This book seeks to deal with problem of access to justice from the point of view of power dynamics, by analyzing ancient legal model, Mughal legal model, British India legal model and present access to justice model and the model provided under the Constitution. Delivery of justice is highly affected by extra-legal power play. The author wants to focus on the inaction on the part of Executive heads and the Protector of fundamental rights i.e. Supreme Court, in administration of justice in India, for that he would analyzed the Ancient India legal system, legal system prevailed during British period and the present legal system and also the system provided under the Constitution of India. The author would try to find out whether Executive, Legislature and Judiciary are performing its functions for the dispensation of complete justice. Further, he thinks that there are many hindrances in the present system of administration of justice which make the access to justice difficult.The State, under the Indian Constitution, like that of Ancient Indian Constitution i.e. Rajdharma, is under the duty to intervene in every field to create and maintain a level playing field.
Tamil Nadu is India's fifth largest producer of rice, next to West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh. The Cauvery delta region of the composite Thanjavur district in the state is known as the Rice Bowl of South India. Rice is grown in 2.1 million hectares accounting for about one-third of the gross cropped area under diverse environments in the state, like; rain-fed tank, tank, tank cum well, canal (river) and canal (reservoir) irrigation systems. The rice productivity growth had been declining at the rate of -0.40 per cent (during period 1990-91 to 1999-00) as the yields of existing varieties had already been plateauing. Recent breakthroughs in the development of tropical hybrid rice technology had how ever provided an alternative option for raising yield levels for sustained production growth in rice especially in favourable irrigated eco-systems. A nation-wide network on Development and Use of Hybrid Rice Technology – initiated by the ICAR with support from the UNDP,FAO and IRRI. Under this network,TNAU has released four rice hybrids so far, namely; CORH 1, CORH 2 ADTRH 1 and ADTRH 2.Hence, it was decided to take-up this hybrid technology impact study.
Wheat is the second most important staple food after rice consumed by 65% of the population in India. Fertilizer plays a leading role in increasing crop production by almost 41%. Among the primary nutrients, nitrogen plays an important role in plant metabolism by virtue of being an essential constituent of structural component of the cell and many diverse type of metabolically active compounds. It is also a constituent of chlorophyll, which is important for the harvest of solar energy. Nitrogen is liable to lost through leaching, volatilization and run off during crop period. Further, crop requires N throughout the growth period. Potassium plays an essential role in plant growth and metabolism. It activates enzymes, maintains tissue turgor pressure, regulates stomata closing and balances the charge of anions. When applied in soil, it aggregates with clay particles so slowly release in soil. So, split application of nitrogen and potassium is seems very important and essential to be studied for wheat crop.
The monograph describes the concentrations of ambient NH3 and other trace gases (NO, NO2, SO2, O3 and CO) and its interaction over Delhi, NCR, IGP, Himalayan region and Bay of Bengal of India. The average concentrations of ambient NH3, NO, NO2, SO2 and CO were recorded as 21.2 ± 5.4 ppb, 19.5 ± 4.9 ppb, 17.4 ± 1.4 ppb, 1.7 ± 0.5 ppb and 1.6 ± 0.7 ppm respectively during winter, whereas the average concentrations of ambient NH3, NO, NO2, SO2 and CO were recorded as 20.8 ± 4.7 ppb, 21.7 ± 6.3 ppb, 16.8 ± 3.1 ppb, 2.2 ± 0.8 ppb and 1.8 ± 0.9 ppm respectively during summer at Delhi. The results emphasized that the traffic could be one of the significant sources of ambient NH3 at the urban site of Delhi as illustrated by positive correlations of NH3 with traffic related pollutants (NO, NO2 and CO). Surface wind analysis and wind directions also support the road side traffic and agricultural activities at the nearby area indicating possible major sources of ambient NH3 at the study site. NH3 emission from rice-wheat cropping system of subtropical agricultural soil of Delhi, India has also been demostrated. About 9% of the applied N was lost as NH3 during the rice and wheat crops
The present study was based on two experiments: one carried out in pot under natural condition and other carried out in field. In potted plant the effects PGPRs and Rhizobium leguminosarum have been studied on the growth, yield parameters and N2 fixation of chickpea under natural condition. Kinetin was found to be the most affective in increasing growth parameter and nitrogen fixation of chickpea. Application of Rhizobium inoculum, generally increased growth yields components and Nitrogen fixation. The pattern of response to hormone and Rhizobium inoculum was consistent in the three consecutive years. It would suggest that that both the efficiency and the longevity of the nodules favorably affected by kinetin application. A three-year chickpea-wheat rotation study in fields was carried in a well-drained sandy soil to quantify nitrogen fixation by chickpea and determine its residual N effects on soil N-fertility and yield of following wheat crop. Continuous chickpea crop and its rotation with wheat enhanced N fertility level of the soil. Our results support the strategy of using legumes in rotation with wheat in the arid region forenhancing soil N-supply and increasing wheat yield.
