The fried foods are getting popularity despite the trend of low fat intake. The deep frying process is commonly used in fast food industries and at household level. The growth of fried food has demanded continous improvement in the quality of ingredients, frying oil, frying equipment and frying practices for the better quality. Oils extracted from different edible sources and produced under the industrial conditions vary with their cooking quality, functionality and frying life.Summarizing, the results from present study are supportive for the conclusion that the rice bran should be recognized as food grade ingredient and should be used for the purpose of oil extraction. Moreover, bran oil is useful to make quality blends with good shelf and nutrient stability to meet the ever increasing edible oil needs. So it is suggested that rice bran oil blend in 30:70 corn oil can produce good quality fried products and can be a useful addition to the frying oil products.
This book "Nitrogen Transformation in Vertisol under soybean- wheat system" is need for a good book on soil science for undergraduate student as well as post graduate student of agriculture in India. The motivating thought in bringing out this publication was that while dealing with changes in organic and inorganic forms of nitrogen in Vertisol due to conjoint use of inorganic fertilizer and organic manures and their relation with yield and total nitrogen uptake by soybean and wheat, Nitrogen fixation by soybean crop. It is written in a simple and lucid style. I am deeply appreciates the honorary efforts of all the contributors. It also thanks Dr KS Raddy (IISS, Bhopal), Dr UK Vaishya (J.N.K.V.V, Jabalpur) and the Lambert academic publishing for providing publishing in this book. I sincerely hope that teachers and students of Soil Science in agricultural universities and institutes would find this textbook useful in learning and teaching different aspects of Indian soils and their management. I would appreciate receiving comments and suggestions, if any, on any aspect of this publication; these would immensely help in improving the future editions of this book.
Gulf of Mannar is one of the unique coastal regions for rich biodiversity in India. There is a vast area between Tuticorin and Kanyakumari which has never been explored so far even its comes under Marine Biosphere Reserve and includes thousands of fishermen who depend on fishery for their daily livelihood. The present pilot scale study was conducted in kudankulam coast within a 4 km radius in marine zone from kudankulam nuclear power project which confirmed that southern part of the Gulf of Mannar can also provide plentiful resources including rich ecologically sensitive habitats like seagrass and coral ecosystem. The resources in this region may not be similar to the northern part between Rameswaram and Tuticorin, but they are potent enough to provide a good source for fishery. Since various developmental activities like the nuclear power plant which is to be operated in the near future, it is very important to have a detailed baseline data on the seagrass, corals and associated organisms of this coastal region.With this baseline data the number of species in the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve can be estimated in the future studies.
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) "King of the cereals" is the staple food of people in many countries. It is the main rabi crop of Pakistan and India and ranks second after rice in Pkistan. It is used both as food for human consumption and feed for animals. It plays pivotal role in human nutrition containing carbohydrates, proteins, inorganic ions and vitamins. So, there is a dire need to develop genotypes having better yield potential per unit area. This will be achieved only by exploring maximum genetic potential from available germplasm of wheat. The origin of the cultivated wheat and its uses by mankind antedated the earliest recorded history. Wheat is believed to have been one of the first plants to be domesticated and cultivated by the humans, beginning possibly more than 15 thousands years ago with the seed gathered from wild grass ancestors of present day wheat species. The evolution of wheat has been the subject of great research during previous century. The basic evolutionary step was hybridization between the species.
Impact of Direct Seeding of Rice on Household Welfare in Pakistan Executive Summary The current study was carried out in the rice-wheat area of Pakistani Punjab to access the impact of direct seeding of rice sowing technology on household welfare in Pakistan. The direct seeding of rice (DSR) technology in Pakistan was introduced a couple of years back, with the idea to increase the crop yields and to save the use of inputs like water, fertilizer and labour. For estimating the impact detailed comprehensive survey was carried out in three main rice-wheat districts i.e. Gujranwala, Sheikhpura and Hafizabad. A detailed questionnaire was prepared for carrying out the analysis. The impact of direct rice sowing technology was estimated on rice and wheat crops yield, water, weedicide and labour demand. The empirical analysis indicates that adopters of direct seeding of rice sowing technology are getting higher net returns in the range of 8-9 maunds per acre. The comparative profitability analysis indicates that in case of direct seeding of rice sowing technology the cost of production is high than the conventional transplanting of rice but the net returns are more in case of direct seeding
This book is useful literature for researchers who are working on poplar based agroforestry systems particularly in South Asia. It provides Comprehensive information on tree-crop interactions.Boundary plantation of tree is very common practice of farmers of North-Western India. Eucalyptus boundary plantation was very popular with the farmers during mid eighties but owing to lower market price and large reduction in grain yield of adjoining crops has discouraged the farmers for its further planting. For boundary plantation now poplar is getting popularized with the farmers.
Advanced resource management and conservation technologies in wetland rice are system of rice intensification (SRI), integrated crop management (ICM), aerobic rice culture etc in the context of farmer’s realities in lowland rice ecosystem in North - Eastern Region of India. The management of these technologies in wetland rice cultivation could conserve resources like seeds, water, nutrients, reduce cost, soil health and environment which leads to higher yield compared to conventional rice culture (CRC). The main reason for none or less-adoption of SRI and ICM technologies in rice cultivation in North-Eastern Region of India might be related to more efforts, faith towards traditional weed control methods, lack of knowledge and water management. It is important to understand the performance of any new technology in the context of farmer’s realities, which are always more complicated and more diversified than on any research station. This book might definitely help for the researchers, academicians and students in their future career.
