Rice is a major food crop in Ghana with an average yearly import bill of $100 million. Most of the local production comes from irrigation schemes and valley bottom areas. However, the expectation of high rice production from these two systems has been difficult to realize. This research reported in this book investigated the performance of the two types of rice production system. The work was aimed at assessing the performance of the two types of rice schemes with the view to formulating a framework for determining the appropriate mode of development for rice production in Ghana. Due to the lack of data on water delivery, an alternative methodology for assessing the water delivery performance was employed. This made use of the concept of fuzzy sets to process the responses of the farmers regarding their perception of the water delivery system. The study also provided an opportunity to investigate the impacts of management transfer. This work should be very useful to managers of irrigation schemes and also policy and decision makers in the agricultural sector who are interested in advancing irrigation. It also adds to the ongoing debate about irrigation management transfer.
While school based management reforms are turning around the ailing the education sectors of many nations,India is yet to fully internalize such developments. Many reports on Indian school education stressed for management oriented reforms for better quality and accountability.This book, therefore, provides,hitherto unexplored,insights into the system & status of school management in India, in terms of the five universal functions of management with school based management perspective. The second chapter highlights the aspects of the planning framework,community participation, academic, infrastructure & financial planning aspects and the third part concentrates on the organizational issues viz.the policies,norms,structures,decentralization,delegation & autonomy. Next chapter analyzes the teacher shortage, recruitment,training,& other staffing practices while the fifth part deals with directive function of the school head in terms of leadership,motivation & school culture.The sixth chapter explores the controlling mechanism through teacher appraisal system, student evaluation & accountability and the last part provides conclusions and issue-based suggestions for policy makers.
People are poor since they have low skill. They are low skilled since they are poor. To break this vicious cycle, it necessary to empower people so that they can gain access to the capital market. The group lending is an important idea that helps to break the shackle. Generally such group formation are voluntary. In India, however, there is an active public support system to enhance, monitor and further this system. In our study, we try to understand the efficacy of the public system in fostering this job. Most of the standard studies in this field are oriented towards the individuals who form group. In our case, the focus is different. We try to see how far the public authorities are able to fulfill their job. Using data from a poor district in India, we study growth and sustainability of Self Help Groups . We find that the public system is not very effective in provision of the necessary impetus towards the group formation. The links are weak and often non-existent. A radical shift in the standard practice is highly required.
Dr. Ram Singh is currently Associate Professor, School of Social Sciences, College of Post Graduate Studies, Central Agricultural University, Barapani, Meghalaya, India. He has a wide research experience and worked in different national and international institute of repute viz, NDRI, Karnal, Haryana, India, CSSRI, Karnal, Haryana, India, CCS HAU, Hisar, Haryana, India and International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT).He is guiding and teaching post graduate students.His main fields of interest are Agricultural Economics, Natural Resource Economics and Agricultural Marketing. He has authored 29 research papers, 4 popular articles, 12 abstract papers which have been published in various national and international journals and 1 book chapter, 3 project report and 1 research bulletin.He has been participated and presented many research papers and posters in various national and international seminars, workshops, symposium and conferences. He visited Philippines, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Nepal and conducted trainings for various research projects. Presently he is Member Executive Committee in Indian Society of Agricultural Marketing, Nagpur
Vinegar is a sour-tasting kitchen staple, practically sour wine. Some of the latest vinegar types include white distilled vinegar, cider vinegar, wine vinegar, rice vinegar and malt vinegar.Rice is one of the oldest food crops of the world and staple diet for over half the population. It is cultivated in about 350-360 million acres with annual global production at 475 million metric tonnes and a fraction goes to vinegar fermentation. India is second largest producer of rice in the world having produced about 143.9 million tonnes of rice in 2010 Ethanol concentration selected for acetic acid production was 8%.the present study was planned with the objectives of Isolation and screening of yeast and acetic acid bacterial isolates for production of vinegar and optimization of saccharfication and fermentation conditions for production of vinegar from basmati and plain rice.The fermentation studies showed that 7.60% (w/v) total acid and 6.51% (w/v) volatile acids was produced from rice var. PUSA 1121 with fermentation efficiency of 78.2%, while rice var. PR 116 produced 5.99% (w/v) total acids and 5.08% (w/v) volatile acids with fermentation efficiency of 76.59%.
