Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is considered to be one of the most important cereal crops belonging to grass family (Poaceae) having immense importance in Indian diet. On account of peculiar physical and chemical gluten, it makes better leavened bread than any other cereal. Wheat straw is important source of fodder for a large Indian animal population and also utilized in the manufacture of mattresses, straw and art purpose. Apart from food, the industrial use of wheat grain includes starch for paste, alcohol, oil and gluten. In India, wheat and rice serves as life sustaining crops for about 1.2 billion population and thus, considered to be backbone of nation’s food security system.
The book has been divided in to five chapters each dealing with different aspects of the management of natural resources at village level. The book briefly describes introduction of natural resources and panchayati raj system of Sikar district of Rajasthan State, India. The book describes details of blocks, flora and fauna, land use, forestry, forest management, forest area, agriculture, irrigation, means of irrigation, crop pattern, afforestation and pasture development, watershed etc. The present scenario of natural resource management through villagers is very important to conserve the nature. This book gives a wide picture of management of natural resources by villagers. This book is based on field research.
India is the second largest producer of rice in the world. But as the rice productivity is concerned it is almost half of the world average rice productivity. In developing economies like India where resources are meager and opportunity for adopting capital intensive new technologies are limited, the best option to enhance productivity is by efficient use of the production resources as resource use efficiency is an identified important factor in enhancing the productivity level in agriculture crops. Several studies on resource use efficiency have been undertaken on paddy, wheat and other major crops sown in Punjab, but comparatively less work has been done on basmati rice which is an important crop with an area of 0.65 million hectares, in Punjab state.In Punjab’s present condition basmati rice seems to be a promising alternative of paddy, with its intensification as well as late planting not causing major damage to ground water resources due to occurrence of monsoon during sowing time. The present book will provide an insight to policy makers and researchers who can bring maximum possible gains for farmers of this region.
Wheat crop being the world''s leading cereal crop has the major role in the hunger reduction from the mushrooming world population. With the development of high yielding varieties and new technologies, the production and productivity since late 1970s has increased significantly up to this date. Still there are various yield limiting factors and one of them is the late-sowing condition especially in the agro-zones where rice-wheat system prevails. In the recent context of climate change and global warming, the production practices of many crops have been pushed to gradually change. In the rice-wheat system of cropping pattern, late sowing of wheat is becoming a common phenomenon and for any reason of late sowing, suitable variety/genotype selection with proper fertilization especially only nitrogen management can be the boon to greatly boost up the production and net returns from wheat cultivation. This book is especially important to those who are willing to conduct research activity in the field of crop science & wheat agronomy, farmers, students, academicians and development professionals.
Rice-wheat cropping system in Pakistan covers almost 2 million hectares and pre-dominantly spreads across districts of Gujranwala, Sialkot, Norowal and Shiekhupura in Punjab. The present study was taken up as a start of a long-term study of fungal pathogens in rice-wheat cropping system in Pakistan in order to understand the biology of these, so that the knowledge so gained could be used to develop a strong disease management based largely on the host resistance. The study concentrated on root rot and foliar blight and associated fungi that were common to rice and wheat primarily. It has provided basic information on the prevalence and incidence of these diseases in the main four districts of rice-wheat areas of Punjab namely Gujranwala, Sheikhupura, Narowal and Sialkot. Fungi from root, foliage and soil in both wheat and rice crop were isolated and identified and their aggressiveness studied using pathogenicity analysis. Isolates of these fungi were genetically characterized using RAPD''s. The investigations were based on two surveys of wheat one in 1999 and other in 2000 done at the booting and heading stage of the crop covering 21 and 20 key locations of the area, respectively.
Wheat is an important cereal crop in the world after rice because whole world fulfill their need of food from wheat crop.Now a days, farmers are getting interest in cash crop production due to higher cultivation cost in wheat production system.To offset this problem,scientists have developed some technologies.Among these technologies,Zero tillage crop production system is getting acceptance all over the world.Taking into consideration, A study was carried out on different four sowing method namely zero till drill,raised bed planter,country plough and broadcasting of seeds in sandy loam soil of North Gujarat region in India.The conclusion drawn from the study was that Zero till system is economically viable production system of wheat crop in sandy laom soil condition of the region. This book, therefore,provides all the field testing data of four different sowing method for wheat crop extensively useful for students of Agriculture,Agricultural Engineering and persons engaged in research work on Resource conservation Technologies and anyone else, who may be considering to help farm community all over the world.
Insects are the largest group among animals and plants.India is a land of wide range of ecological, climatic and vertical distribution of insect fauna.In the elevated, colder and forested areas of the country, Insect fauna is much varied, coulorful and plenty. Over 60,000 thousand species of insects are recorded from India. This project is an effort to record data on forest ecosystem and to prepare current insect inventory for the study area. It also gives distribution and composition of the insect species in terms of community structure and diversity. This book presents the concepts, themes and ideas on biogeography, community ecology, taxic diversity, guild structure, richness and abundance and biotic interference. It depicts importance of insect diversity for conservation and management projects for sustainable use of the natural resources. This book will help the conservation biologist, economist, biodiversity managers and professionals for strategic planning of the biodiversity projects.