Rice is one of the most important food grains produced and consumed all over the world. It is the major staple food for more than two billion people in Asia and one third of the calorific intake of nearly one billion people of Africa and Latin America. Hence, rice can be rightly called as ‘The stuff of life’. Worldwide, rice is cultivated in an area of 153.8 m ha, which is more than 10 per cent of the arable land.Rice is adapted to various edaphic and climatic conditions. Rice is being cultivated from below sea level in Kuttanad of Kerala to higher altitudes as in Jammu and Kashmir revealing the heterogeneity of its environment and its different modes of cultivation. The semidry rice cultivation is prevalent in twenty per cent of rice area of our country with low productivity of one t ha-1, when compared with the normal productivity of transplanted rice, of about 5 t ha-1 (TNAU Annual report, 2000). In Tamil Nadu, semidry rice system is practiced in about one lakh hectares with a mean productivity of one t ha-1. Thus there is an imminent need to raise the level of productivity to narrow down the wide disparity.
India, in terms of production and area, now occupies the second place among wheat growing countries of the world. The total world wheat production is estimated at 605.9 million tonnes from 216.6 million ha during 2005-2006 to which contributed 11.4%. Sulphur is essential for synthesis of proteins, vitamins and sulphur containing essential amino acids and is also associated with nitrogen metabolism. Sulphur improves both yield and quality of crops. Sulphur deficiency in soil is the increase with intensification of agriculture. The fertilizers responsive varieties have accelerated the depletion of sulphur increases in soil, even from lower soil depth. The continuous use of sulphur free fertilizers have resulted in wide spread deficiency of sulphur in Indian soils and become more beneficial in light textured soils which low in organic matter. Information on effect of sulphur on yield, quality and uptake of nutrients under wheat crop is limited. Keeping above facts in view the present investigation was conducted to study the Effect of sulphur levels on physico-chemical properties of soil and performance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).
Main Topics: (A) SOCIO ECONOMIC JUSTICE AND WOMEN’S RIGHT- Preambular Concept of Socio Economic Justice, Social And Legal Perspective of Women in India: Empowerment And Concerning Issue, Socio -Econimc Justice And Women’s Right, Social justice key to Constitution: A Fundamental Analysis. (B)DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AND WOMEN- An Analysis of Domestic Violence Laws of Nepal from Perspectives of Women Rights,Domestic Violence: A Theoretical Perspective (C)CRIMINAL LAW AND WOMEN- Dowry System in India : Legislative Measures Gender-Based Violence, Need for introspection in the rise of Rape Cases for Bringing Gender Justice- A Problem beyond Law and Order, Delhi Nirbhaya’s Case: A Catalyst Episode for Changes in Criminal Justice System on Women Protection. (D) WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDIA- Right to Education And Women Empowerment in Democratic India: A Humanistic Approach, Women’s empowerment and Women’s land rights.
Change in method of crop establishment from traditional transplanting of seedlings to direct seeding has occurred in many rice growing countries in response to increasing production cost, especially for labour and water. It also aids in quick rice establishment, early harvest and thus early sowing of wheat. Sowing of pre-germinated rice seeds under puddled condition either manually or drum seeding method reduces the demand of water for puddling and minimized the emergence of weed flora by placing the seed, stems and stolens of weeds into sub-surface. Direct seeded rice is subjected to greater weed competition because both weed and crop seeds emerge at the same time and compete with each other from the germination as a result less grain yield. Uncontrolled weeds reduce the yield by 96 % in dry seeded rice and 61% in wet seeded rice. Control of weeds is important to reduce the weed competition as well as to maximize the efficient utilization of resources. Herbicides are considered to be an economical alternative to manage weeds against age-old practice of hand weeding, which is costlier and also becomes impracticable.
Rice is the staple food for 2.5 billion people, growing 9% of the earth's arable land. India and Indonesia are the major countries in Asia producing the 85% of the rice produced in the world. A steady increase in production, choice of appropriate selection method is needed to further raise to genetic yield in rice. The efficiency of selection methods like pedigree, bulk and single seed descent, etc. primarily depend upon genetic variability. Although, hybridization in plant breeding provides the useful source of variability, but hybridization in combination of mutation would be expected to increase supplementary variability for favorable traits. Further, early generation selection would be advantageous because a genotype possessing all the desirable genes occur most often in early segregating generations (F2 and F3). Keeping in view, the efficiency of five different selection methods were assessed in both normal and irradiated early segregating generations of two rice crosses. This book has comprehensive collection of review, sizable number of tables and logical illustrations, and will be much useful to scholars and researchers working in the field of rice breeding.
