Rice-Wheat cropping system covers about 11 m ha in India, is the backbone of India's food security. This cropping system produces as high as 12.8 to 17.0 t/ha/annum at different levels of cultivation and is highly nutrient depleting but the factors responsible for success of this system are good economic return, market infrastructural support and very little risk making increasingly popular with the farmers over the years. The introduction of the non-sensitive, input responsive, relatively early maturing varieties of rice and wheat in the mid 60's enabled farmers to intensify land use and increased the acreage under this important cropping system. In recent years, there is a problem to sustain the high yield levels of rice-wheat in India. Several factors including attack of insect pests and diseases are considered responsible for stagnation in productivity of this cropping system. The present investigations were, therefore, carried out with a view to monitor insect pests, diseases and natural enemies operating in rice and wheat ecosystems and to develop an effective bio intensive management strategy to contain population buildup of major insect pests and diseases of rice and wheat.
Pattern of temperature and precipitation are changing due to global warming. Impact of climate on agriculture has been a matter of concern for food security in India. Changes in temperature, precipitation, green gas emissions, droughts, sea level are likely to enhance the risk on agriculture. The impact of climate change on agriculture is being witnessed all over the world, but countries like India are more vulnerable in view of the huge population dependency on agriculture. Here, Agriculture sector supports the livelihood security to more than 60% population. Notwithstanding that, the crops like rice and wheat are the staple food for Indians. Monsoons are changing more frequently. Droughts, floods, tropical cyclones, hot extremes and heat waves are negatively impacting agriculture production. Increasing glacier melt in Himalayas will affect the food production. Impact of climate is more high compared to the past which increasing global warming, natural calamities and may result fluctuations on many crops. In this study, climate change and its impact on rice and wheat crops of India has been analyzed.
This book “Crop Residue Management in Rice-Wheat Cropping System” has written for plant nutrient management in rice - wheat cropping system with nitrogen and potassium fertilizers. The rice-wheat cropping system is one of most widely practiced cropping system in India as well as across the world. The nutrient management in this system is a big task; both crops are heavy nutrient feeder. It requires nutrient cycling from organic residues to maintain nutrient balance in soil. Addition of organic matter to the soil through the return of crop residues also improves soil structure, influences soil water, air and temperature relation, helps to control runoff and erosion and makes tillage easier. Therefore, use of renewable organic sources would be essential for sustainability of the rice-wheat system. This book provides the information about NPK nutrient balance and crop performance under crop residue management practices.
Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is an important cereal crop for a large number of countries in the world. It provides about 20% of total food calories for the human race.It is widely grown through the temperate zone and in some tropical and sub-tropical areas at higher elevation. It can be grown on a variety of soils ranging from sandy to heavy clay, for higher production fertile and well-drained loam to clay loam soil is most suitable. The major wheat growing countries in the world are USSR, USA, China, India, Canada, Australia, France, Turkey, Bangladesh and Pakistan. Among the major cereal grown in India, wheat stands second next to rice in area and production, but first in productivity among all the cereals. System of Wheat Intensification (SWI) popularly known as Sri Vidhi Gehun is different methodology for cultivation of Wheat. Its root goes in SRI principle being practiced in paddy. Here also all agronomic principles are put into practices and integrated with package of practices in wheat crop.
Asian subtropics occupies 21 million hectares of rice-wheat cropping system on their fertile soils. This system carried out on 15 million hectares with highly significant impact for food safety in the area, providing staple food for more than 415 million people.Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has the highest position in food grains in Pakistan: 66% of the total area under food grains is wheat and it contributes 74% of the total food grain production.Tillage is done according to the soil types. Delay in wheat sowing is the result of 6-8 ploughing with planking and loss of high energy.Timely wheat planting after rice ensured in 10 percent higher wheat grain yield in a rice-wheat cropping system.Drilling of wheat in to rice residue using zero tillage has eliminated the time for land preparation and improved crop stand establishment.So,this study has, therefore, been planned to achieve the most economical method for sowing wheat in a rice-wheat cropping system and Quantify the nutrient losses to soil fertility of burning rice straw. Mushtaq Ahmad Gill is the founder of zero tillage and laser land leveling technology in Pakistan and contributed a lot for this research and book.
The rice (Oryza sativa L.) - wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropping system occupies about 28.8 million hectares mainly spread over Asia’s five countries, namely, India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and China. Organic farming offers alternative system for sustainable production and natural resource system. The aim of nutrient management in organic systems is to optimize the use of on–farm resources and minimize losses. Organic materials such as farmyard manure, compost, vermicompost, biogas slurry, green manures, crop residues, biofertilizers and cover crops are other valuable source of nutrients to improve the growth and yield attributes, yields, nutrient uptake, grain quality and soil fertility. The present book is a part of studies which is conducted to determine the optimum combination organic manures crop residues and biofertilizers for meeting nutritional requierment of rice-wheat and rice-wheat-mungbean cropping systems. It also focuses on studying the impact of organic farming practices on the health of soil, quality of organically grown products in order to find out economics of organic farming of rice-based cropping systems.
