India is the second largest producer of rice in the world. But as the rice productivity is concerned it is almost half of the world average rice productivity. In developing economies like India where resources are meager and opportunity for adopting capital intensive new technologies are limited, the best option to enhance productivity is by efficient use of the production resources as resource use efficiency is an identified important factor in enhancing the productivity level in agriculture crops. Several studies on resource use efficiency have been undertaken on paddy, wheat and other major crops sown in Punjab, but comparatively less work has been done on basmati rice which is an important crop with an area of 0.65 million hectares, in Punjab state.In Punjab’s present condition basmati rice seems to be a promising alternative of paddy, with its intensification as well as late planting not causing major damage to ground water resources due to occurrence of monsoon during sowing time. The present book will provide an insight to policy makers and researchers who can bring maximum possible gains for farmers of this region.
Wheat crop being the world''s leading cereal crop has the major role in the hunger reduction from the mushrooming world population. With the development of high yielding varieties and new technologies, the production and productivity since late 1970s has increased significantly up to this date. Still there are various yield limiting factors and one of them is the late-sowing condition especially in the agro-zones where rice-wheat system prevails. In the recent context of climate change and global warming, the production practices of many crops have been pushed to gradually change. In the rice-wheat system of cropping pattern, late sowing of wheat is becoming a common phenomenon and for any reason of late sowing, suitable variety/genotype selection with proper fertilization especially only nitrogen management can be the boon to greatly boost up the production and net returns from wheat cultivation. This book is especially important to those who are willing to conduct research activity in the field of crop science & wheat agronomy, farmers, students, academicians and development professionals.
Rice is a major crop that is grown in more than 110 countries. The total area planted under rice in India is 44.0 million hectares which is largest in the world against a total area of 156.6 million hectares. The average yield of rice in India is 3.2 tonnes/hectare alone. The reasons for low yield are limited area under irrigation, seasonal shortage of resources and delay in land preparation and transplanting. A study on economics and major constraints in rice cultivation in Kaithal district of Haryana was conducted during 2009-10.Total costs in rice production amounted to be Rs. 33778.68/ha. Average yield was 4.99 t/ha. Benefit-cost ratio worked out to be 1.27. Pests and disease incidence, lack of remunerative price and labour shortage were the major constraints in rice production.
The main object of this book is to provide the knowledge to the poor marginal Rice growing farmers of West Bengal as Rice is the most important cereal crop in this state. But increasing in cost of cultivation in terms of fertilizer, pesticide as well as agriculture-labour the net profit gain of the poor rice growers are gradually decreasing. This book is providing the information regarding System of Rice Intensification (SRI) as an new alternative source of rice cultivation with increasing productivity and profit and minimizing the environmental hazard.
The book has been divided in to five chapters each dealing with different aspects of the management of natural resources at village level. The book briefly describes introduction of natural resources and panchayati raj system of Sikar district of Rajasthan State, India. The book describes details of blocks, flora and fauna, land use, forestry, forest management, forest area, agriculture, irrigation, means of irrigation, crop pattern, afforestation and pasture development, watershed etc. The present scenario of natural resource management through villagers is very important to conserve the nature. This book gives a wide picture of management of natural resources by villagers. This book is based on field research.
Wheat is an important cereal crop in the world after rice because whole world fulfill their need of food from wheat crop.Now a days, farmers are getting interest in cash crop production due to higher cultivation cost in wheat production system.To offset this problem,scientists have developed some technologies.Among these technologies,Zero tillage crop production system is getting acceptance all over the world.Taking into consideration, A study was carried out on different four sowing method namely zero till drill,raised bed planter,country plough and broadcasting of seeds in sandy loam soil of North Gujarat region in India.The conclusion drawn from the study was that Zero till system is economically viable production system of wheat crop in sandy laom soil condition of the region. This book, therefore,provides all the field testing data of four different sowing method for wheat crop extensively useful for students of Agriculture,Agricultural Engineering and persons engaged in research work on Resource conservation Technologies and anyone else, who may be considering to help farm community all over the world.
Advanced resource management and conservation technologies in wetland rice are system of rice intensification (SRI), integrated crop management (ICM), aerobic rice culture etc in the context of farmer’s realities in lowland rice ecosystem in North - Eastern Region of India. The management of these technologies in wetland rice cultivation could conserve resources like seeds, water, nutrients, reduce cost, soil health and environment which leads to higher yield compared to conventional rice culture (CRC). The main reason for none or less-adoption of SRI and ICM technologies in rice cultivation in North-Eastern Region of India might be related to more efforts, faith towards traditional weed control methods, lack of knowledge and water management. It is important to understand the performance of any new technology in the context of farmer’s realities, which are always more complicated and more diversified than on any research station. This book might definitely help for the researchers, academicians and students in their future career.
