India is now an 'emerging' country, based on its achievements in Science & Technology, powered by a young demographic dividend. The book describes India's advances in Science and Technology from ancient times to modern India after its independence in 1947. India's higher education system is now expanding and the youth of India has shown promise of becoming a global citizen capable of providing workforce for entire world. The collection of essays are based on the actual involvement of the author in the national development scene during the last four decades. The book is divided into two parts. The first part traces the history of India's science from the ancient past to today's political commitment to the growth of Science and Technology in the country. The second part deals with the modern developments and education reforms that are being introduced in India to meet the growing need of young talent that will power the emerging India. In each of the two parts the author has also expressed the concerns that need to be addressed to achieve the aspirations of the nation. Intelligent readers interested in understanding modern India would find the book stimulating and informative.
The north of Iran is one of the main regions for agricultural production but the occurred precipitation is insufficient to meet wheat requirement. Consequently, supplemental irrigation is necessary for obtaining potential yield of wheat in rainfed areas. In addition, nitrogen fertilization can improve water use efficiency in such areas. Therefore, supplemental irrigation and nitrogen fertilization effects on production of winter wheat under rainfed climate condition were investigated in this book. Soil and water researchers, engineers and students can use findings of this study.
Rice (Oryza sativa L.), a staple food of more than half of the world population, is grown in a wide range of environments. India has the largest area under rice among the rice growing countries of the world, but ranks second in total production after China. Low yields of rice have been attributed to number of factors. Among them loss caused by insect pests, pathogens, nematodes and mites is important. Of these pests, mites being microscopic are least studied and understood by researchers as well as by rice growers. Among mites, Steneotarsonemus spinki Smiley which belongs to family Tarsonemidae infests flag leaf sheath causing brown discolouration. Infestation of this mite on panicle causes chaffy grains and also discolouration of filled or ill-filled grains resulting in significant reduction in yield of rice crop. Hence the investigations were carried out to study its ecology and management as well.
Nowadays, with the high oil price and the supply amount of oil will become less and less, the LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) could be act as the other options to fulfill the energy demand in the world. With the rapid development of science technology and the national economy, the increase of the domestic natural gas production and the establishment of more gas pipelines; China and India will become a big player for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) in the world. The natural gas will become the major fuel in the town gas market.
Recent development of technological change in various fields of interest has inspired human life. Agriculture as a prime sector in human life, to provide food grains, vegetables, fruits, livestock and raw material for large number of industrial commodities, has been focused by scientists to introduce technological inventions and innovations as well. This research focused the agriculture sector in almost all districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Land Productivity of four major crops: wheat, rice, cotton and sugarcane was evaluated to rank these districts on the basis of mechanized agriculture. Principal component analysis helped to construct technological components reflecting the contribution of various agricultural inputs. Higher land productivity in both wheat and cotton outputs proved significantly influenced through technological inputs.
leaf rust is a wheat disease and the wheat varieties which having leaf rust genes are resistant to it. Lr26 is also a leaf rust resistant gene found in various wheat varieties, having size of 1000 bps. The wheat varieties studied in this research was collected from various locations of Pakistan and observed that those varieties among the collected having Lr26 gene were not only resistant to the disease but also high in yield production and good in other morphological characters.
This book explores lives and livelihood of Devdasis in Maharashtra, India. Though Devdasi has been termed as the Servant of the God and having no legal husband as such, on the other hand Devdasi exploited on a massive level. Hindu system has given secondary status and compared them with the animals. Devdasis in current times belong to Dalit community, and treated inhumanly by rest of the society because of marginalized caste and their profession. This book would be useful for social sciences students and everyone who wanted to deepen their knowledge about Indian society.
Wheat is a very good substitute of rice and can play a vital role from the viewpoint of food self-sufficiency. From the study wheat production was found to be profitable to the farmers. On the other hand, efficiency analysis implied that there is ample scope to increase the farmers’ income and wheat yield by adopting the technologies adopted by the frontier farmers and cost can be considerably reduced without sacrificing the existing level of output. Wheat has a great potential in Bangladesh. For sustaining its production, some important measures include introduction of hybrid seed and improved production technology, development of wheat based cropping pattern and industry, providing training, following crop rotation, protecting environmental degradation and reasonable harvest price, market promotion, supplying agricultural credit, diversified uses, etc should be taken. The study also identified some socioeconomic and biophysical problems/constraints faced by the farmers, which hindered the higher production and yield of wheat, and also suggested some recommendations to improve the present production situation so that per hectare yield of wheat would possibly be increased.
