The investigation on wheat was conducted with the objective to study variability for spot blotch resistance caused by B. sorokiniana in the wheat germplasm lines and to find out the distribution of resistance across various height and maturity groups. Observations were recorded for disease severity (%) as well as using 0-9 scale. Disease was rated three times i.e. at growth stages 69, 77 and 83 (Zadoks et.al.1974) to calculate AUDPC. Plant height, days to maturity and test weight was also recorded for each genotype. A wide variability for resistance to spot blotch was observed in the wheat lines screened.15 lines were found to have resistant. The proportion of moderately resistant, moderately susceptible and susceptible lines were 47%, 43% and 6% respectively.The useful resistant lines having dwarf stature and early days to maturity were 15. These lines can be exploited in crossing programme to developing spot blotch resistant early maturing lines suited to rice wheat cropping system of NEPZ.Differential reaction was also observed in same line that supported the idea of independent gene control.
The investigation was undertaken to assess the impact of WTO on external trade, the competitiveness and comparative advantage in exports, problems in exports and the measures taken to boost the foreign trade in selected agricultural commodities. The secondary data pertaining to quantity and value of selected agricultural commodities under exports and imports were collected for the periods i.e. Pre-WTO (1985-86 to 1994-95) and post-WTO (1995-96 to 2005-06) period. Study pointed out that during the post-WTO period the export and import of agricultural commodities was increased as compared to pre-WTO period. India has comparative advantage in export of rice, wheat, onion, grapes, coffee and pepper in World market. India has moderate competitiveness for the export of wheat, rice, onion, potato, grapes, mangoes and cashew kernels in World market. The study suggests that there is urgent need to divert the export of commodities from neighboring countries where, the price realization is less to the countries where the price realization is comparatively more. However, infrastructural facility play a key role in long run growth in export of agriculture commodities which is the need of hour.
This book “Caste System, Social Inequalities and Reservation Policy in India” dealt with caste system as well as the overall development of reservation policy with focus upon social justice in India. It includes an overview of the Marxian, Weberian and the Indian perspectives about power structure including the caste and class systems. The French Revolution was the first revolution which mobilized people for equality. In the 19th and 20th century, it was thought that ‘inequality’ is not natural but is a social creation. It has gained wide acceptance around the world. It was felt that social inequality is not universal in nature. The ‘private property’ was the basic cause of social inequality. Indian society is a classic example of the hierarchical society and people being treated according to their caste status.This book is useful for academicians, policy makers, scholars, researchers, students, professionals, bureaucrats as well as the people who want to know the social inequalities, caste & class, whole social stratification and process of social justice in India.
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) a major cereal crop has been cultivated in India. The way India increased its wheat production and helped the food security system through “Wheat Revolution” is worth to be remembered. It was that the wheat revolution and green revolution have made its self sufficient in food grains and that there will be no going back to old import days, when the food economy was either ‘ship to mouth’ or ‘field to mouth’. The potential of high yielding varieties, the development of special non-monetary management practices like sowing methods is a prime need that promotes the efficient utilization of nutrients, water and space, reduces the cost of cultivation (mainly labourers, wage), save the seed and fertilizers, causes easiness in rouging in the seed production and inter-cultural operation, better control of seeds, insect pest and diseases. To workout suitable method of sowing, variety and time of nitrogen application under late sown crop which could perform well in an important food crop of the area. This book has covered the information on different aspects of Wheat cultivation. This book will of immense value to the students, teachers and research workers.
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important staple food crop for more than two third of the population of the India and more than 65 per cent of the world population. India is world’s second largest rice producer and consumer next to China. Major rice growing districts in Maharashtra are Thane, Ratnagiri, Raigad, Sindhudurga and Kolhapur. Rice is an important crop because of its nutritional as well as commercial value. 100g of rice supplies 365 K cal energy, 0.12g sugar, 7.12g protein,1.3g dietary fiber and Thiamine, Riboflavin, Zinc, Calcium, Iron, Manganese in stress quantity. Beside high economic value now a day's cultivation is becoming difficult to the farmers because of attack of insect pests causing damage from seedling stage to its maturity. Increasing of the volume in production of rice is an immediate requirement in the country like India due to its rapidly growing population. However, achieving this task seems to be impossible due to various constraints. One of the major problems is rice yellow stem borer attacks the rice field.
