This book deals with the various aspects of quantitative trait loci’s analysis in rice, covering QTLs for morphological, physiological and productivity traits, in mapping population consisting of 188 backcross inbreed lines (BILs) derived from Swarna and NERICA-L-20. In all 106 QTLs were identified for 14 yield and its related traits using interval mapping. Forty six (43.39%) QTLs were derived from NERICA-L-20 and had a beneficial effect on the trait. Phenotypic variance explained by QTLs ranged from 7.90 to 84.00 per cent in BILs. The co-localized traits are known to be highly correlated. In the present study 16 co-localized chromosomal regions with QTLs for three or more traits were identified. The traits like days to heading and days to 50% flowering were co-localized on many chromosomal regions and also were highly correlated (< 0.90). Segregation distortion was observed to the extent of 67.8 per cent of the mapped SSR marker loci in BILs. Yield per plant was strongly influenced by eight QTL alleles. Of these six were derived from NERICA-L-20 with each contributed more than 10 per cent to the phenotypic variance with high additive effect on this trait (< 4 g). QTLs which detect
Molecular markers are used for germplasm characterization, genetic mapping, gene tagging, and gene introgression from exotic species in brassica. Genetic maps aids to the understanding of genome in terms of structure, function and evolution and represents an important tool for crop enhancements on genetic level. Present study aims at reviewing the use of molecular markers for mapping and tagging qualitative and quantitative traits in brassica so that this information can be easily available to researchers as a reference. A number of important traits in light of molecular genetics in Brassica are described in detail.
Septoria leaf spot caused by Septoria lycopersici Speg. and late blight caused by Phytopthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary are two important foliar diseases of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Identification of DNA markers linked to these diseases is a prerequisite for accelerating resistance breeding through marker-assisted selection (MAS). The objectives of the present study were to investigate the inheritance pattern of septoria leaf spot resistance and identify molecular markers linked to septoria leaf spot and late blight resistance in tomato. The inheritance of resistance to septoria leaf spot was based on a single dominant gene. Transgressive segregation for resistance and susceptibility to late blight was also observed. Out of the 34 RAPD polymorphic markers 11 primers (32.35%) were polymorphic between resistant and susceptible bulks of septoria leaf spot and 16 (47%) produced polymorphic bands between resistant and susceptible bulks of late blight lines.
In this study, Synthetic Hexaploid lines of Wheat viz., Syn 4, Syn 55 and Syn 86 were screened for resistance against virulence stem rust pathotype 40A at Division of Genetics, IARI, New Delhi. The nature of inheritance of gene governing the resistance in these synthetic lines and their allelic relationship were studied. The gene for resistance in Syn 4 and Syn 55 was found to be same, as confirmed by the test of allelism. In Syn 86. The resistance to stem rust was governed by two genes one dominant and one recessive). The F2 population developed from a cross between Syn 4 x Agra local, was used to identify molecular marker linked to stem rust resistance gene. A total of 75 RAPD’s and 35 SSR primer pair were selected covering D-Genome and B-Genome on the basis of chromosomal location of resistance gene. The SSR marker Xgwm533 was found to be linked with resistance gene at a distance of 5cM and marker Xgwm389 was co-segregating. Xgwm533 was taken from B-Genome hence, the resistance gene to be located on 3-B Genome of wheat. The use of these markers in combination with other marker could better predict the presence of gene for resistance to stem rust in breeding population.
Due to lack of suitable selection criteria, the development of highly salt tolerant high yielding varieties in rice remain as an incomplete episode & in this cross road the molecular markers finds appropriate place to be used upon. These are more potential; having better resolution and not gets affected by the changing environment. In the present study efforts were made to tag salt tolerant gene(s) in a F3 mapping of Pokkali X IR 28 with concurrent phenotyping in response to excess salt under artificial condition. The result shows ample polymorphism in respect of 10 decamer primers, which is essential for a molecular marker programme in mapping gene of interest. From this study, it can be concluded that RAPD may be used in tagging gene(s) for salt tolerance in rice with no hesitation. The present information suffice amply that RAPD could be used as a reliable, easy to handle and cheap marker system in molecular profiling of F3 segregants.