Evolution of Dalit Movement in South India, is a first kind of work, covering Dalit Movement in south India. This book will answer the many questions and misconceptions about the caste system in India in general and to eradicate it the efforts put in by social reformers and stalwarts with their the organizations in particular. It is a unique work,where reader will find the consolidated history of Dalit Movement of all four southern states i.e. Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu and Kerala.It a excellent source material for students and researchers of Political Science, History, Sociology,Human Rights and also for general public who have quest for knowledge.
Rice is the most important food crop in developing countries. In fact, it is the basic food for nearly half of the world’s population. To meet the food need of ever-growing world population, total rice production will have to be increased by 50% by 2025. Indica rice which accounts for 80% of the total rice production, has proven recalcitrant to in vitro culture and plant regeneration. Although recovery of transgenic rice plants and their offspring has been reported in a few indica rice varieties but gene transfer to most of high-yielding indica rice varieties is not yet routine and recovery of fertile transgenic plants has been rather inefficient. A number of factors such as genotype, media components including growth regulators, gelling agent, carbon source and amino acids, nature of explant and physical environment have been shown to be critical for plant regeneration in rice. The present study is aimed at estimating the genotypic variability for plant regeneration in indica rice varieties and to identify commercially important indica rice varieties, for maximum callus induction and plant regeneration for routine use in developing rice transgenesis and in related work.
The book is out come of the research work carried during Doctorate thesis at Gobind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, India. Sulphur (S), the fourth major plant nutrient, helps in protein production and chlorophyll formation. The yield and quality of crops is declining over time despite adequate supply of major nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium) that might be due to deficiency of other nutrients including sulphur. Therefore, for assessment of direct and residual effect of S on wheat-rice and wheat-soybean cropping sequences, field experiments were conducted on two farmer's fields deficient in S in Tarai soils of Mollisols. The different parameters like crop yield, agronomic efficiency, apparent sulphur recovery and percent response, forms (total S, organic S, potassium di-hydrogen phosphate extractable S, sulphate S and non-sulphate S) and depth wise distribution of sulphur in soil and sulphur balance were assessed. Besides, how the sulphur affects the carbon, nitrogen and sulphur ratio (C: N: S) and the soil properties affecting the different forms of sulphur in soils of low, medium and high in sulphur content were also studied.
Silk is a unique natural fibre secreted by the caterpillar of silk insect. The natural silk is broadly of two types: silk of plant origin and silk of animal origin. Silk of animal origin is of two groups, mulberry and non-mulberry. Tasar is a non-mulberry type of natural silk. India is the second largest producer of silk in the world, producing all the four varieties of commercial silk, viz. mulberry, eri, muga and tasar. Further, Orissa ranks third in India in tasar silk production. Tasar culture is an agrobased industry remarkable for its low investment and high returns. The climatic condition, the availability of natural and developed food plants offer India a unique opportunity to boost her silk production and thereby increase the economic status of the tribal population. There are about 43 ecoraces of tasar distributed both in deciduous and semideciduous forests of these states. Within Orissa, it is predominantly cultivated in Mayurbhanj, Sundargarh, Keonjhar, Sarnbalpur, Kalahandi, Koraput and Kandhamal districts. Among them, Mayurbhanj generates the highest production of cocoons. The particular study and observation have been undertaken in Mayurbhanj district of Orissa.
Plants are masters of volatile production and release not just from flower and fruits, but also from vegetative tissues. A wide variety of essential oils and their constituents possess varying degree of pest controlling properties in different combinations. The rice- moth, Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton)(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)- an important pest of stored commodities is known for its notoriety as an important stored products pest of India and other tropical and subtropical regions of the world infesting different kind of cereals besides gram, milled products, cocoa, beans, peanuts, cotton seed, linseed,raisins,currants,chocolates, army biscuits and nutmeg. Non host plant aroma not only reduces the impact of pesticides on health and environment but also interfere in the population buildup of rice moth- which deteriorates the grain quality specially in warehouses, store-houses and house holds.
Filling a gap on the market, this handbook and ready reference is unique in its discussion of the usefulness of various heterocyclic systems in the synthesis of natural products. Clearly structured for easy access to the information, each chapter is devoted to a certain class of heterocycle, providing a tabular presentation of the natural products to be covered containing the particular heterocyclic ring system along with their biological profile, occurrence and most important physical properties, backed by the appropriate references. In addition, the application of the heterocyclic system to the synthesis of natural products ic covered in detail. Of great interest to organic, natural products, medicinal and biochemists, as well as those working in the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industry.