intermediate hosts and larval infection rate in the snail. The snails collected were checked for trematode infection by shedding. The prevalence of Schistosomiasis mansoni observed in the present study was very high (82.8%). The prevalence of Schistosome infection in Biomphalaria pfeifferi was also high (16.9% and 0.027% during February and April, respectively). The study has shown establishment of transmission of Schistosomiasis mansoni in Sanja Town. Therefore, appropriate integrated control measures need to be introduced to reduce morbidity in the population.
In essence, burns are haunting problems of the mankind even today. Nothing much can be done to such sufferers once they sustain serious injury, specially in terms of scaring, disfigurement and disability. The present study has been undertaken with a view to studying the profile of various type of burns brought for autopsy. This study highlights the incidence and impact of various epidemiological factors, patterns, mortality rate of burn cases. This study also signifies population of highest risk, duration of survival, comparative prevalance and medicolegal importance of burn cases. The massage is "prevent the burn before it devastates".
In order to minimize the cash outflow, an optimization model for a manpower system is considered, where in the vacancies are filled up based on promotion and recruitment. A mathematical model is constructed based on the mapping of a manpower system with an appropriate Queuing Model and Transportation Model with the objective of recruitment cost minization. Essentially, the standard portfolio optimization problem is to identify the optimal allocation of the available limited resources based on the limited set of investments. In this juncture, the term optimality refers the tradeoff between the perceived risk and the expected return with the help of Preemptive Goal Programming model and Integer Programming Model. Investment decisions are based on the risk-return patterns. Appropriate measures of risk and return are of great concern to investors. CAPM, based on market beta, addresses this concern quite well. But, an alternative CAPM can also be thought of. An attempt is made to construct a model for measuring the corporate profitability performance and identifying the risk category of companies applying accounting beta [?] based on the CAPM model.
In mathematical bio-sciences we study the applications of mathematical modeling and mathematical techniques to get an insight into the problems of bio-sciences. The mathematical model is a comprehensive process of representing real Phenomena in terms of Mathematical Equations, and extracting from them useful information for understanding and predicting the process of idealization. The study of blood flow characteristics in human circulatory system in the presence of stenosis, has been the subject of researchers in recent years. A serious study of this problem has been done by Young 1968 who presented a mathematical model to analyses theoretically the effects of stenosis on flow characteristics of blood and concluded that the resistance to the flow and the wall shear stress increase with the increase in stenosis size. The blood flow through large arteries considered as Newtonian flow by Lee JS 1974. while the blood flow through small arteries is considered as non-Newtonian by Chan et all 2007.