The book looks into the history of agriculture development in India. Taking a political economy perspective, it looks at significant institutional and technological innovations in pre- independent and post independent India. It focuses on the Green Revolution in Asia and examines it in a historical perspective, identifying two factors of institutional change and political leadership. Climate change in agriculture development has become a major concern to farmers, researchers and policy makers alike. However, there is little knowledge on the farmers’ perception to climate change and to the extent they coincide with actual climatic data While exploring the adaptation strategies, the section looks into the dynamics of who can afford a particular technology and who cannot and what leads to a particular adaptation decision thus determining the adaptive capacity in water management. The final section looks into the devolution of authority for natural resource management to local user groups through the Water Users’ Associations as an important approach to overcome the long-standing challenges of centralized state bureaucracies in India.
To promote the perennial and ubiquitous stinging nettle as a profitable source for aphid management programs in agro-ecosystems, it is of primary importance that the diversity and seasonal abundance of aphids and their natural enemies are known. For this purpose, agricultural and semi-natural habitats were investigated over two full cropping seasons in Gembloux, Belgium. Our field data support the strategies aimed to exploit stinging nettle habitats as important reservoir for aphidophagous insects that tended to occur early on this marginal plant, before attacking aphids in adjacent field crops. Moreover, our findings suggest that stinging nettle habitat offers many important requisites for the survival of natural enemies, such as alternative prey that are not available persistently in annual cultures. Our data on the spatial distribution of aphid predators have identified varied influences, such as the food preferences and intraguild interactions. For natural enemy population management, promising results were obtained from our behavioural bioassays. As a conclusion, stinging nettles can play important roles in agro-ecosystems.
Wheat is the second most important staple food after rice consumed by 65% of the population in India. Fertilizer plays a leading role in increasing crop production by almost 41%. Among the primary nutrients, nitrogen plays an important role in plant metabolism by virtue of being an essential constituent of structural component of the cell and many diverse type of metabolically active compounds. It is also a constituent of chlorophyll, which is important for the harvest of solar energy. Nitrogen is liable to lost through leaching, volatilization and run off during crop period. Further, crop requires N throughout the growth period. Potassium plays an essential role in plant growth and metabolism. It activates enzymes, maintains tissue turgor pressure, regulates stomata closing and balances the charge of anions. When applied in soil, it aggregates with clay particles so slowly release in soil. So, split application of nitrogen and potassium is seems very important and essential to be studied for wheat crop.
Wheat is an important stable foodgrain crop and being the main source of calories it has immense importance in Indian diet. Sandy soils of Rajasthan are excessively permeable, poor in organic matter and prone to be deficient in potassium and zinc availability. An intensive cropping lead to depletion of potassium from the soil due to it’s released from fixed forms. Besides, a greater emphasis on nitrogen fertilization corresponding to potassium is influence soil fertility, crop yields and sustainability of agriculture. Already a fall in productivity in the absence of potassium has been proven from long-term experiments. Like potassium, more attention is also necessary on the management of micro-nutrients especially zinc. Zinc is an important micro-nutrient reported deficient in Indian soils and cause poor yield in rice-wheat growing soils of North-western India. When potassium and zinc are applied to soil they undergo transformation to various chemical pools, the nature of which differs across soils. Looking to the role played by potassium and zinc in boosting up the productivity and quality of wheat and soil health the present study was undertaken.
A field experiment was conducted during rabi (August, 2010-January, 2011) season in Wetland Farms of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, to evaluate the integrated nutrient management practices under system of rice intensification. The main objective of the study was to optimize the use of different sources of nutrients under SRI. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with three replications. It is evident from the present investigation that application of 75% inorganic N + 12.5% N through FYM + 12.5% N through well decomposed PM is found to be a better option for getting higher productivity and economic returns of rice under system of rice intensification.
