India is a global player in coal mining, in order tosustain, it requires developing a Green miningtechnology. All mining operations in India involve continuous use of explosives, thereby generatinghigh noise level, vibration and shock and very highlevel of dust pollution. Today all-overs world minesare facing one of the major problems of dustpollutions which not only affects the health of theminers but also makes the condition quite explosivewhen the mine is degree-II or Degree-III in gassiness,The same concern has also been shown by The President of India in his Inaugural Address at the “19th World Mining Congress & Expo 2003, in New Delhi, India”. According to the Pocket Book of Labour Statistics 2006, Ministry of Labour, Government of India it has been found that number of industrial injuries in coal mines are much more than the total injuries of other mines. It is also observed that the fatalities rate is much higher in underground mines than that of open cast mines. Out of the many factors one of the major causes of the accident is the fire. This book deals with the feasibility study and development of waterjet cutting technology for Indian coal mines.
Indian banking system has well developed organization in the country. Entrepreneurs and creative thinker were established the most of the banks in India. In the pre –independence era, they provided financial support to the farmers, business community, traders and industrialists in India. At present, largest commercial bank in the country is State Bank of India. . Banking sector in India has seen lots of positive developments in the last decade. The policy makers in India have made lot of efforts to improve the regulation in the banking sector. The banking sector evaluates positive results in growth, profitability, non- performing assets, credit risk and funds management. In this scenario, some of the banks have recognized innovation and growth aspects. Banking industry in India has to strengthen them to support to the Indian economy.
The book caters to educators and students of economics in broad and to energy economics in specific. Those interested in understanding the role of energy chain must read this work for assessing the future of natural gas in developing nations like India. Natural gas being relatively clean form of energy never got its due in the developing economies energy literature. The fuel plays a vital role in this transitional era from coal-oil to green energy.
An agro-climatic study was conducted to assess the vulnerability of winter rice (boro) production in Bangladesh to potential climate change. Effect of climate change on yield of two varieties of boro rice has been assessed using the DSSAT (v4) modeling system. The yield of BR3 and BR14 boro varieties for the years 2008, 2030, 2050 and 2070 have been simulated for 12 locations of Bangladesh, which were selected from among the major rice growing areas in different regions of Bangladesh. Available data on soil and hydrologic characteristics of these locations, and typical crop management practice for boro rice were used in the simulations. The weather data required for the model (daily maximum and minimum temperatures, daily solar radiation and daily precipitation) were generated for the selected years and for the selected locations using the regional climate model PRECIS. The model predicted significant reduction in yield of both varieties of boro rice due to climate change; yield reductions of over 20% and 50% have been predicted for both rice varieties for the years 2050 and 2070, respectively.
The poor quality groundwater may prove a valuable natural resource in arid and semi-arid regions, if used with suitable technologies. This book provides an ample technique and up-to-date references about the response of wheat to organic and inorganic soil amendments under irrigation with high residual sodium carbonate water. This book will be useful to the students and researchers of crop production and environmental sciences as well as to the natural resource planners and managers, especially of developing nations.
Social ecology is basically a manifestation of social system funtion comprising of structural characteristics and functional disposition. Tea gardens in India are representing unique social-ecologial behaviour and it has been more conspicuous with the advent of global warming and climate change. This unique social ecology has been a subject to withdrawl of biodiversity, erosion of physical natural bases and relentless anthropogenic activities. The book is a rare academic cultivation in the area of ecological networking by statistically designing the spill and grid effect of intra and inter ecological performances.It is unique to observe that with the change in rainfall pattern, as perceived by different tea garden stakeholders,the pattern of livelihood generation and other economic activities pertaining to this social ecology have been affected.The general social science researches are mainly confined to analysing and estimating socio-economic variables and,on contrary,this book retains a well readable research document on combined effect of socio-economic interaction with the bio-physical counterpart of the same ecological setup.Thus the book is a great creation in Social Ecology.
Our nature is provided with lot of natural sources which is beneficial to the human kind. Protecting these natural sources is very much important and is also necessary to pass for the next generations.The book covers 147 plant species which are available freely in the surroundings. In the System(s) of medicine, these medicinal plants apart from Ayurveda can be also used in Folk, Siddha, Homeopathy and Unani, as a natural and permanent cure against human diseases. Much research has to be conducted in future such as Isolation of compounds, Medicinal chemistry, Biodiversity, PhytoInformatics, PalynoInformatics, antimicrobial studies, Tissue culture, Design of Markers, DNA fingerprinting, Metabolic studies, Genetics, Genomic and Proteomic studies, Phylogenetic analysis, Formulation of media, Food Science and Technology, Bionanotechnology, Biodiesel and Biofuels, Biofouling, Bioremediation, Biopesticides, Data mining, Quality and resistant food products, etc. These technologies should focus on developing human health and living habits of other living species that can be transformed to the future generations.
