Rice is ranked as the world’s number one human food crop and accounts for more than half of the world’s daily calorie intake. It is an economically important food crop that is domesticated after wheat and helps in poverty alleviation. In the present study, 20 advanced lines were evaluated for yield and yield attributing traits and resistance to bacterial blight. For quantitative trait analysis out of 53 traits, 13 agronomic traits, 29 morphological traits and 11 grain quality traits were studied.
The book entitled screening of rice entries against yellow stem borer is a author's Master degree research Work. This book consists of topics on the evaluation of rice entries against yellow stem borer and biochemical parameters for resistant entries. This study was undertaken during 2012 - 2013 in Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru College of Agriculture and Research Institute (TNAU),Karaikal, India. For the screening work totally 196 rice entries including three susceptible check has been collected from Directorate of Rice Research and used for field experiment. The data has been recorded during vegetative stage and flowering stage. Top five resistant entries and one susceptible check TN1 has been used for biochemical analysis. The results showed that the plant biochemicals plays major role in their resistant mechanisms.
As a cereal grain, Rice is the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in Asia and the West Indies. It is the grain with the second-highest worldwide production, after maize and is the most important with regard to human nutrition and caloric intake, providing more than one fifth of the calories consumed worldwide by the human species. Rice provides 27% of dietary energy and supply 20% of dietary protein intake in the developing world. Asian farmers produce about 90% of the total, with two countries, China and India, growing more than half the total crop. Global rice production has been rising strongly since 2002.
The consumption of rice has been on the increase over the years in Nigeria with local demand exceeding supply leading to a demand-supply gap. Although, local production of rice has been on the increase, it has not been able to meet the demand of households in Nigeria leading to the dependence of the nation on rice importation to meet local demand which constitutes loss of foreign exchange earnings. The continuous importation of foreign rice in Nigeria has brought about changes in households consumption preference for foreign and local rice brands. The subject matter of consumption preference for foreign and locally produced rice as well as the factors that influence households consumption preference for foreign rice over locally produced rice have not been properly addressed. This book provides the much needed empirical information on rice consumption preference in Nigeria for the purpose of making well concerted policies to enhance consumer preference for locally produced rice, stimulate increase in local rice production and save the nation from the continuous loss of foreign exchange incurred in rice importation.
Soil salinity is one of the major and increasing problems of the irrigated agriculture of the world, particularly in rice-wheat growing areas. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important cereal crop and source of staple food for many countries, which is mainly threatened by salinity. The objective of the research project was to increase growth and production of wheat under salinity stress. Various measures were used in past to increase productivity of crops under saline conditions by chemical reclaimation, green manuring and farm yard manures. But these procedures are costly and time consuming; whereas, this book provides some new strategies to enhance salinity tolerance in wheat by the exogenous application of phytohormones like abscisic acid, benzyladenine and cycocel. Present attempt was to determine the relative contribution of three different plant hormones reduces in the selectivity of ion uptake, osmoregulant production, chlorophyll and protein production and yield under salt stress. Effect of silicate in combination with ABA has also been evaluated under saline conditions.
This book aims to understand the application of different enzymes present in the wheat flour along with wide range of industrial application of technological important enzymes. Wheat flour contains several technologically important enzymes.Although many of theses enzymes are inactive during storage, when water is added they become active and play a significant role in determining the functional attributes in the wheat flour.Attempt has been made to understand different functionality of important enzymes present in the wheat flour. Since,industrial enzyme usage is still a very rapidly emerging field,efforts has been made to include the industrial application of the enzymes present in the wheat flour in the broadest sense.
Income Tax deserves significant attention in a developing economy as it is one of the major sources of government revenue. Tax system of India has come a long way. Tax policymakers and tax administrators have been continuously adapting tax system to reflect changing economic, social and political circumstances. Moreover, restructuring of tax system has been a major component of fiscal reforms initiated since 1991 in an effort to keep pace with the changing global scenario on the basis of recommendations of Raja J. Chelliah Committee and Kelkar Committee. This book examines the Taxation of Income in India during post liberalisation period and policy perspective in this regard. It has analysed the growth of income tax revenue, performance of Income Tax Department and perception of tax professionals regarding Income Tax System in India during post liberalisation period.This book also highlights various tax reforms carried by the Government and recommends measures for further improvement.
Rice is the staple food for millions of people in the Asia-pacific region; 90% of the world’s rice is grown and consumed in Asia. The indiscriminate use of chemicals in the rice environment thus polluting the fragile system has created an increasing awareness and interest among the rice farmers on organic farming. Weed infestation is regarded as one of the major causes of low crop yields throughout the world and can cause 50-60 % reduction in grain yield under puddle conditions and 91% yield reduction in non-puddled conditions. Organic weed control encourages weed suppression rather than elimination. This is done by promoting soil health through a combination of crop rotation, cover crops, biologically based bio-fertilizers, compost and mulch. Proper management through organic methods offer varied benefits over chemical herbicides, including increased biodiversity, improved soil nutrition and structure, and protection of ground and surface water. The present research work is aimed to confirm this possibility in weed control and evaluate the influence on yield performance in organic rice farming system employing non-chemical weed management practices.