Damodar river is one of the most important watersheds in eastern India and also a main tributary of the river Ganga.Fighting an unceasing battle against anthropogenic activities,the piscine world of Damodar river is at stake.Mining,dam construction,industrialisation,overfishing have continuously threatened the fish faunal resources of this river that all along its continuity and all over the vast catchment area has lost its erstwhile wealth.This consolidated work reveals fish faunal diversity,distribution,abundance in this rain- fed river, and also identified natural breeding grounds.It is a wonderful resource which has highlighted some factors which will definitely enhance production of fish population in the reservoir areas and also in the main stream.It is a challenging work which will definitely help to conserve,recreate diversity of ichthyofauna of the Damodar river system.The suggestions definitely aim at the preventive measures to be taken to increase fish population and also how to meet the market demand for palatable prospects.
Food safety and the associated health risk is now one of the major concerns worldwide, especially in China. Rice is the dominant agricultural product in China and ranks second by quantity in the world. The study on the contamination of heavy metals in soil-rice system is important in order to protect soil quality and food security. The present research was conducted in three representative rice-production areas including Nanxun city, Shengzhou city and Wenling city, using geostatistics, GIS and other spatial analysis. The concentrations of heavy metals in soil and rice of the study areas showed spatial variability and spatial patterns. Take Wenling as an example, rice genotype and soil properties were considered as the factors to study their influence on the transfer and bioavailability of heavy metals in soil-rice system in rice-production areas. The results will provide guidelines beneficial to soil quality improvement, scientific distribution of rice plant and food security in rice production areas.
India is the largest consumer and second producer of sugar in the world, with over 450 sugar factories located throughout the country. The sugar industry is amongst the largest agro-processing industries in India with average sugar production of about 176.75 lakhs tonnes with an annual turnover of Rs. 150 billion. The pressmud and molasses are industrial byproducts of sugarcane industry in India, and the production is respectively to the tune of 7.0 and 7.5 Mt annually. The value of pressmud as an organic manure has been well recognized for utilizing in agriculture, as it contains valuable plant nutrients in organic form besides being a very effective soil ameliorant. Rice is the most important food crop accounting for 29 per cent of total calorie intake of the people in developing countries. The theme of the International Year of Rice 2004 - Rice is life – reflects the importance of rice as an essential for food security, poverty alleviation and improved livelihoods.
This book presents a methodology for integrated assessment and simulation of sustainability linkages in coupled human-natural systems (human settlements). The first part of this book is directed towards analyzing the EIA system in India and identifies areas for improvement. The second part is directed towards explaining the conceptual foundation for integrated assessment of the ecological, social, physical and financial components of sustainability in any area which is under assessment. The methodology for integrated assessment of sustainability linkages through local knowledge based cognitive mapping, elicitation of indicator status and zonal linkages is also explained in the second part. The methodology is illustrated through application in the Village of Kalarampatti in southern India. The third part of this book is devoted to bring out the utility of fuzzy inference system in building a rule based decision support system for the assessment of sustainability. This book will be useful to professionals, researchers and scholars working in the area of Sustainability of human settlements as it presents a detailed methodology to assess sustainability with a real world case study.
Rice serves as a major source of calories for about 60 per cent of the world population. Globally, it occupies an area of 147 mha with production of 525 mt. Rice consumes around 5000 liters of water to produce one kg of grain, which is three times higher than other cereals. Water is becoming increasingly scarce and most of the Asian nations including India are expected to face serious water scarcity in the next 10-15 years, thus threatening the sustainability of irrigated rice production. Hence, alternate ways of growing rice using minimum water must be explored to safeguard the food security and to preserve precious water resource. Integrated Plant Nutrient Management (IPNM) and aerobic rice production is one such alternate method, which is known to use less water than that of low land rice. IPNM is the adoption of technically appropriate and managerial efficient in achieving the objectives of judiciously utilizing all the major sources of plant nutrients in an integrated manner so as to attain optimum economic yield from a specific cropping system.