The rising cost of fuel oil compelled the industry to search for alternative fuels and biomass and hence the production of fermentable sugars from renewable lignocellulosic waste materials, which can be used as feedstock for the production of biofuel. Ethanol is a high octane, water free alcohol produced from renewable resources like wheat straw, rice husk, corn, wood and other biomaterials. Ethanol is most often blended with gasoline – usually as a 10 per cent mix – to create a fuel called gasohol. Ethanol blended fuels like gasohol, act as natural antifreeze, and appear to burn more efficiently in combustion engines. As well, ethanol is used commercially in producing food grade vinegar, food extracts, pharmaceutical products. In the last decade, most research has tended to focus on developing an economical and ecofriendly ethanol production process. Much emphasis is being given to the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass and other forms of agricultural and forestry residues
System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is a novel methodology originated in Madagascar during 1983 and spread all over the world. In the recent past, the successful SRI practices are being extrapolated to other crops in the name of System of Crop Intensification (SCI). The SCI practices also proved to increase the yield levels more than two times. In pursuit of extending the beneficial effect of SRI to SCI in greengram, the present study was programmed. Greengram is one of the important food legumes grown in India and emerged as a nutritive and remunerative pulse crop, capable of providing the quickest return in the shortest possible time besides offering nutritional security to millions of people. By virtue of its superior nutritional quality, short duration and high monetary return, greengram can be grown as intercrop and rice-fallow crop especially by small and marginal farmers. Adoption of SCI practices may enhance the productivity and reduce the gap between per capita availability and consumption; and in turn possible to contribute to nutritional security of the world.
The present effort was undertaken to set up an innovative trend of monitoring of the human-nature interaction and its effect on the natural system to set up the openings of the future study on this tract at this area. In this context, a detailed study on the Saurashtra coast line, one of the biggest one in India desired a detailed monitoring to work out the present status of the ecosystem, the threats mounting and impending, natural resistance and adaptation in response to the pressure and a possible negotiation to the neutralize the harsh condition to offer a better tomorrow. The present report deals with the biodiversity and man-made pressure on the coastal health as well wealth of the rocky intertidal macrofauna in four different stations along the Saurashtra coastline. With a view to assess the status of the intertidal macrofauna, the physico-chemical characteristic of the coast and the interaction between the fauna and anthropogenic activities were investigated. The Western coastal belt of India, is considerably being exploited heavily by various kinds of Industries. This study revealed how this is affecting the ecosystem of this area.
Rice is a major crop that is grown in more than 110 countries. The total area planted under rice in India is 44.0 million hectares which is largest in the world against a total area of 156.6 million hectares. The average yield of rice in India is 3.2 tonnes/hectare alone. The reasons for low yield are limited area under irrigation, seasonal shortage of resources and delay in land preparation and transplanting. A study on economics and major constraints in rice cultivation in Kaithal district of Haryana was conducted during 2009-10.Total costs in rice production amounted to be Rs. 33778.68/ha. Average yield was 4.99 t/ha. Benefit-cost ratio worked out to be 1.27. Pests and disease incidence, lack of remunerative price and labour shortage were the major constraints in rice production.
Rice is produced in wide range of locations and under a variety of climate conditions, from the wettest areas in the world to driest deserts. It is believed to be originated in South East Asia particularly India and Indo-China, where the richest diversity of cultivated races has been recorded. India stands first in rice area and second in production after China. The crop is mainly grown in kharif and in summer season in Navsari, Valsad, Surat, Dangs and Kheda districts of South Gujarat where perennial canal irrigation facilities are available. The popular varieties grown on in South Gujarat are Dandi, Gurjari, Jaya, IR-28 etc. NAUR-1 rice variety has more yielding potential compared to other varieties and tolerant to salinity. The response of this NAUR-1 rice crop to the growth substances was positive and significant with respect to growth and yield attributes. On the basis of experimental results, it can be concluded that combination of seed treatment and seedling spray of Thiourea @1000 mg/l significantly improved various growth parameters and yield of rice variety NAUR-1 during summer season.