Large white cabbage butterfly, Pieris brassicae (L.) is one of the most destructive pests in hilly regions of the India and several parts of the World and frequently causes heavy losses in marketable yield. Many control tactics have been followed to reduce the damage by this pest; although chemical control unfortunately till now a dominant option to fight against them. Besides harmful to the health, certain pesticides can cause severe damage to on-farm biodiversity as well. Therefore, biological control is now, emerging as an important component of pest management. The Meghalaya is a part of north eastern Himalayas (India) and one of the components of mega-biodiversity hot spot and exceptionally rich in terms of flora and fauna. In this book, attempts have been made to provide the information about different natural enemies of crop pests and their natural dynamics in cruciferous ecosystems, where we have tremendous scope to utilise them in biological control programmes against the target pests. Additionally, effects of different host plants on biology and behaviour of P.brassicae and its natural enemies have also been described.
This book presents a methodology for integrated assessment and simulation of sustainability linkages in coupled human-natural systems (human settlements). The first part of this book is directed towards analyzing the EIA system in India and identifies areas for improvement. The second part is directed towards explaining the conceptual foundation for integrated assessment of the ecological, social, physical and financial components of sustainability in any area which is under assessment. The methodology for integrated assessment of sustainability linkages through local knowledge based cognitive mapping, elicitation of indicator status and zonal linkages is also explained in the second part. The methodology is illustrated through application in the Village of Kalarampatti in southern India. The third part of this book is devoted to bring out the utility of fuzzy inference system in building a rule based decision support system for the assessment of sustainability. This book will be useful to professionals, researchers and scholars working in the area of Sustainability of human settlements as it presents a detailed methodology to assess sustainability with a real world case study.
Rodent fauna of Jorhat district of Assam, India is a scholarly publication that discusses the species composition, habit and habitat of rodent species of Jorhat district till 2004. Based on the morphometric and skull measurements, altogether eight species, seven under Muridae and one under Sciuridae were identified. The species under family Muridae were Bandicota bengalensis bengalensis (Gray), Bandicota indica indica (Bechstein), Mus musculus castaneus Waterhouse, Mus booduga (Gray), Rattus sikkimensis Hinton, Rattus rattus (Linnaeus) and Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout). The only squirrel species under family Sciuridae collected in Jorhat district was identified as Dremomys lokriah macmillani Thomas. This book will be helpful for the people working in the field of rodents, their habit and habitat studies.
Rice is the second largest produced cereal in the world. At least 114 countries grow rice, with at least 50 countries having an annual production of 100,000 tons or more, with China and India being the largest rice producers and consumers of rice. The total area of salt affected soils (saline and sodic soils) in the world is 397.1 and 434.3 million hectares, respectively. Rice is a salt sensitive plant, particularly during the seedling stage and rice yield has been found to decrease by 12% for every unit (dS/m) increase in average root zone electrical conductivity of saturated soil extract (ECe). The capacity to tolerate salinity is a key factor in rice production on salt affected soils. The world population is increasing and the gap between the supply and demand of agricultural products is widening day by day. In order to meet the future demand of food, fiber, fuel, and industrial raw material, the expansion of agriculture would require the use of marginal lands. Hopefully, the results from this study will significantly contribute to the current knowledge on salt stress on rice and useful in developing agricultural management strategies for ameliorating salt affected soils.
This book is an outcome of research carried out for 5 years at Department of Botany, University of Pune, India in association with Department of Agricultural and Natural Resources, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran. The research was focused on interspecific competition and allelopathic effects of wild mustard and wild oat on growth and productivity of wheat. The book encompasses six chapters. Chapter-I is focused on weed-crop competition and factors influencing weed competition. Chapter-II is highlighting the previous work on this aspect on different food grains crop including wheat. Chapter-III includes the various types of methodology used, experimental design, crop density, weed density and nitrogen levels applied. Chapter-IV is focused on results of the different field, pot and Phytoextract bioassay experiments. Chapter-V is devoted to discuss the results and probable morpho-physiological characteristics of wheat competition ability of wheat,wild mustard and wild oat influeced by various dosses of nitrogen fertilizer. Chapter-VI, summary and conclussion are given in nutshell in last chapter. This book will be a guidline for agro-physiologist and weed biologist.