Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is the fourth most important food crop in the country after rice, wheat and maize. It is a leading crop in terms of protein and dry matter production per unit area and time. Potato is utilized in preparation of readymade products like fried items (Chips, French fries), dehydrated products (Flakes, granules, starch, gravy thicker, potato custard, powder etc.) and canned products. The per capita availability in India is about 17.7 kg (1/3 of the world average), which emphasizes further, increase in productivity. water is the key input in potato production and its stress drastically reduces the tuber yield even for short period at tuber formation stage. Maintenance of optimum soil moisture in the root zone is necessary to meet the crop requirement for higher yield. Potato growers are still practice the furrow irrigation, though it is less effective in water use efficiency as compared to drip or fertigation system. In this context, mulching is also one of the important cultural operations which are employed to conserve the soil moisture, regulate the soil temperature, suppress the weed growth, possess the fertility and improve the texture of the soil.
Paddy is staple food crop and life too in the world and one of the most important cereals grown in India and occupies second position in cultivation after wheat. India produced 89.13 million tonne of rice from an area of 41.85 million hectare with a productivity of 2130 kg ha-1 during the year 2009-2010. Phosphorus is one of the major nutrients required for production of rice. In soils more than 80% of applied P becomes immobile and unavailable for plant uptake because of adsorption, precipitation, or conversion to organic form. It was observed that the soils under irrigated K.C Canal commands especially under paddy crop are showing high soil available P status. Among the different treatments application of per cent RDP with GM resulted in significantly higher grain yield of paddy in high soil available P vertisols followed by application of 50 per cent RDP only or in combination with FYM @ 5 t ha-1. This shows that even in high soil available P soils application of 50 per cent RDP is required to realize higher grain yield of paddy.
India is a country of agriculture however due to increasing population and loss of soil fertility; there is a strong need to obtain sustainable agriculture. One way to achieve sustainable agriculture is to apply plant growth promoting rhizobacteria to agricultural fields. Exploration of diversity and plant growth promoting traits of bacteria such as Acinetobacter from rhizosphere of wheat; a major cash crop; was thus undertaken. In this investigation, use of Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis along with genus specific primers and the nested PCR approach helped to account the complete Acinetobacter population and thus has publicized that diverse Acinetobacter species associated with rhizosphere of wheat varieties cultivated in different soil types. The investigation also revealed that there transpires “rhizosphere effect” on Acinetobacter species associated with wheat rhizosphere. Further, this study has given an insight to the beneficial role of associated Acinetobacter species in plant growth promotion of wheat. In conclusion, this piece of research work has commenced a new paradigm to reveal role of Acinetobacter in sustainable agriculture.
The increasing expansion of agro-industrial activity over the last 40 years has led to the accumulation of a large quantity of lignocellulosic residues all over the world. Microbial conversion of these wastes seems to be a promising alternative for increasing their nutritional value, transforming them into animal feed and thus producing a value-added product. Candida utilis and Rhizopus oligosporus has been used in this study for the fermentation of wheat bran and rice bran for the production of single cell protein (SCP), which then can be used for animal feed as nutrition added product. The major aim was to enhance protein content in residues. The Various fermentation parameters were optimized. For wheat bran inoculums size of 10% (v/w), 48 hours culture, fermentation period of 48 hours, incubation temperature of 30°C gave maximum protein yield. While for rice bran inoculums size 15% (v/w), inoculums age 48 h, fermentation period of 60 hours, incubation temperature of 30°C and moisture level of 500 ml in growth medium. Maximum crude protein yield obtained for wheat bran was i.e., 41.02% as compared to 4.21% crude protein and 33.14% as compared to 7.22% for rice bran.
Wheat (Triticum Aestivum) is a grass, originally from the Fertile Crescent region of the Near East, but now cultivated worldwide. In 2007 world production of wheat was 607 million tons making it most produced cereal after maize (784 million tons) and rice (651 million tons).To improve the yield of wheat production different projects are in process. We have developed database on codon preference of selected wheat proteins. Most preferably Codon Preference and Codon biasness refers to same phenomena describing about the usage of synonymous codons. Wheat has a large hexaploid genome that has been sequenced. We have particularly taken only those genes whose nucleotide and amino acid sequence is known in databases. The fasta format Sequences of heat shock proteins and protein kinase were taken from UniProt and codon preferences were find. Then different tools are used to make the tables and Pi charts of codon preference of wheat.
India has rich heritage of species and genetic strains of flora and fauna. Overall six percent of world species are found in India. It is one of the twelve mega-biodiversity countries of the world having over 150,000 species of plants and animals. Bamboo and rattan constitute important species occurring widely in the Indian forests.India is the secondest largest genetic resource in the world. These valuable genetic resource need to be tapped for food production.
Namdapha National Park in Arunachal Pradesh of 1985 Km2 lies in the vicinity of tri-junction of India, Myanmar and China. There is no comprehensive data on the fish fauna and their habitat ecology, especially the fish assemblage of different rivers and streams of the remote areas of Arunachal Pradesh. So the present study will form the basic database for future conservational programme.A total of 58 fish species have been recorded in the present study out of which 29 species are in common with the ZSI record of 1985. While assessing the probable reasons for the decline of fish fauna in Namdapha National Park, following major reasons are noted- 1. A major portion of flat land in the Core area of the Tiger reserve have been encroached by people of Lishu community have an adverse effect in the riverine habitat, as these encroachers have cleared and deforested land in patches resulted in alteration of habitat. 2. Anthropogenic activities have lead to siltation of the natural lakes, which act as nursery for the fish fauna, lead to decrease in fish population. 3. Illegal fishing is also a burning problem for the protection staffs to stop this.
