Income Tax deserves significant attention in a developing economy as it is one of the major sources of government revenue. Tax system of India has come a long way. Tax policymakers and tax administrators have been continuously adapting tax system to reflect changing economic, social and political circumstances. Moreover, restructuring of tax system has been a major component of fiscal reforms initiated since 1991 in an effort to keep pace with the changing global scenario on the basis of recommendations of Raja J. Chelliah Committee and Kelkar Committee. This book examines the Taxation of Income in India during post liberalisation period and policy perspective in this regard. It has analysed the growth of income tax revenue, performance of Income Tax Department and perception of tax professionals regarding Income Tax System in India during post liberalisation period.This book also highlights various tax reforms carried by the Government and recommends measures for further improvement.
From the last half of 19th century with the increase in the world’s population, food production and fertilizer consumption has increased continuously but, the rate of increase in consumption of chemical fertilizer is terribly high than that of the rate of production increased. Indiscriminate application of chemical fertilizer, mainly nitrogenous fertilizers polluting our habitat in many ways. Our natural eco-system is also being badly affected, soil productivity is in declining phase. The increasing trend of nitrogenous fertilizer application has a long term detrimental effect on environment, human as well as on soil health. The most horrifying aspect of the modern chemical input based intensive agriculture is the rapid fall of chemical fertilizer response . Now we must find an alternative low-chemical resource based energy conserving and natural resource-efficient farming method for achieving long term sustainability in farming system as well as environmental stability confirming food security of the world. Organic farming has expanded rapidly in recent years and is seen as a sustainable alternative to chemical-based agricultural systems .
Dr. Ram Singh is currently Associate Professor, School of Social Sciences, College of Post Graduate Studies, Central Agricultural University, Barapani, Meghalaya, India. He has a wide research experience and worked in different national and international institute of repute viz, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana, India, Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana, India, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana, India and International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). He is also guiding and teaching post graduate students. His main fields of interest are Agricultural Economics, Natural Resource Economics and Agricultural Marketing. He has authored 27 research papers, 4 popular articles, 12 abstract papers which have been published in various national and international journals and 1 book chapter, 1 project report and 1 research bulletin at research level. He has also participated and presented papers and posters in many national and international seminars, workshops, symposium and conferences. Presently he is Member Executive Committee in Indian Society of Agricultural Marketing, Nagpur (India).
There is a negative sulphur balance in the arable soils of Poland due to restrictions on SO2 emissions, intensification of agricultural production, and decreased consumption of natural and mineral fertilizers. Sulphur is an essential element for the growth and development of crop plants. It has an important physiological role and protects the plant against diseases and pests. Sulphur deficiency is detrimental to the vigour of the plant and its resistance to stress and it reduces yield. "Sulphur and nitrogen fertilization of spring wheat" is a book which presents the effect of fertilization with nitrogen and sulphur on the yield and quality of spring wheat grain. It also presents the content and accumulation of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur in selected growth phases of spring wheat and proposes a method of additional sulphur and nitrogen application during critical stages. As Polish agriculture changes over to an integrated production system, it is proposed that the variant of 80 kg N/ha in conjunction with 50 kg S/ha should be recommended for use in production systems of spring wheat.
Mono cropping is a dominant practice in Ethiopia, and leads to crop failure, depletion of soil nutrient, develop disease and pests, and reduce farmers income, but farmers of the country commonly use intercropping to overcome yield reduction, diversify nutrient source, improving soil fertility, and increase land use efficiency. Statistical analysis showed that intercropping of faba bean and wheat to increase biomass and seed yields, land use efficiency, monetary value, soil fertility, and minimizing of risks associated with mono cropping.
Wheat is a very good substitute of rice and can play a vital role from the viewpoint of food self-sufficiency. From the study wheat production was found to be profitable to the farmers. On the other hand, efficiency analysis implied that there is ample scope to increase the farmers’ income and wheat yield by adopting the technologies adopted by the frontier farmers and cost can be considerably reduced without sacrificing the existing level of output. Wheat has a great potential in Bangladesh. For sustaining its production, some important measures include introduction of hybrid seed and improved production technology, development of wheat based cropping pattern and industry, providing training, following crop rotation, protecting environmental degradation and reasonable harvest price, market promotion, supplying agricultural credit, diversified uses, etc should be taken. The study also identified some socioeconomic and biophysical problems/constraints faced by the farmers, which hindered the higher production and yield of wheat, and also suggested some recommendations to improve the present production situation so that per hectare yield of wheat would possibly be increased.
In Ethiopia, especially in the current study area, the land available for natural grazing and forage production decreased due to the high demand of cropland to produce food for humans. Thus, the use of other alternative and relatively cheap feed sources such as agricultural and industrial by-products should be investigated to alleviate livestock feed shortage. Among potential agro-industrial by-products available for livestock in the present study area are noug seed cake, rice bran, and breweries dried grain and wheat bran. Rice production is currently booming in the study area and supposed to bring food security at least in for local level. While the rice grain is a helping hand for food security, the by-product of rice milling, rice bran, is also expected to make better the feed shortage as long as better utilization strategies are applied for such kind of crop residues through the integration of knowledge of smallholder producers.
