Northeast India is one of the most important hotspot of biological diversity. Owing to varied topography, dense forests and humid climate, the state of Assam has harboars a rich butterflies fauna and including many species which are confined to this region only. However, in recent years, the forest of Assam and Northeast India are rapidly being logged owing to increasing pressure of illegal tree fellers, shifting agriculture, construction of rail roads & highways, human settlements, construction of dams and thus most of the natural biota are potentially been lost. Those habitat alterations also lead to the elimination of most of the native butterflies from the region. Amongst butterflies, the Nymphalid supports both wide and narrow range species. The narrow range species are restricted to specific bio-geographical regions, whereas, others are widely distributed. These groups are used as a potential subject for analytical studies by the ecologists across the globe concerning recent scenarios of anthropogenic disturbances. Thus the present study had been carried out in Assam as a modeled study to highlight the effect of forest degradation on butterflies for future conservation.
At certain places in northern and western regions of Gujarat (India), the ground water contains excess amount of salt and is not fit for irrigation. Evidently, soil salinity is one of the major ecological problems of Gujarat state. The aim of the present investigation was therefore to assess the responses of wheat (Triticum aestivem, L.) to soil salinization with respect to seedling emergence, plant growth and physiological attributes.
There has been a remarkable shift in the cropping patterns in Haryana, India since the Green Revolution. In Haryana 1.23 million hectares area is reported under rice cultivation with total production of 3.99 million tonnes and productivity of 3.26 t/ha during 2013-14 and around 60 per cent area is covered under basmati group of rice in the province. For manipulation of crop environment to best advantage, an understanding of physiological, phenological and agrometeorological bases of yield formation by analysing growth and yield in relation to planting methods can be of great help in higher and stable yields of rice. This book is divided into six chapters highlighting the rationale of the study along with objectives; compilation of relevant literature indicating the present status of the problem; detailed account of research methodology used; findings of the study along with tables, graphs and illustrations; discussion about the results and their interpretation in the light of available literature and summary and conclusion of the research work. In the last, bibliography has been given. This book will especially prove a useful reference tool.
In the case of rice, which is a highly fragile wetland ecosystem, the impacts of high external input farming are prominent and far-reaching. Considering the threats of intensive farming in rice, there is an urgent need to study in detail, the environmental concerns and awareness of the stakeholders of rice farming. This is because; it is their concern that would be reflected upon the rice ecosystem in Toto. The study entitled ‘Environmental concerns in rice farming‘ becomes relevant in view of the fact that the various dimensions of environmental concerns of the stakeholders, could become the starting point of greater policy level interventions for sustainable farming and natural resource management. The study focuses on the environmental concerns and awareness. The book has meticulously gone through the B-C ratio of organic, conventional and cow based minimum budget rice farming and the social benefit cost ratio of eco friendly rice farming based on farmers’ perception supported by relevant studies. Some of the important policy prescriptions in the light of the study, which the government can undertake to make sustainable agriculture a reality, are also evidently mentioned.
Large white cabbage butterfly, Pieris brassicae (L.) is one of the most destructive pests in hilly regions of the India and several parts of the World and frequently causes heavy losses in marketable yield. Many control tactics have been followed to reduce the damage by this pest; although chemical control unfortunately till now a dominant option to fight against them. Besides harmful to the health, certain pesticides can cause severe damage to on-farm biodiversity as well. Therefore, biological control is now, emerging as an important component of pest management. The Meghalaya is a part of north eastern Himalayas (India) and one of the components of mega-biodiversity hot spot and exceptionally rich in terms of flora and fauna. In this book, attempts have been made to provide the information about different natural enemies of crop pests and their natural dynamics in cruciferous ecosystems, where we have tremendous scope to utilise them in biological control programmes against the target pests. Additionally, effects of different host plants on biology and behaviour of P.brassicae and its natural enemies have also been described.
The Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an economically important crop that is the staple food for more than one-half of the world's population. Rice contains a large amount of starch, some protein, fat, minerals and vitamins. It provides more calories per hectare than any other cereal crop. Brown rice contains 7.5 per cent protein, 1.9 per cent fat, 1.2 per cent ash, 77.4 per cent carbohydrates and 0.9 per cent fibre. In addition, it also contains 32 mg calcium, 22 mg phosphorus, 1.6 mg Iron, 9.0 mg sodium, 0.214 mg potassium, 0.34 mg thiamine, 0.05 mg riboflavin and 4.7 mg niacin per hundred gram of brown rice. Hybrid rice research in china, India and elsewhere during the past few years have established the superiority of hybrids over popular traditional varieties in respect of growth, grain yield and tolerance to stresses. Hybrid varieties yield 15 to 20 per cent higher than the best semi dwarf cultivars. Hybrid rice seed production techniques have been standardized in china, but in India the technology of hybrid seed production has yet not been perfect to suit its ecologies.