In system of rice cultivation (SRI), proper spacing in the planting of seedlings is one of the essential principles. A spacing of 25 x 25 cm in a uniform square pattern is the recommended practice. However practical adaptability of planting single seedling in square method becomes very tedious under field conditions and farmers find it difficult to mark the recommended spacing with the conventional method of using rope as marker. This led to the development of a handy implement, the rolling marker overcoming the constraints of rope. The marker when rolled on wet paddy field makes uniform square impressions. Lately, the adoption of zig zag and oblong pattern of planting under SRI has been tried instead of square planting. Focusing these points, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the response of hybrid rice in modified mat nursery and to different planting pattern in main field (using rolling markers) under SRI principles.
The book depicts status and performance of centrally sponsored agricultural schemes in India, called "Macro Management of Agricultural Schemes" that covers 17 sub-schemes of agriculture in India, focusing mainly on the development of rice, wheat, coarse cereals, farm mechanization, watershed development, etc. The scheme was made operational from 2001 in all the states and Union Territories (UTs). It was formulated to ensure that Central assistance is spent on focused areas and specific interventions that have been made for the development of agriculture across the states in the country. The MMA scheme has brought about tangible benefits for farmers and made a tremendous impact on agriculture in the country. Still, the scheme has lot of scopes for improvement, if the delivery mechanism of the scheme is strengthened.
This book is the result of the research of 7 years by the author on avian fauna and rhesus monkey of Bir Bara Ban Sanctuary of Jind, Haryana ,India. The study concerns with wild fauna with more emphasis on Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) and avian fauna of Bir Bara Ban Sanctuary in Jind district of Haryana state of India. Investigations concerning troop size, number, home range and the social behavior of Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta ) and presence of bird fauna and their diversity are likely to give interesting information. I believe that this book would be of immense help to the students as well as researchers of wildlife. It will add to the knowledge of general public regarding these denizens of nature.
This book is an outcome of research carried out for 5 years at Department of Botany, University of Pune, India in association with Agricultural Faculty and Natural Resources, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz Brach-Iran. The research was focused on effect of waterlogging stress on morpho-physiological characteristics of wheat. The book encompasses six chapters. Chapter-I is devoted on definition and causes of waterlogging, dimension of problem in world and adaptive mechanisms to waterlogging. Chapter-II is focused the previous work on this aspect. Chapter-III includes the various types of methodology used and crop management practices. Chapter-IV is devoted on observations and results of field and pot experiments. Chapter-V is devoted to discuss the results and probable morpho-physiological characteristics of wheat by various duration of waterlogging at different growth stages . Chapter-VI, summary and conclusion are given in nutshell in last chapter. This book will be a guideline for physiology, agronomy student, teachers, researchers and even farmers.
Technical efficiency in wheat production across major cropping zones of the Punjab (Pakistan) through stochastic frontier production function with Cobb-Douglas specification has been analyzed. The mean technical efficiency of wheat production was 78.2, 82.8, 80.2 and 50.1 percent in the mixed, cotton-wheat, rice-wheat and rain-fed zones, respectively. The results signify that there is a scope to increase wheat productivity through technical efficiency improvements under existing conditions of input use and technology. In the irrigated zones, number of ploughings for land preparation, use of chemical fertilizers and number of irrigation applications contributed positively to the crop production. The inefficiency in wheat production was due to sowing of poor quality produce as seed year after year, wheat crop acreage at the farms in irrigated zones and due to incidences of technical and financial problems in both irrigated as well as rain-fed zones. While, operational farm size and farmers’ contact with extension agents in the irrigated cropping zones and education level of the farmers in the rain-fed zone were technical inefficiency decreasing farmer characteristics.