The dominance of Green Revolution Agriculture practices in coastal areas increased the ion concentration in soil as well as in irrigation water and thus reducing yield both quantitatively and qualitatively and culminated in increased salinity of water and soil. In response to these problems, the emerging Agro-Ecology paradigm suggests organic farming through farmers participation. Based on the local conditions and available natural resources, System of Rice Intensification (SRI) combined with organic inputs appear to be more promising for paddy cultivation in saline soils in the coastal Agro-Ecosystems. These organic farming practices facilitate lower ion concentration and improve the soil ecology and paddy productivity. SRI involves low input (water & nutrient), higher output technology, evolved in Madagascar in 1970s, spread to South and South East Asian countries and currently becoming popular among South Indian farmers.Need for farmers's participation is articulated in terms of efficiency and/or cost-effectiveness, equity in distribution of benefits, sustainability and empowerment of the farmer's community. Hence, the present study was planned through farmer's participation
The rice-wheat production system has major role in food security in the region and provides livelihood and income to millions of farmers in IGP. The lack of suitable mechanization and modernization with proper soil-crop management strategies is probably the cause of higher cost requirement and low return in the system. Current crop cultivation practices in rice-wheat systems degrade the soil and water resources thereby threaten the sustainability. The concept of alternative agricultural system is put forward to improve in net return with minimum resource use from crop cultivation is conservation agriculture (CA) the best alternative to protect soil, water, environment, time and cost. CA practices in Nepalese context have drastically reduced tillage intensity, reducing the cost of cultivation and allowing timely sowing with comparable yield.
Rice cultivation faces challenges across the world and India is no exception. With the increasing cost of cultivation of paddy coupled with labour scarcity, sustaining the interest of farmers in rice cultivation has become a challenge. Thus, there is an urgent need to produce more output with a drop of water owing to water scarcity. This study has envisaged to examine the issues in adoption and dis-adoption and its impact on resource use, yield and efficiency of SRI farmers in Palakkad district of Kerala, India. The present study revealed that SRI can be further adopted and practiced by farmers if there is an improvement in SRI extension service delivery. The main problem associated with discontinuance behaviour of farmers was shortage of skilled labour. Training and education to farmers on SRI techniques should be enhanced so that skilled labour is available for various operations and farmers can adopt SRI technologies to their own resource endowments and constraints to improve their rice production. The farmers should also be provided with essential institutional support through technology and capacity building.
Pakistan annually produces about 25 million tons of wheat & 6 million tons of rice. Storage of these grain is undertaken for various domestic and commercial reasons. During storage heavy quantitative and qualitative losses are known to occur that reduce the food availability and render monitory losses. Major shortcomings in this regard are poor sanitary conditions, leaky and poorly maintained warehouses and ill trained storage officials. Storage losses are not only a problem in wheat and rice but also effect the other stored grains. During storage, insect pests are known to cause considerable damage and weight loss to these commodities. In this study seven (7) methods of loss assessment were examined to investigate the actual losses in stored IRRI-6 and Basmati varieties of rice and wheat stored in public sector godowns. Studies have concluded that during one year storage 1-2% average loss on dry basis was recorded depending upon various factors. Study also pin pointed the areas of future research.
Survival of Little Seed Canary Grass: The little seed canary grass is one of the notorious weeds in the rice-wheat cropping systems in the Indo-Gangetic Plains and elsewhere. The management practices advised to farmers have often failed to control this weed. With significant impact on wheat yields, the weed has become news in the popular and scientific media. In order to design and implement an effective weed management regime, it is very important that the biology of the weed is well understood. In this respect, the survival mechanism of the little seed canary grass and its seed is studied in the rice- wheat cropping conditions where alternative drying and wetting conditions prevail. Designed to understand the seed survival and germination patterns under different soil and cropping conditions, this study, has provided valuable insights into the seed survival conditions for the little seed canary grass and could provide a means to design better crop management practices. This book will be useful for students, researchers and practitioners who are interested in the subject of weed management in general and in rice-wheat cropping systems in specific.
A beautiful collection of Indian natural history drawings from the 18th to the 20th centuriesThis book presents many of the beautiful images in the Library of Natural History Museum in London, from fine botanical and zoological illustrations through to depictions of colorful artifacts and trinkets purchased in local markets. The artworks originate from a variety of sources that include individual artists and collectors as well as organized studies of Indian natural history in the pursuit of science, commerce, and politics. Spanning a period of more than 200 years, from the 18th to the 20th centuries, they depict the rich variety of animals, birds, and insects to be found in India and the magnificent flora of the different regions. They were produced by European and Indian artists who worked to advance the understanding of Indian natural history by recording, describing, classifying, and naming the flora and fauna of the country.
The fried foods are getting popularity despite the trend of low fat intake. The deep frying process is commonly used in fast food industries and at household level. The growth of fried food has demanded continous improvement in the quality of ingredients, frying oil, frying equipment and frying practices for the better quality. Oils extracted from different edible sources and produced under the industrial conditions vary with their cooking quality, functionality and frying life.Summarizing, the results from present study are supportive for the conclusion that the rice bran should be recognized as food grade ingredient and should be used for the purpose of oil extraction. Moreover, bran oil is useful to make quality blends with good shelf and nutrient stability to meet the ever increasing edible oil needs. So it is suggested that rice bran oil blend in 30:70 corn oil can produce good quality fried products and can be a useful addition to the frying oil products.
Technological and economic prospects of rice cultivation in Bageshwar district of Uttarakhand (India) has been studied using standard concepts and methodologies to provide a feedback to the researcher, academicians and policy makers for improving food security in the hilly terrain of India. The study provides a comparative evaluation of the technology adoption, profitability and yield gap in rice cultivation at different altitudes using the field level data.Farmers in different altitudes exhibited varying level of technology adoption leading to differential economic returns. The gap between actual and potential yield can be filled by adoption of location specific technologies, efficient extension and input delivery services and better infrastructure facilities.