A small piece of study can not provide all information for proper understanding of Integrated Pest Management club for fostering farmers’ empowerment in rice production. Therefore, the following suggestions were put forward for further research: 1. The present study was conducted in six upazilas under Rajshahi, Pabna and Natore district. It is recommended that similar research should be replicated in other areas of Bangladesh. 2. This study investigated the extent of empowerment in rice production by IPM club members. Further study should be conducted to investigate the empowerment of vegetables and fruit cultivation by IPM club members. 3. A comprehensive research may be undertaken involving diversified stakeholders such as farmers, key informants, administrators, politicians, religious leaders, experts etc. to formulate national policies and strategies for strengthening IPM activities throughout the country
The chenchus a Primitive Tribal Group , a organically in inhabiting the Nallamalla Forest of Andhra Pradesh in southern part of India. The life of the Chenchus are food-gatherers and habituated in different ecological settings to explore the subsistence, Chenchu way of life has undergone several changes in accordance with the availability and utilization of resources that is not uniform across Region. To understand and make an effort to his best to investigate all the possibilities to record the past and present of the Chenchu’s. occupational mobility and pattern,how the economic system of the chenchus in each environmental zone like: Interior, Fringe and Plain areas interferes with the natural and physical environment setting of Nallamalai Forests.The efficiency of their ethno ecological knowledge in presearve and up keeping their ecosystem knowledge in preserving The factors which disturb the subsistence pattern of living in different ecological settings have been observed and discussed to answer several queries in contemporary emerging techno-economic functions. The book is unique in Anthropological domain and anticipated as reference to the future Anthropologists
Oxidative browning of plant foods such as vegetables and wheat is a major problem for the food industry as it can lead to significant quality and economic losses. Food color in whole-wheat based products such as pasta ravioli is a major factor in consumer acceptability, where undesirable color changes, such as oxidative browning, result in product rejection by consumers and cause significant profit losses for the food processors. It is of economic importance to develop a method to measure the quality of fresh pasta color and the effectiveness of anti-browning agents, such as cultured dextrose and ascorbic acid, in slowing oxidative browning. This study will clearly help pasta food manufacturers and product managers identify gaps within their quality control system, adopt a new method of measuring color changes within each of their products prior to mass production, select the most effective antioxidant or anti-browning agents for various pasta products, and ultimately, reduce the overall cost associated with product failure and rejection by consumers.
Bacterial blight is very destructive in different parts of the world. In the coming days the disease may become a matter of headache to the farmers of Eastern India including West Bengal. It is, in this backdrop, the present investigation was undertaken with the following objectives: 1) Survey and Collection of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae isolates from different locations. 2) Screening of near isogenic lines (NILs) for studying different genes for bacterial blight resistance against a number of isolates. 3) Pathotype characterization and Screening of differential lines using X oryzae pv. oryzae isolates. 4) Screening of rice germplasm in search of new resistant source(s). 5) Biochemical response of NILs on reaction with the virulent pathotype for studying rice-Xoo interaction. 6) Genetics of disease resistance in relation to isozyme analysis.The pathogen population, obtained from West Bengal has the ability to overcome the resistance afforded by single major genes, for bacterial blight, such as Xa3, Xa7, xa8, Xa10 and Xa14. Therefore, the deployment of a pyramid of R genes, is needed as one of the strategies for management.
Rice (Oryza sativa L.), a staple food of more than half of the world population, is grown in a wide range of environments. India has the largest area under rice among the rice growing countries of the world, but ranks second in total production after China. Low yields of rice have been attributed to number of factors. Among them loss caused by insect pests, pathogens, nematodes and mites is important. Of these pests, mites being microscopic are least studied and understood by researchers as well as by rice growers. Among mites, Steneotarsonemus spinki Smiley which belongs to family Tarsonemidae infests flag leaf sheath causing brown discolouration. Infestation of this mite on panicle causes chaffy grains and also discolouration of filled or ill-filled grains resulting in significant reduction in yield of rice crop. Hence the investigations were carried out to study its ecology and management as well.
The historical productivity data at block level contained aggregated from various land use forms viz., upland, lowland and medium land situations. As such, it has been difficult to assess the exact influence of climatic parameters alone on productivity of the entire block, as the situations under lowland may be quite different compared to upland and medium land situations. Similar work at micro (block) level for other rainfed production systems can be useful in planning management strategies for enhancing productivity. The model underestimated the yield during 1989 for Derabasi and Rajanagar stations in Orissa and overestimated for other station for all the years of data recorded under high yield and low yield scenarios. There is a good agreement between the simulated and observed values for all the years of study in all the states selected for the study. The low yield in different state is attributed to the fairly high temperature during the reproductive stages. This indicated that the model output was significant for these stations also. Therefore, the model is able to predict the values of dry matter and yield for various blocks of Orissa state with good accuracy.
In India, traditional rice-wheat systems are giving self sufficiency in food grains, but partially at the expense of ground water. Cultivation of alternative low water requiring crops (like oilseeds and pulses) in sequence or as intercrop is need of hour. Indian mustard is one of the important oilseed crops grown in India owing to its hardy nature and capacity to thrive well under poor condition of fertility and moisture. It is a good source of oil to many of the consumers worldwide. Oil of Indian mustard has not only the quantitative advantage but it is of better quality also. This book highlights the different physiological and agronomical aspects of Indian mustard under moisture stress condition. Another emphasis was given to assess the nutrient use efficiency which is important at this stage to reduce the indiscriminate application of fertilizer thereby ensuring the sustainability. Judging the oil quality has also been given importance in order to ensure the nutritional security.