5 х Одежда Regular Стандартная цена Lable Tag Tagging Gun Таггер стальные иглы
Two species of marine turtles, namely Chelonia mydas (green turtle) and Lepidochelys olivacea (olive ridley) are found nesting on the beaches of Hawkesbay and Sandspit at Karachi. Female turtles were tagged by clipping monel metal tags on both of their front flippers. A total of 3093 green and 43 olive ridley turtles were tagged during the period 1982 to 1997. Tagged turtles were recovered from local coasts as well as from abroad when they migrate from the original tagging site; 576 (18 %) green and 12 (27.9 %) olive ridley were recaptured. The number of turtles recovered per year ranged from 7 (1983) to 74 (1987). The longest recorded interval recovery was 9 years 3 months and 11 days of a tagged green turtle tagged at Sandspit and recovered from the same site. The longest recorded distance travelled by green turtle from Pakistan was approximately 1470 km up to Eriteria, Africa.
In corpus linguistics, part-of-speech tagging (POS tagging or POST), also called grammatical tagging or word-category disambiguation, is the process of marking up the words in a text (corpus) as corresponding to a particular part of speech, based on both its definition, as well as its context —ie. relationship with adjacent and related words in a phrase, sentence, or paragraph. A simplified form of this is commonly taught to school-age children, in the identification of words as nouns, verbs,adjectives, adverbs, etc. Once performed by hand, POS tagging is now done in the context of computational linguistics, using algorithms which associate discrete terms, as well as hidden parts of speech, in accordance with a set of descriptive tags. (wiki)
This book presents the first ever rule-based part of speech tagging for Pashto language. In natural language processing, part-of-speech tagging plays a vital role. It is a significant pre-requisite for putting a human language on the engineering track. Before developing a part-of-speech tagger, a tagset is required for that language. Initially, a tagset is created according to syntactical properties that contains 54 tags for Pashto language. A simple architecture is proposed for Pashto part of speech tagger. The architecture contains a tokenizer, a lexicon and rules for disambiguation and new words. The lexicon contains words with their tags. The lexicon will grow with each new word, when more and more text is tagged. The above architecture is implemented and tested on real world data. The accuracy was low in the beginning because a very limited lexicon and rules were present. Text is tagged with this tagger and corrections of new words are done manually which result in the growth of both lexicon and rules. When the lexicon reached to 100,000 words and rules grew to 120, the accuracy became 88%. The accuracy will further increase with the increase of words in the lexicon and rules.
With the enormous growth of the digital information, it is necessary to find advanced ways to process it. The goal is to enhance information retrieval, information extraction and natural language processing. One of the most complicated processes is text mining which deals with finding high quality information from text. This book presents a statistical part-of-speech tagging model for Albanian. The training, testing and evaluation processes are done with Apache OpenNLP tool. The tagging process is performed based on a basic and a large tagset. The experiments are performed on a tagger model trained with corpus composed of a standard Albanian text written by Albanian authors. The tagger model is tested using a cross-validation and a sample text. Results showed that the accuracy of the trained tagger model in real testing environments was about 70%, and up to 98% when the environment settings were optimized for the best accuracy. It was also noticed that the overall accuracy for this model depends on the number of training tokens, level of grammatical and morphological complexity in text and special cases in language expressions.
Strategies that aid the discovery of new gene functions in plants are important tools that can help to improve traits to cope with the challenges that agriculture and plant-based industries face nowadays. They are also useful from a scientific point of view, contributing to the knowledge about the genetic regulation of plant processes in general. In this work, a transposon-based strategy to obtain gain-of-function mutants in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana is presented. This strategy allows the discovery of new gene functions that can be difficult to find with other, such as loss-of-function, strategies.