Rice is the staple food for 2.5 billion people, growing 9% of the earth's arable land. India and Indonesia are the major countries in Asia producing the 85% of the rice produced in the world. A steady increase in production, choice of appropriate selection method is needed to further raise to genetic yield in rice. The efficiency of selection methods like pedigree, bulk and single seed descent, etc. primarily depend upon genetic variability. Although, hybridization in plant breeding provides the useful source of variability, but hybridization in combination of mutation would be expected to increase supplementary variability for favorable traits. Further, early generation selection would be advantageous because a genotype possessing all the desirable genes occur most often in early segregating generations (F2 and F3). Keeping in view, the efficiency of five different selection methods were assessed in both normal and irradiated early segregating generations of two rice crosses. This book has comprehensive collection of review, sizable number of tables and logical illustrations, and will be much useful to scholars and researchers working in the field of rice breeding.
India is one of those countries in the world where various types of climate,sea-Beaches,Hill-stations,forest areas,Archeology,Historical regions & Rural Tourisms are available.One may enjoy here with Natural, Adventurous,Religious, wild Tourism and Food stalls in all the seasons. In India,we find to witness a joint phenomenon of folk,Tribal & western Culture in all types of cultural Tourism.India being a secular nation,there are religious tourist sites for all the people of various religious. Chhattisgarh situated in the Heart of India,is a fascinating centre of Tribal oriented plenitude Rural & Natural Tourism.The folk and Tribal music & Dance are the focal points of Public attraction. Especially the fore stay area of Bastar-Dussehra,Ghotul culture and Rajim Kumbh Mela are full of curiosity.The literature of all these pleasant has been prepared in order to its suitableness for tourism,Where the secondary Data & Information of Government of India & Chhattisgarh have also been included for its preparation.We are thankfull to Hon.Chief Minister Dr.Raman Singh & Tourism Minister Mr.Brijmohan Agrawal,along with my family members and Mr.PramilVerma & Sanjay Singh of Chhattisgah Tourism.
In Ganga-Brahamaputra plain of India (population ~ 500 million) about 80% people use groundwater for drinking and other domestic purposes. Contamination of groundwater due to naturally occurring arsenic (As) has caused chronic As poisoning leading to cancer and non-cancerous effects in the state West-Bengal, India for last three decades. This book features a detailed groundwater As contamination scenario in West Bengal – the 2nd largest population at risk from As toxicity after Bangladesh. The study categorizes the groundwater As scenario into 3 classes: severely, mildly affected, and As safe zones based on 1,35,555 groundwater sample analysis. Further, it highlights identification of arsenicosis patients based on skin lesions and associated symptoms; temporal/seasonal variability trends; development of analytical method for As speciation; As in raw and cooked rice and how cooking method can influence the final As content in rice that is being consumed. Finally this book recommends remediation approaches to combat the current As crisis. This research work was submitted for the degree of doctor of philosophy(Ph.D) at Jadavpur University,India and the degree was awarded in 2007.
“Every man, woman and child has the inalienable right to be free from hunger and malnutrition in order to develop their physical and mental faculties” – 1974 World Food Conference. Food security as a concept originated around the mid-1970s during the discussions of international food problems at a time of global food crisis. The initial focus of food security was primarily on food supply problems of assuring the availability and to some degree the price stability of basic foodstuffs at the international and national level. In India during pre-Independent suffered repeated famines, droughts and food shortages. But during the Green Revolution in the 1960s, the production and yield of food grain rose manifold. This paper looks into the trend of foodgrain production & consumption in India, the linkages between foodgrain production and consumption in India & selected States and the role of PDS (Public Distribution System) in foodgrain consumption in India and States. This paper illuminates some concerns of immediate relevance to policy reform in the context of food security in India through Public Distribution System.
Rice tungro disease (RTD) is a major constraint in production of rice (Oryza sativa L.) not only in India but in all South and Southeast Asia. Host plant resistance is the most effective and economical method for control of this virus disease. Regular research is required in search of useful genes providing resistance against various strains of virus. This has necessitated a detailed study on gene expression analysis of rice genotypes infected with rice tungro virus. One hundred and twenty rice genotypes (120) comprising of fifty one (51) rice entries of International Rice Tungro Nursery (IRTN) lines and sixty six (66) rice entries of N 22 mutants along with two resistant rice cultivar and one susceptible check were screened against RTD using viruliferous GLH vector under glasshouse conditions. Six rice cultivars T(N)1 and Tapaswini (susceptible), IR 20 and IR 67406-6-3-2-3 (moderately resistant), TKM-6 and Vikramarya (resistant) were tested against RTD on yield parameters. Further, Gene expression studies were carried out with selected genes (PBZ1, LRR, CAT and RF2a) in susceptible rice cv. T(N)1 and resistant rice cv. Nidhi by artificial inoculation of RTV using viruliferous GLH.
The present investigations on exploration and eco-physiological studies of landraces revealed that the remote locations in the mountains for from the impact of modernization still harbor several landraces to meet local demands. As in the rice, a number of landraces are under cultivation in the mountain even today whereas these were absent in the agriculture of plains; these are being maintained by the hill farmers to meet their specific needs and are part and parcel of their traditional crop management system. If serious view of the existing situation is not taken into account, the Himalaya will become a food-importing region and loose in terms of ecological and economical security. A national system needs to be put in place to ensure effective conservation, adequate duplication and proper documentation so that the substantial gene pool can be effectively utilized. In the long run, it would be realized that conservation could only be sustainable if our national policy, supporting facilities and financial resources are sustainable.