Present study is in progress since 1990-91 at Crop Research Centre of G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, U.S.Nagar (Uttaranchal) to study the long term effects of herbicide use in rice-wheat system. Treatments consisted of combinations of butachlor at 1.5 kg ha-1,hand weeding (30 and 60 days after transplanting) and weedy check in rice and each kharif season treatment followed by isoproturon at 1.0 kg ha-1,hand weeding twice (30 and 60 days after sowing) and weedy check in wheat. Experiment was laid out in randomized block design, with nine treatments and three replications. The soil of experimental plot was sandy loam in texture, medium in organic carbon, low in available nitrogen and medium in available phosphorus and potassium with neutral soil reaction. The various studies conducted during Kharif and rabi season of 2003-04 and 2004-05 are presented here.
The BGREI Programme made certain innovative beginnings for the first time in the history of technology transfer for crop production in India. These included the provision of “cluster approach” for organizing “Block Demonstrations. Another landmark comprised provision of cash doles to the beneficiary farmers to support the instant expenditure towards land preparation & deep ploughing and direct seeding/transplanting in lines in rice and line sowing in wheat as a component of the Block demonstrations of these crops. Deep ploughing and direct seeding/transplanting in rain-fed upland/lowland/irrigated rice cultivation and line sowing in wheat crop are recommended agronomic practices for improved productivity. These operations were hitherto not practiced by the farmers due to various pecuniary/structural reasons such as absence of financial inclusion, inability to repay loans, small size of holdings and lack of knowledge vibrancy. Besides these interventions, provision of flexibility in the form of “site specific needs” also helped the farmers as well as implementing departments in completing the agriculture operations most efficiently.
This book is the result of the research of 7 years by the author on avian fauna and rhesus monkey of Bir Bara Ban Sanctuary of Jind, Haryana ,India. The study concerns with wild fauna with more emphasis on Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) and avian fauna of Bir Bara Ban Sanctuary in Jind district of Haryana state of India. Investigations concerning troop size, number, home range and the social behavior of Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta ) and presence of bird fauna and their diversity are likely to give interesting information. I believe that this book would be of immense help to the students as well as researchers of wildlife. It will add to the knowledge of general public regarding these denizens of nature.
The book depicts status and performance of centrally sponsored agricultural schemes in India, called "Macro Management of Agricultural Schemes" that covers 17 sub-schemes of agriculture in India, focusing mainly on the development of rice, wheat, coarse cereals, farm mechanization, watershed development, etc. The scheme was made operational from 2001 in all the states and Union Territories (UTs). It was formulated to ensure that Central assistance is spent on focused areas and specific interventions that have been made for the development of agriculture across the states in the country. The MMA scheme has brought about tangible benefits for farmers and made a tremendous impact on agriculture in the country. Still, the scheme has lot of scopes for improvement, if the delivery mechanism of the scheme is strengthened.
Survival of Little Seed Canary Grass: The little seed canary grass is one of the notorious weeds in the rice-wheat cropping systems in the Indo-Gangetic Plains and elsewhere. The management practices advised to farmers have often failed to control this weed. With significant impact on wheat yields, the weed has become news in the popular and scientific media. In order to design and implement an effective weed management regime, it is very important that the biology of the weed is well understood. In this respect, the survival mechanism of the little seed canary grass and its seed is studied in the rice- wheat cropping conditions where alternative drying and wetting conditions prevail. Designed to understand the seed survival and germination patterns under different soil and cropping conditions, this study, has provided valuable insights into the seed survival conditions for the little seed canary grass and could provide a means to design better crop management practices. This book will be useful for students, researchers and practitioners who are interested in the subject of weed management in general and in rice-wheat cropping systems in specific.
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) a major cereal crop has been cultivated in India. The way India increased its wheat production and helped the food security system through “Wheat Revolution” is worth to be remembered. It was that the wheat revolution and green revolution have made its self sufficient in food grains and that there will be no going back to old import days, when the food economy was either ‘ship to mouth’ or ‘field to mouth’. The potential of high yielding varieties, the development of special non-monetary management practices like sowing methods is a prime need that promotes the efficient utilization of nutrients, water and space, reduces the cost of cultivation (mainly labourers, wage), save the seed and fertilizers, causes easiness in rouging in the seed production and inter-cultural operation, better control of seeds, insect pest and diseases. To workout suitable method of sowing, variety and time of nitrogen application under late sown crop which could perform well in an important food crop of the area. This book has covered the information on different aspects of Wheat cultivation. This book will of immense value to the students, teachers and research workers.
Diversification and intensification of cropping systems has been area of interest for many research students throughout the world.Rice based cropping systems are the most prevalent and many experiments are done with these both technically and by patterns in farming. This is a book on one such case study carried out on intensification and diversification of rice based cropping system in Kymore plateau and Satpura hill zones in central India.Traditionally the region practices rice-wheat or rice-chickpea cropping systems which have affected soil fertility, productivity etc in an adverse manner. This book covers a system where leguminous crops,oilseed crops, spices etc are included to diversify the cropping system. Also it studies intensification by taking more than two crops annually. This book should be a great read for research students and scholars working on cropping systems.