An Early Neolithic Village in the Jordan Valley Part II, the Fauna of Netiv Hagdud
Among the various practices, judicious use of manures and fertilizers as one of the important strategies for increasing production of rice per unit area. The integrated use of organic manures with inorganic fertilizers can help to maintain optimum crop yield and required soil nutrient pool on sustained basis. The contribution of organic manure is to be judged not only in terms of nutrient contribution, but also by their role in building up of nutrient reserves in soil and increasing organic matter level of soil which ultimately improves physical, chemical and biological properties of soil and it is most critical in the context of sustainable agriculture. General acceptance of organic farming is not only due to greater demand for pollution free food but also due to natural advantage of organic farming in supporting the sustainability in agriculture. The essence of practicing organic farming lies in the use of naturally available resources like organic wastes, predators, parasites in conjunction with natural processes like decomposition, biological fixation and resistance to achieve the needs of crop production.
Six different agro-industrial waste residues (rice straw, rice bran, corn flakes, wheat bran, wheat flakes, and grinded wheat kernel) were procured from the local market. These substrates (10 g) were moistened (1:1) with different moistening agents (distilled water, tap water, mineral salts solution (FeSO4.7H2O 0.02, MgSO4.7H2O 1.0, (NH4)2SO4 4.0, KH2PO4 0.6, K2HPO4 1.4 mg/gds at pH 5), 0.1 N HCl, sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.5), sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.5) and screened for the production of 1,4-?- D-glucan glucohydrolase for 96 hours in static cultures. The substrate and moistening agent that gave maximum enzyme production were selected and their fermentation conditions were further optimized. The levels of selected solid substrate, moistening agent and fermentation conditions such as pH, temperature, time of incubation, inoculum size etc. were optimized by one variable at a time method. Aspergillus oryzae IIB-6 was found to be a good producer of 1,4-?-D-glucan glucohydrolase in wheat bran medium containing mineral salts as an additional trace elements so that it can be used for biotechnological purposes.
The Diversity and Distribution of Amphibian fauna in the Albertine Rift in the great lakes region of Africa is Dr. Behangana's attempt to put amphibian diversity on the map. It gives detailed account of amphibian distribution, abundance, endemism and richness in 15 forests for 73 out of 119 species documented in 26 sites of the Albertine Rift for which data has been compiled so far. Some aspects of amphibian ecology such as physical and biotic factors affecting amphibian distribution, habitat requirements and acoustics are also analysed. This book was written to give baseline information to herpetologists and other researchers intending do further research on amphibian fauna of the AR, for managers and other conservationists interested in knowing the current status of amphibians in the Albertine Rift.
The success of green revolution of 1960’s had resulted in India achieving self- sufficiency in food production system. Use of high yielding varieties, high analysis fertilizers, soil and water management practices had resulted in achievement of improved production and productivity. However, recent years had sow “plateauing of yield” in the agricultural production scenario. So with a raising population and fastly depleting natural resources, policy planners think of alternative production system which are eco-friendly, cheap, sustainable with improved productivity gains. Indigenous knowledge being evolved as age old treasures with a rich traditional wisdom remains as a best alternative. Keeping this in view a study was conducted to document the indigenous technical knowledge in coastal farming system of Tamil Nadu. The research was conducted in 12 coastal districts of Tamil Nadu. About 240 coastal farmers was selected using random sampling method. Pre-tested interview schedule was used for the data collection process. About 149 indigenous items of coastal areas were collected and rationalised.
Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Eriks and Henn.) is one of the most important diseases of wheat in Tigray region. Regular surveying,race analysis and searching resistant genes plays significant role to develop resistant varieties against leaf rust. Hence, this study was carried out to determine the distribution and intensity leaf rust, identify physiologic races and evaluate the reaction of commonly growing wheat varieties to virulent races of leaf rust. During the survey,108 farmers’ wheat fields and experimental plots were assessed in five districts of Southeastern Tigray, of which 95 (88%) of the fields were affected with leaf rust. The overall mean incidence and severity of the disease were 48.4 and 18.2%, respectively. According to the North American system of nomenclature for P.triticina, characterization of 40 mono pustules resulted in the identification of 22 races. The broadest virulence spectrum was recorded from TKTT race, making all Lr genes except Lr9 ineffective. The variety evaluation revealed that, Mekelle-3, Mekelle-4, Picaflor, Dashin and local showed susceptible reaction to TKTT, THTT and PHTT races.
Credit is the lifeblood of modern economic system, in absence of which no system can survive. It acts as lubricating oil to swiftly move the wheels of economic development. In economic development of India, agriculture still forms the base, which is not away from the need of credit. Farmers need much more capital than they can afford to save. A number of policies have been made to infuse social responsibility in the formal financial institutions to extend credit to rural areas, and succeeded in establishing a vast network of financial institutions. But, quantitative progress at the cost of quality, high cost structure of operations in rural areas and mounting overdues became a threat to the viability of the financial institutions. Consequently, the policy of competitive financial system was adopted from 1991 onwards in the provision of agricultural credit to improve the viability of financial agencies which have positive as well as negative influences on the credit flow to agriculture. In this book an attempt has been made to examine the agricultural credit during pre and post-banking reforms in India.