The state of Meghalaya, also known as the ‘Scotland of East’ is blessed with vast tracts of evergreen forests, silvery waterfalls, swift mountain rivers and a cool, temperate climate. These natural blessings make the state a favourite tourist destination for domestic and foreign tourists alike. Though growth of tourism in the state has been on the rise in the past few years, it still constitutes a small portion of the net state domestic product, and this calls for necessary action for further development and preservation of the natural resources of the state. However, the growth in tourism here, like in many other places has also adversely affected the invaluable natural resources including flora and fauna of the state. This is primarily due to the lack of proper planning of tourism related activities and the absence of reliable valuation of the existing natural resources associated with tourism in this area. This book is the first attempt to estimate the recreation value and economic impact of the most- frequented tourist sites of this region, so that economically viable and environmentally sustainable measures for the growth of tourism can be adopted.
Rodent fauna of Jorhat district of Assam, India is a scholarly publication that discusses the species composition, habit and habitat of rodent species of Jorhat district till 2004. Based on the morphometric and skull measurements, altogether eight species, seven under Muridae and one under Sciuridae were identified. The species under family Muridae were Bandicota bengalensis bengalensis (Gray), Bandicota indica indica (Bechstein), Mus musculus castaneus Waterhouse, Mus booduga (Gray), Rattus sikkimensis Hinton, Rattus rattus (Linnaeus) and Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout). The only squirrel species under family Sciuridae collected in Jorhat district was identified as Dremomys lokriah macmillani Thomas. This book will be helpful for the people working in the field of rodents, their habit and habitat studies.
The Indian shad hilsa is one of the most important edible fishes of the country. Presently the upstream migration of hilsa into various rivers is greatly hampered by the construction of dams, barrages etc. across the rivers resulting in the fish not being able to reach its natural breeding ground. These artificial barriers have reduced the natural spawning ground as well as recruitment, which ultimately have led to the decline of fishery in many river systems of the country. Besides these, there are a number of ecological parameters such as presence of industrial and domestic effluents in most of the river systems, which also inhibit the upstream migration of hilsa. Over-exploitation in coastal areas and at the mouth of estuaries also affects hilsa migration. On the whole, hilsa fishery has been on the decline in all the major rivers of the country. In this context, present work would provide useful information on the stocks, correct mesh size determination, spawning ground, body composition, reproductive development, socio-economics of the hilsa fishers.
The most important cereal crop that revolutionized agriculture and wiped out hunger and starvation from the face of the world is wheat. Among the world’s most important food grains it ranks next to the rice. It is taken in various forms by more than one thousand million human beings in the world. In terms of production wheat occupies the prime position among the food crop in the world. India occupies a second position in area and production amongst the wheat growing countries of the world. In this book, I focus on the lab to land initiative aims at achieving improvement in the quality of life of people by bringing into fruition provision of the programmed for the development and welfare of the people in rural areas. This book is an attempt to furnish student and teachers the information at one place in consolidate and precise manner.
The main object of this book is to provide the knowledge to the poor marginal Rice growing farmers of West Bengal as Rice is the most important cereal crop in this state. But increasing in cost of cultivation in terms of fertilizer, pesticide as well as agriculture-labour the net profit gain of the poor rice growers are gradually decreasing. This book is providing the information regarding System of Rice Intensification (SRI) as an new alternative source of rice cultivation with increasing productivity and profit and minimizing the environmental hazard.
Most of agricultural research and extension efforts are focused on increasing crop and livestock production in order to improve farm incomes and food availability. However initial gains from improved production are negated by losses that occur during or after harvest, worldwide post losses of agricultural produce are estimated at 30%. Improving post harvest management may require inputs not only technical, but also economical and organizational.Farmers' objective, farming systems,level of farmers organization,level of access to information,markets and credit play crucial part in success of any attempt to improve post harvest management.Storage of food grains is inevitable both at times of deficit and surplus production. Since storage loss contributes a major share in post-production loss an attempt was made to study the rice storage in Cauvery delta in India with objectives of estimating marketable surplus at farm level, quantifying post-harvest losses, studying conventional storage practices followed by farmers and examining the possibility of introducing modern storage structures among farmers.
Biodiversity is the variety of all life forms found on the Earth, but the overuse of natural resources has created loss of biodiversity which eventually pressing environmental issues. Thus sustainable use of natural resources is a prerequisite for maintaining biodiversity. The book Biodiversity in India: Assessment, Scope and Conservation incorporates 20 chapters covering holistic information on biodiversity and its conservation with special reference to the Indian scenario like Prospects, losses and conservation of Agrobiodiversity; Medicinal plants of Himalaya; Rice and Agrobiodiversity in Odisha. An account on Diversity in weather dependent crop diseases; Diversity of Plants, Fungi, Nematodes, Aquatic environments, Soil microbes; Gum & Resin plants and Seed plant species; Gymnosperm Fructification etc. are given to throw light on importance of biodiversity conservation. Chapters on Survival strategy of Calligonum polygonoides, Tools for assessment of Aspergillus diversity and Molecular basis of biodiversity have added value to the book. This book will definitely serve as an excellent reference material and practical guide for teachers, researchers, students and environmentalists