Consequent upon the ever increasing need of food to feed the ever-growing populations sustainably and environment friendly manner, the sustainability of agriculture and natural resources with the help of knowledge revolution is emerging as a focal theme. The sustainable agricultural technology transfer involves complex processes consisting of diverse structures, and relationship of inter-dependent factors and related variables, aimed at enhancing adoption of innovations in the farm level. In the changed scenario, with the vertical expansion of the agricultural innovation, agricultural extension system in India is more of informative extension or knowledge intensive extension embedded with the traditional social system. The paradigm shift of demand driven extension from supply driven extension gives rise to a new institutional, single window extension system of Farm Science Centre with a view to socialize the innovative eco-friendly agricultural technology in a sustainable manner.
This book is based on research carried out in State of west Bengal in India.Integrated Wastelands Development Program (IWDP), which was implemented across many states of India from 1989 to improve the declining trend of Natural Resources was analyzed especially from it's sustainability perspective.The book will also provide an insight into socio-economic and communication characteristics of participating farmers, their extent of participation, constraints faced by them while participating in Natural Resources Management activities under IWDP.Thus the book is the depiction of reality of one of the most important Natural Resource management program of India.
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the most important crop of south east Asia popularly referred to as the rice bowl of the world. India has the largest area under rice in the world it ranks second in production falling far behind China, which has production of about 200 m tons.The reason for very low productivity in Bihar centres round the fact that rice cultivation in Bihar is mostly rain dependent. Both raising nursery and transplanting seedlings are on the mercy of monsoon, which is extremely erratic in onset, distribution, intensity and cessation. Invariably the seedlings overgrow in the nursery awaiting for rains adequate to perform puddling operations. As a result of use of overgrown seedlings, at times, the crop starts flowering soon after flowering reducing the yield tremendously. Some of the times it becomes even difficult to raise seedlings due to very delayed and erratic monsoon.A very large number of herbicides are there which have been observed to have effective control of weeds in direct seeded rice. However, selecting a particular herbicide or its combination with mechanical weed management require thorough probe.
From the research study it has been concluded that tillage has no significant effect on the productivity of wheat grown under limited water supplied condition in Vertisols of western MP. However, Bed planting of wheat (three rows per bed) gave highest wheat yield, water and N use efficiency and better energy balance than that of conventional methods of planting of wheat. Soybean straw Mulch application @ 5tha-1 has been found effective in enhancing wheat yield significantly and water use efficiency by about 21% than non mulched treatments. Thus bed planting of wheat along with application of soybean straw mulch is recommended for growing of wheat under limited water supply conditions (2 irrigation) of Vertisols of Western MP.
Economic Evaluation of Dry land and Irrigated Cropping Pattern in Jammu was conducted in the Jammu district of J&K state of India. Data was collected from the 200 sampled farmers from the four different blocks of the Jammu District with the help of pretesting schedule through personnel interviewing methods. The work was done on the resource use efficiency, cropping pattern, cost and returns in growing major crops (Paddy and wheat in Irrigated conditions and Wheat and Maize in dry land conditions) on the farm under irrigated and dry land situation. Various cost concepts were employed to explain cost and return structure. In order to study the relationship between output and various inputs, Cobb-Douglas production function was used. The instability in cropped area, yield and net returns were studied by calculating the coefficient of variation.
Phenomenon of revolution occurs when people or groups are not satisfied with the existing system of their respective state. So, they want to transform the whole system so that they can perform their vision and philosophy of life. Naxalites are from one of those group who stat their effort to get their rights in 1967 and after passing 44 years they are still fighting the war with India to establish their communism philosophy by adopting the Mao’s strategy of revolution. Throughout their violent struggle, they continuously are posing challenges in the way of rising status of India on several levels like on security, economy and societal level. Indian government, since the birth of this movement, is trying to eradicate it but despite all the measures, Naxalite movement has captured almost 40% of the India and 35% of its population.
The book entitled ‘Probe into ‘Pro’ and ‘B’ factors in Rice Cultivation’ is an illustrated version of an account of environmental stresses acting on a Rice Plants across India. Efforts have been made by authors for the readers to understand the impact of Micro nutrient - Boron on the growth and development of the Salt Tolerant Rice Plant('Pokkali'). The Boron, commonly known as Factor-B, has been an unknown identity among rice farmers. The book also depicts the way how environmental stresses make impacts on Proline (Pro) metabolism in salt tolerant rice plants. Economic estimates regarding the rice cultivation across the nation has also been accounted. The authors have made suggestions in developing and restructuring the arousing problem in the field of paddy cultivation especially ‘Pokkali’ variety. The book contains introductory explanations of several environmental abuses on Rice Plants across the nation. The presentations are uniformly attractive and cogent. Illustrations given are meaningful and relevant. The book can be taken as a well-organized guide for researchers working on Paddy related topics. It will serve all practitioners doing research in the related field.