Dr. Y.V.Singh, Senior Scientist (Agronomy), IARI,New Delhi, India, has developed protocol for Basmati rice cultivation through organic management for sustainable productivity and better quality. In this protocol he used four (Blue green algae @ 2.0 kg/ha, Azolla @ 1.0t/ha/ Azotobacter @ 0.5 kg/ha, vermicompost @ 5.0 t/ha and Farm yard manure @ 5.0 t/ha) organic inoculants to meet the nutrient requirement of organic Basmati rice-wheat-green gram system and got
The book evaluate the performance of canal irrigation system by using special scientific tools like Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System, so that proper measurements could be taken for the sustainable agriculture and water management. Different performance evaluation parameters had been calculated.The purposed data was gathered from field investigation and different government and private organizations. According to the calculations,organic matter ranges from 0.19% (low value) to 0.76% (high value). In comparison of flat and bed irrigation system in wheat crop,the water saving per acre varies from 46.51 to 56.5% of time. The average range of irrigation water saving at site was 51.37%, which provides evidence of 50% water saving in bed planting. Similarly, in rice crop, the range of water saving is 28.91 to 45% which happens due to over irrigation even in bed planting by same farmers. Results showed that on an average percentage yield increase in wheat bed planting fields varies from 11.83 to 29.4 % while 22.27 % increase in yield was obtained from rice bed planting in comparison with flat sowing.
Present study is in progress since 1990-91 at Crop Research Centre of G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, U.S.Nagar (Uttaranchal) to study the long term effects of herbicide use in rice-wheat system. Treatments consisted of combinations of butachlor at 1.5 kg ha-1,hand weeding (30 and 60 days after transplanting) and weedy check in rice and each kharif season treatment followed by isoproturon at 1.0 kg ha-1,hand weeding twice (30 and 60 days after sowing) and weedy check in wheat. Experiment was laid out in randomized block design, with nine treatments and three replications. The soil of experimental plot was sandy loam in texture, medium in organic carbon, low in available nitrogen and medium in available phosphorus and potassium with neutral soil reaction. The various studies conducted during Kharif and rabi season of 2003-04 and 2004-05 are presented here.
The BGREI Programme made certain innovative beginnings for the first time in the history of technology transfer for crop production in India. These included the provision of “cluster approach” for organizing “Block Demonstrations. Another landmark comprised provision of cash doles to the beneficiary farmers to support the instant expenditure towards land preparation & deep ploughing and direct seeding/transplanting in lines in rice and line sowing in wheat as a component of the Block demonstrations of these crops. Deep ploughing and direct seeding/transplanting in rain-fed upland/lowland/irrigated rice cultivation and line sowing in wheat crop are recommended agronomic practices for improved productivity. These operations were hitherto not practiced by the farmers due to various pecuniary/structural reasons such as absence of financial inclusion, inability to repay loans, small size of holdings and lack of knowledge vibrancy. Besides these interventions, provision of flexibility in the form of “site specific needs” also helped the farmers as well as implementing departments in completing the agriculture operations most efficiently.
Conclusions drawn on the basis of the results obtained in the present investigation are stated below: 1. Combined application of N150 P60 K120 S40 B5 Mn20 Zn25 (kg ha-1) was the best dose of nutrients in hybrid rice under rice-wheat cropping system which produced highest grain yield (78.91and 75.00 qha-1durng both the years, respectively). It also improved soil fertility status measured as the available N,P,K,S and Zn. 2. For wheat after hybrid rice crop, the application of N150P60K120 kg ha-1 was found most suitable 3. Application of N150 P60 K120 S40 B5 Mn20 Zn25 kg ha-1 in rice showed residual effect on succeeding wheat crop as reflected in respect to grain and straw yields and all the nutrient treatment also improved soil fertility. 4. Application of N150 P60 K120 S40 B5 Mn20 Zn25 kg ha-1 in rice and N150 P60 K120 kg ha-1 in wheat (T1) increased soil available nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulphur and zinc after harvest of each crop. 5. Application of N150 P60 K120 S40 B5 Mn0 Zn25 kg ha-1 in rice and N150 P60 K120 kg ha-1 in wheat (T8) was the best treatment and found most economical followed by T1.
the projet will help the farmers for increasing the productivity by checking the growth of weeds at early stage of growth of the growth and increasing the nutritive value of the crops. this will help in reducing the malnutrition in developing children.this will also help in improving the fertility of soil by checking the growth of the weed thereby checking the nutrient losses by weeds.In general there will be more food grain production per unit area.
Residual effects of Zinc (Zn) fertilizer and farmyard manure (FYM) help in economizing the fertilizer use without any adverse effect on soil fertility and crop yields. No information is available for residual effect of Zn fertilizer applied in conjunction with FYM to rice-wheat rotation practiced in the northern plains, hot sub-humid (dry) ecoregion of India. The present investigation was carried out to determine the residual effect of Zn fertilizer application with or without farmyard manure on yields, cationic micro-nutrients (Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn) concentration and uptake of third crop rice and fourth crop wheat under rotation. The residual of conjoint use of 2.5 or 3.75 Kg Zn/ha + 5 t FYM/ha was found most beneficial for increasing both yields and nutrient uptake of both rice and wheat crops.
A study was conducted in wheat during rabi season 2012-13 on sandy loam soil at Crop Research Centre, Chirodi of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture & Technology, Meerut (U.P.) Find out the suitable cultivars and different method of planting. To study the effect of different planting methods on growth and yield attributes of rice cultivars. To study the economics of different planting methods.
In India rationing system was introduced at the time of World War-II by the British Government. Through the rationing system the government provided rice, wheat and some of the other items to the ration card holders. It was carried out by the department of Food. After the war in 1943 the rationing system was abolished by the British Government. After Independence the government reintroduced the rationing system in 1950 to distribute food at low prices. It was called National Food Security System (NFSS). In order to strengthen the PDS, the government of India established the Food Corporation of India (FCI) in 1964. It ensures the Food security in our country. In this chapter an attempt is made to take a introduction and related review of the literature on public distribution system in India. The studies reviewed here are macro-level as well as micro-level based on secondary and primary data and conducted for different parts of the country.