Rapid growth of cities across the world is leading to heavy pressure on water resources with many urban centers facing crisis in water supply. Due to lack of advance planning and indiscriminate use of resources, ground water levels are getting depleted and productive lands are turning into "Concrete wasteland". The situation is worst in the third world countries, where most of the rivers have been turned into sewers/neglected courses. This has resulted in loss of natural habitat and hampered the natural regeneration of river health. The case study gives insight into the underlying socioeconomic reasons for the problem and suggests corrective measures for the rejuvenation of the decaying river in the cities. Geomatics technology has been extensively used in this study to evaluate the effects of alternative landuse management practices on water resources at the micro-watershed level. A proto- type watershed management decision support system (D.S.S)has been conceptualized to identify the relative contribution of sub-watersheds to the river. The study will be immensely useful for the ongoing / proposed river rejuvenation programmes across the cities of world.
The monograph describes the concentrations of ambient NH3 and other trace gases (NO, NO2, SO2, O3 and CO) and its interaction over Delhi, NCR, IGP, Himalayan region and Bay of Bengal of India. The average concentrations of ambient NH3, NO, NO2, SO2 and CO were recorded as 21.2 ± 5.4 ppb, 19.5 ± 4.9 ppb, 17.4 ± 1.4 ppb, 1.7 ± 0.5 ppb and 1.6 ± 0.7 ppm respectively during winter, whereas the average concentrations of ambient NH3, NO, NO2, SO2 and CO were recorded as 20.8 ± 4.7 ppb, 21.7 ± 6.3 ppb, 16.8 ± 3.1 ppb, 2.2 ± 0.8 ppb and 1.8 ± 0.9 ppm respectively during summer at Delhi. The results emphasized that the traffic could be one of the significant sources of ambient NH3 at the urban site of Delhi as illustrated by positive correlations of NH3 with traffic related pollutants (NO, NO2 and CO). Surface wind analysis and wind directions also support the road side traffic and agricultural activities at the nearby area indicating possible major sources of ambient NH3 at the study site. NH3 emission from rice-wheat cropping system of subtropical agricultural soil of Delhi, India has also been demostrated. About 9% of the applied N was lost as NH3 during the rice and wheat crops
The genetic diversity of 25 improved varieties and four traditional varieties were characterized using a set of 20 well chosen and polymorphic microsatellite (SSR) primer pairs. The SSR markers used were polymorphic (100.0%) and generated the reliable information about the relatedness of the varieties. High values of polymorphism obtained in the characterization were attributed to hypervariability of the microsatellite markers. Among the popular varieties, the mean genetic similarity of 0.38 was observed indicating the wide diversity of the popular varieties. Cluster analysis based on 87 SSR marker alleles grouped 29 genotypes into two major clusters. The first major cluster comprised 9 genotypes of traditional varieties and early improved varieties. The second major cluster consisted of 20 improved varieties of complex pedigree and several recombination events. Principal component analysis revealed four clusters, out of which one cluster included seven genotypes from rainfed shallow land ecology suggesting the grouping was based on physiological traits. Unique alleles were generated for 14 varieties, which can be used as molecular tags.
This book is an outcome of research carried out for 5 years at Department of Botany, University of Pune, India in association with Department of Agricultural and Natural Resources, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran. The research was focused on interspecific competition and allelopathic effects of wild mustard and wild oat on growth and productivity of wheat. The book encompasses six chapters. Chapter-I is focused on weed-crop competition and factors influencing weed competition. Chapter-II is highlighting the previous work on this aspect on different food grains crop including wheat. Chapter-III includes the various types of methodology used, experimental design, crop density, weed density and nitrogen levels applied. Chapter-IV is focused on results of the different field, pot and Phytoextract bioassay experiments. Chapter-V is devoted to discuss the results and probable morpho-physiological characteristics of wheat competition ability of wheat,wild mustard and wild oat influeced by various dosses of nitrogen fertilizer. Chapter-VI, summary and conclussion are given in nutshell in last chapter. This book will be a guidline for agro-physiologist and weed biologist.