Manipur state lies in the North Eastern corner of India bordering Myanmar.The physiography, ethnicity, , food habit and cultural identities of the local people closely links with the rest of South East Asia.Rice is the staple food crop of the region .Over the years introduction of new agricultural technologies ,changes in farming techniques and introduction of new varieties of crops have been adopted to boost up the yield outputs.In addition to the changes in the agricultural practices of the farmers, the consequence of global warming affecting local agriculture,has been very obvious. Eventually, pests and diseases that were once unknown or minor have been encountered and become major threats. Stem rot of rice is one such disease which has from nil ,made its presence at an alarming concern in the last decade. The presentation given here is the findings on the status of the disease in the wet land of the Manipur valley. Acknowledgement: Prof. N.Iboton Singh, Dean, and Asso. Prof. Dr. R.K.Tombisana Devi, College of Agriculture, Central Agricultural University, Iroisemba, Imphal, Manipur Dr.G.K.N.Chhetri, Asso. Prof. Life Science Dept. Manipur University, Canchipur, Imphal, Manipur.
Rice is ranked as the world’s number one human food crop and accounts for more than half of the world’s daily calorie intake. It is an economically important food crop that is domesticated after wheat and helps in poverty alleviation. In the present study, 20 advanced lines were evaluated for yield and yield attributing traits and resistance to bacterial blight. For quantitative trait analysis out of 53 traits, 13 agronomic traits, 29 morphological traits and 11 grain quality traits were studied.
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the world’s most important food crops. It is widely grown throughout the world ranking fourth in food production after wheat, maize and rice. Over a billion people consume potato as a staple food in Europe and a principal vegetable in developing countries. India is a major producer of potato along with China, Russia, Ukraine and Poland. Peru Bolivian region in the Andes (South America) is reported to be the centre of its origin. Potatoes were introduced to Europe during the second half of the sixteenth century by Spanish seamen. Potatoes were introduced to India in the seventeenth century by Portuguese and to Africa in the late eighteenth century by Christian missionaries. Potato belongs to the family Solanaceae, genus solanum and species tuberosum. The genus Solanum comprises of 2000 species. About 170 species produce under ground stem tubers and cultivated species differing in chromosome numbers from 24 (diploid), 36 (triploid), 48 (tetraploid) to 60 (pentaploid). The tetraploid Solanum tuberosum has an outstanding agricultural importance and has a worldwide distribution in the form of sub-species tuberosum.
Co-operative banks are an integral part of the Indian financial system. They comprise urban co-operative banks and rural co-operative credit institutions. Co-operative banks in India are more than 100 years old. UCBs also referred to as primary co-operative banks, play an important role in meeting the growing credit needs of urban and semi-urban areas of the country. UCBs mobilize savings from the middle and lower income groups and purvey credit to small borrowers, including weaker sections of the society. Scheduled UCBs are under closer regulatory and supervisory framework of the RBI. Though much smaller as compared to scheduled commercial banks, co-operative banks constitute an important segment of the Indian banking system. They have traditionally played an important role in creating banking habits among the lower and middle-income groups in urban areas and also in strengthening the rural credit delivery system. This book – focusing on management of UCBs – in India, including recent reforms. Besides, it includes a case study of financial efficiency and the working of UCBs in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh of Chittoor District.
The production and productivity of wheat in Nepal is far from satisfactory and is below than the world (2.78 t ha-1) and the neighboring countries like China (4.59 t ha-1) and India (2.69 t ha-1) (FAO, 2008). Among the various factors affecting wheat productivity, row spacing and direction of sowing as well as variety play significant role. The present investigation was carried out to identify and disseminate the knowhow on non – monetary input regarding production of wheat with appropriate row spacing and direction benefiting the poor farmers with increased productivity.The effect of variety and row direction of sowing on grain yield was found significant. Further, all interaction effects on grain yield were also significant. The variety BL 2800 (3.53 t ha-1) produced significantly higher yield than Gautam (3.11 t ha-1). Variation in row spacings did not affect grain yield significantly, but in its interaction effect with variety, the yield (3.75 t ha -1) of BL 2800 recorded at 25 cm was significantly higher than 15 cm (3.36 t ha -1); while in case of Gautam (2.86 t ha -1), it was lower than 20 cm (3.29 t ha -1).