The agriculture arena in the tropics had a sea change with the introduction of green revolution technologies. Traditional crop varieties and farmer practices were replaced with high yielding and high input technologies. The rice-prawn integrated farming system prevalent in the tidal wetlands of tropics could withstand the windfall, as the traditional tall land races of rice and cultural practices alone were found suited to this unique farming system. The pokkali lands known after the renowned salt tolerant land race of rice: pokkali, are acclaimed for the unique way of reclamation and management of soil salinity and the rice-prawn farming system designed to suit to the seasonal changes in the field water quality. The present publication gives an account of the organic practices of reclamation of acid saline soils, varietal preference, salt tolerance mechanisms of the pokkali land races and the unique way of integrating rice, fish and prawn with the change in the climate and hydrographic parameters. This publication is useful to environmentalists, organic agricultural practitioners, students, extension workers and universities dealing with agriculture and allied areas.
This empirical study examined the impact of food price hike on household food security at different income levels of the people in Bangladesh. The study extensively used national household income, expenditure, and food consumption survey data of Bangladesh together with the weekly time series data on price of rice and wheat. Households having higher share of income on food consumption were found to be the worst affected by the price rise. To understand how international price rise is transmitted into domestic foodgrain market in Bangladesh, cointegration analysis and Error Correction Model were used. The result confirms the existence of long-term equilibrium relationship between international and domestic market price of rice while wheat price did not. Error Correction Model was used to see the short term dynamics as well as long term information of rice price. Although impact of rising rice price in the international market has not been realised immediately in the domestic market due to different price stabilizing programmes and policies of the government of Bangladesh, rising price of rice in international market has long term impact on Bangladesh market.
Diversification and intensification of cropping systems has been area of interest for many research students throughout the world.Rice based cropping systems are the most prevalent and many experiments are done with these both technically and by patterns in farming. This is a book on one such case study carried out on intensification and diversification of rice based cropping system in Kymore plateau and Satpura hill zones in central India.Traditionally the region practices rice-wheat or rice-chickpea cropping systems which have affected soil fertility, productivity etc in an adverse manner. This book covers a system where leguminous crops,oilseed crops, spices etc are included to diversify the cropping system. Also it studies intensification by taking more than two crops annually. This book should be a great read for research students and scholars working on cropping systems.
In India PDS is not the only answer for improving food security of the poor because it can help only those who have purchasing power. Other anti- poverty programs have to be strengthened as part of the economic reforms for creating income generation among the poor and vulnerable sections of the people. So Public Distribution System will become a fruitful food security program if it is merged with the employment generating programs and nutrition based programs. From the above study I see that National Rural Employment Guarantee scheme (NREGS) has the great potential in enhancing food security and livelihood security of the rural poor. From this study I have seen that Public Distribution System is socially viable but it is not economically viable. Actual poor people will be the ultimate looser if this scheme is abolished completely. As it is a socially viable approach, we should not abolish it completely. Rather we have to remove the loopholes inherent in it. We can get better result if PDS is merged with employment schemes like NREGS. As NREGS is self targeting, the non poor people will be automatically opt out if it is merged with Public Distribution System.
This study developed a dynamic and non-linear bioeconomic model, incorporating both economic and biophysical factors to assess the impact of technological and policy interventions on social well-being of the rural poor and condition of natural resource base in a micro-watershed of the semi-arid region of India. The results clearly indicate that care should be taken while framing policies for watershed development to avoid implementation of conflicting polices. Preferably, those technologies and policies that have multiple impacts in terms of meeting both welfare of the farmers and sustaining natural resource objectives must be prioritized. This study could be useful to policy makers and other development professionals seeking to improve the welfare of farmers and natural resource base in SAT rainfed region in India and other developing countries.
Rice is the staple food for millions of people in the Asia-pacific region; 90% of the world’s rice is grown and consumed in Asia. The indiscriminate use of chemicals in the rice environment thus polluting the fragile system has created an increasing awareness and interest among the rice farmers on organic farming. Weed infestation is regarded as one of the major causes of low crop yields throughout the world and can cause 50-60 % reduction in grain yield under puddle conditions and 91% yield reduction in non-puddled conditions. Organic weed control encourages weed suppression rather than elimination. This is done by promoting soil health through a combination of crop rotation, cover crops, biologically based bio-fertilizers, compost and mulch. Proper management through organic methods offer varied benefits over chemical herbicides, including increased biodiversity, improved soil nutrition and structure, and protection of ground and surface water. The present research work is aimed to confirm this possibility in weed control and evaluate the influence on yield performance in organic rice farming system employing non-chemical weed management practices.
Rice is a major food crop in Ghana with an average yearly import bill of $100 million. Most of the local production comes from irrigation schemes and valley bottom areas. However, the expectation of high rice production from these two systems has been difficult to realize. This research reported in this book investigated the performance of the two types of rice production system. The work was aimed at assessing the performance of the two types of rice schemes with the view to formulating a framework for determining the appropriate mode of development for rice production in Ghana. Due to the lack of data on water delivery, an alternative methodology for assessing the water delivery performance was employed. This made use of the concept of fuzzy sets to process the responses of the farmers regarding their perception of the water delivery system. The study also provided an opportunity to investigate the impacts of management transfer. This work should be very useful to managers of irrigation schemes and also policy and decision makers in the agricultural sector who are interested in advancing irrigation. It also adds to the ongoing debate about irrigation management transfer.