Rice is the staple food for 2.5 billion people, growing 9% of the earth's arable land. India and Indonesia are the major countries in Asia producing the 85% of the rice produced in the world. A steady increase in production, choice of appropriate selection method is needed to further raise to genetic yield in rice. The efficiency of selection methods like pedigree, bulk and single seed descent, etc. primarily depend upon genetic variability. Although, hybridization in plant breeding provides the useful source of variability, but hybridization in combination of mutation would be expected to increase supplementary variability for favorable traits. Further, early generation selection would be advantageous because a genotype possessing all the desirable genes occur most often in early segregating generations (F2 and F3). Keeping in view, the efficiency of five different selection methods were assessed in both normal and irradiated early segregating generations of two rice crosses. This book has comprehensive collection of review, sizable number of tables and logical illustrations, and will be much useful to scholars and researchers working in the field of rice breeding.
This book discusses about the utilization of Fermented Rice Waste (FRW) in Japanese quail ration. Commercial Japanese quail farming is one of the emerging enterprises in India. The demand for both egg and meat of quail has gone up in recent years, but the production levels have neither been sufficient nor consistent. Quail meat is delicious and also has some medicinal value for some nervous disorders. The cholesterol content of meat is low. Balanced feeding of quail is important for better production. The cost of feed accounts for 70-75 percent of the total cost of quail farming. Most of the feed supplements in quail ration are conventional feed grains which are costly and prime human food item. Therefore, its substitution with unconventional feed source will spare them for human consumption as well as reduce the cost. Fermented rice waste is an unconventional feed source available in sufficient amount in Jharkhand. It is a waste product obtained during the preparation of liquor made by fermenting the rice. Fermented rice waste (FRW) contains 22 per cent crude protein and 4-5 per cent crude fibre. The estimated energy content of FRW is about 2.15 Mcal\Kg.
Soil salinity is one of the major and increasing problems of the irrigated agriculture of the world, particularly in rice-wheat growing areas. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important cereal crop and source of staple food for many countries, which is mainly threatened by salinity. The objective of the research project was to increase growth and production of wheat under salinity stress. Various measures were used in past to increase productivity of crops under saline conditions by chemical reclaimation, green manuring and farm yard manures. But these procedures are costly and time consuming; whereas, this book provides some new strategies to enhance salinity tolerance in wheat by the exogenous application of phytohormones like abscisic acid, benzyladenine and cycocel. Present attempt was to determine the relative contribution of three different plant hormones reduces in the selectivity of ion uptake, osmoregulant production, chlorophyll and protein production and yield under salt stress. Effect of silicate in combination with ABA has also been evaluated under saline conditions.
Pakistan has the largest contiguous gravity flow canal irrigation system, but is falling short of good-quality water due to increased cropping intensity and increased demands for households and industry over the years. In Pakistan the agriculturally important areas are arid or semi-arid where freshwater supplies are limited to meet crop water requirements especially at critical stages. This shortage is being fulfilled by exploiting groundwater resources which is mostly brackish in nature. We evaluated the growth response of wheat and berseem crops to brackish water during reclamation of dense saline-sodic soils. The cyclic irrigation of CW and TW along with the application of gypsum @ 100% SGR or FM or with auger hole 60 m-2 refilled with gypsum and rice husk (1:1 ratio) remained better in lowering ECe, pHs and SAR and produced maximum grain and straw yields of wheat as well as berseem fodder. Overall, it was concluded that low quality waters could be exploited for irrigation on marginal salt-affected soils.
In Ganga-Brahamaputra plain of India (population ~ 500 million) about 80% people use groundwater for drinking and other domestic purposes. Contamination of groundwater due to naturally occurring arsenic (As) has caused chronic As poisoning leading to cancer and non-cancerous effects in the state West-Bengal, India for last three decades. This book features a detailed groundwater As contamination scenario in West Bengal – the 2nd largest population at risk from As toxicity after Bangladesh. The study categorizes the groundwater As scenario into 3 classes: severely, mildly affected, and As safe zones based on 1,35,555 groundwater sample analysis. Further, it highlights identification of arsenicosis patients based on skin lesions and associated symptoms; temporal/seasonal variability trends; development of analytical method for As speciation; As in raw and cooked rice and how cooking method can influence the final As content in rice that is being consumed. Finally this book recommends remediation approaches to combat the current As crisis. This research work was submitted for the degree of doctor of philosophy(Ph.D) at Jadavpur University,India and the degree was awarded in 2007.
Nutrition plays a vital role in rapid growth of broiler chicken. The feed cost of poultry production usually ranges between 65-75% of the total cost of production. Poultry diet is predominantly composed of cereals (maize, wheat, rice etc) and their byproducts (rice bran, rice polishing etc), vegetable protein (soybean meal, canola meal, rapeseed meal etc) plus animal protein (fish meal, blood meal, feather meal etc).Enzymes have been approved for use in poultry diets because they are natural fermented products and, therefore, will not create detrimental effect on the animal as well as on consumers. The use of enzymes in poultry feeds has predominantly been related to the hydrolysis of fiber or non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) fractions in cereal grains. The application of enzymes provides a lot of creative formulation with great flexibility and more effective use of vegetable protein sources and provides economic improvements in bird''s performance. It also saves costs by permitting the greater use of less expensive raw material in poultry feeds.