Providing recent advancements in designing Real-Time Imaging applications, “Rice Grading System for Embedded Image Processing” includes fundamental theory, soft-computing algorithms and extensive step-by-step guide to generate automatic HDL codes through Simulink®. The text includes the design of hardware compatible fixed-point codes for the development of automatic image processing based rice grading system. The topics covered are approached with the aim of reducing complexity in implementation of image processing operations on hardware platforms like FPGAs. •Features flowcharts, code-snippets of fixed-point codes, VHDL source codes, images of qualitative results and tables of quantitative analysis•Provides step-by-step guide to design & synthesize Simulink® models of image processing system for automatic generation of HDL followed by FPGA synthesization on Spartan6 •Provides extensive literature review on embedded imaging from past 16 years. The book provides an exclusive approach towards the FPGA implementation of image processing based operations and will serve as a reference guide for development of handheld imaging devices
Computer programs can help in information recovery and decision support when dealing with pest problems. These decision support tools can provide farmers with easy, rapid access to accurate information that can help them to obtain the threshold to make adequate management decisions. Plans for future field testing and expert system implementation are also discussed. Using such as expert system for controlling wheat ear insects can be successfully applied to the solution of daily problems in plant protection programs for wheat producers. Finally, the obtained results would give a good guide for choosing the proper varieties which proved highly resistant to their specific pests, as an efficient method of integrated plant protection.
The importance of human capital in fostering the economic growth is well documented by the endogenous growth theorists. While there is a lot of debate as to what constitutes the human capital? It is universally acclaimed that primary education is always the basic pillar in human capital formation. The problem of the less developed countries (LDCs) is not only their low income, but also the low quality of education they impart. India has also suffered due to faulty education system. We try to understand the various aspects of the delivery mechanism in the public primary education system and correlate efficiency in the education system with broad parameters of health and economic well being simultaneously, in the Indian context. The empirical work is based on DISE data and DLHS data.
This book mainly focuses on value delivery system of ‘fresh produce’ in India. India is the second largest purveyor of fresh produce and requires a lot of proficiency and resources. To handle such huge production is not an easy task, which is one of the biggest challenge that India faces to procure such huge production and supply it to end consumer. This book presents a framework to design various fresh produce procurement options available to a food-retailer like direct procurement from farmers and farmer organizations, development of business partners/service providers, and explores production areas adjoining to consumption pattern. The study related to marketing of fresh produce shows that Marketed Surplus can be boosted by increasing vegetable production by the farmers mainly for sale in market to increase their income. The empirical evidence demonstrates that the benefits of rise in prices are not fully availed by the growers and their gains have been intercepted by the middleman, reflecting the inefficiencies of the marketing mechanism.
Power and machinery is a single largest cost component, constituting about 60% of the total investment cost on mechanized farm. The profit of a farm depends, to a great extent, on the appropriate mechanization planning of the farm. Selection of proper size of power source(s) and its matching equipment is of paramount importance for an efficient mechanization planning.The bottleneck in the farm mechanization planning has been due to complexity of available machinery systems and their diversity with respect to type, size, number and operational characteristics. The process is further complicated in multiple cropping farms. Several models have been developed for the selection of agricultural machinery system using different techniques, like, linear programming, heuristic models, dynamic programming, and least cost approach. All those models were crop and location specific. This book describes the development of computer based mathematical models using least cost technique and a software for the selection of optimum power and machinery system. The developed models were validated for paddy-wheat crop rotation of Northern India.
In India, Islamic banking is facing hurdles. There are efforts being made to establish a full fledge Islamic bank for the inclusion of the second largest population of the country which is reluctant of interest based investments. Islamic financial institutions exist in India, in the form of Non-banking financial institutions and Muslim Funds. There is a problem of managing the workforce and there is absence of standard system of operations. India has no enough reasons to avoid the exponential growth of Islamic banking worldwide. The growth in this sector is more than the growth of normal banking system. Why not it should promote Islamic banking if it’s promising sustainable development with many other advantages. The proponents of the interest free banking and finance have to prove the benefits by empirical data. The level of discourse would be at a new height if empirical studies prove the comparative advantage of Islamic banking. Therefore it could be concluded that at a time when India has adopted the policy of throwing open the Banking sector to foreign players, permitting Islamic Banks and Islamic windows in commercial banks would attract more foreign capital to the country.
The present focus of the environment and climatic changes has considerably increased scientific awareness towards the need to analysis and understand the complex interaction among the organisms and environment. The new type of problems like pollution and Eutrophication etc , all of these problems have cropped up only due to thoughtless exploitation of various natural resources by man and also due to his absolutely egoist attitude towards nature. The present book reflects the Scenario of Hydrobiology and biodiversity of Tadoba lake , Chandrapur , (M.S)India. The Book included six chapters with references for upcoming limnologists, Zoologists, Botanists, Microbiologists, environmentalists and researcher student and for the people engaged in the field of aquatic biology. The book covers I depth analysis of physico- chemical and biological parameters with survey of Macroinvertebrates, Macrophytes fish fauna and avian fauna.
AIDS (Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome) has always been one of the those complected disease which has kept scientist puzzled. That way taking lives of innumerable people, hence a attempt is made in the field of finding cure for it be integrating the Indian Tribal system of medicine with ayurveda. In this book you will find lots of different tribes present in India along with there natural habitat and the medicine system they use as a remedy. Which may prove helpful in developing a cure for AIDS by integrating it with ayurveda.