An efficient marketing system ensures higher level of income for the maize growers. It widens the markets for the products by taking them to remote corners of the country. Maize growers faced many problems in marketing of their produce. The problems in marketing arise due to lower prices, fluctuation in prices, and long marketing channels. The inefficiency in marketing system affects the income of the maize farmers. The income of the farmers totally depends on failure and success of this crop. The prices of the Maize - crop often less than other competing crops. This book focused on the marketing system,cost, margins,price spreads,market integration ,marketing issues and constraints, maize market information system and policy issues for market development.The subject matter of the book presented in simple language and with supporting latest data and research findings.The book is useful for policy makers,research students, agribusiness managers, agri-business and agri-processing organizations.
The book will serve as a reference document for the researchers working in cropping systems particularly cereal based cropping systems. The experiment consisting of seven treatments was laid out in randomized block Design with five replications. Seed, straw and biological yield of mungbean increased with progressive increase in fertilizer dose. The pooled grain yield was recorded highest in T5 (1291 kg per ha). Highest grain, straw as well as biological yield of wheat was recorded in T5 during both the years. Pooled grain yield was recorded highest in T5 (2950 kg per ha), at par with T7 (2906 kg per ha) and T4 (2896 kg per ha) and significantly superior over rest of the treatments. Protein content was found highest in treatment T7 (100% RDF) with the value of 11.7% during both the years of experimentation. Maximum net returns were obtained in T7 during first and second year, respectively. The available N and K in soil increased due to the application of T2+75% RDF (T5), during both the years of study.
The term ‘Garbage Disposal System’ or ‘Solid Waste’ includes such items as glass bottles, crockery, plastic and polythene, waste paper, automobile spare parts also organic waste such as plant leaves etc., which are discarded as garbage. In the present study Nahan town has been chosen to study the problem of garbage generation and its disposal. Nahan town is situated on an isolated ridge with a peculiar character. It has a large proportion of population living with high standards of living. The town has large number of shops, hotels, restaurants and private and government offices. The town has an enormous floating population including migrants. This generates a large amount of garbage. In the present study, the different aspects of the garbage problem of Nahan town have been studied. The sources of garbage have been identified. The distribution of officially designated points of garbage collection and the unofficial dumping of garbage in Nahan town has been studied.
The notion of recycling and using materials from the nature is welcomed in some countries or rather required in others. In order to investigate one of the most common natural building materials; wheat fibers, as a reinforcing material, 156 cementitious matrix specimens and 99 concrete specimens were tested. The specimens were tested in either compression or bending. The main objective of this research was to determine if these natural fibers increase the loading capacity of the specimen tested and what is the optimum amount to do so. Also to compare specimens reinforced by wheat fibers with those reinforced by polypropylene fiber. Finally, ABAQUS models were developed for concrete cylinders and prisms to simulate the effect of inclusion of the wheat fibers.
The Book entitled “Karnataka Public Library System in India: A case with Koppal District” is outcome of a survey conducted in Koppal district, Karnataka, India. The work discusses the concept and historical development of public library system in Karnataka. The survey is conducted for knowing the existing public library system in the Koppal district; it indicates the public library system in Karnataka as a whole. In this work discussion has made for the District central library, Branch libraries and Grama Panchayat libraries and other libraries like slum library, tribal libraries, children libraries etc. finally the study is made some suggestions for the improvement existing public library system for Karnataka has a whole, Koppal district in particular.
The aerobic rice system is a new way of rice cultivation in water shortage areas in which high yielding and nutrient responsive varieties are grown in non-flooded and non-saturated soil under supplementary irrigation. We characterized 22 Pythium isolates which were collected from diseased aerobic rice fields of International Rice Research Institute. The internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 and ITS2) regions including the 5.8 gene of ribosomal DNA were PCR amplified with the universal primers ITS1 and ITS4. Phylogenetic analysis of all Pythium isolates confirmed their accurate identity in which 19, two and one isolates were Pythium arrhenomanes, Pythium graminicola and Pythium inflatum respectiveliy. In vivo Pathogenicity test of all the isolates was conducted on pre-emergence state of aerobic rice seedlings. In this study, Pythium arrhenomanes and Pythium graminicola were pathogenic on aerobic rice causing seedling damping off with reduced root and shoot growth whereas Pythium inflatum was not pathogenic. Thus the study demonstrated the association of Pythium arrhenomanes and Pythium graminicola causing yield decline in aerobic rice system in the tropics.
Rice is one of the oldest cultivated crops on earth and half of the world's population subsists wholly or partially on rice. 90% of the world's rice is grown and consumed in Asia, and in Pakistan it holds second pitch in consumption after wheat and is a major source of export earnings. Growing rice country wide, the Pakistan has an added advantage of world renowned KALLAR Tract (a bowl-shaped region) and fine rice of this area has a unique character of Aroma that distinct it from others and rated best in liking. So the study was made to analyze the crop growth and potential yield of scented rice using CERES-Rice simulation model under semi-arid climatic conditions of Pakistan. This book can give an overall idea about Pakistani fine Rice cultivar i.e., Sper basmati and it’s response and easy approach to know the ‘Rice in Pakistan’.
The research investigated and evaluated in this book provides the valuable information for the students, researchers and scholars. This book can serve as a valuable guide for improving the rice yields viz-a-viz conserving the irrigation water. The evaluation of this crop in respect of different spacings and seedlings per hill can give a clear cut figure of the two interrelated parameters for the yield improvement of the said crop as well as microclimatic conditions in the crop canopy. The quantification of meteorological parameters like the intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), temperature and relative humidity within and outside the canopy using different treatment combinations (Spacings and Seedlings per hill) can give a clear cut picture of crop health as well as yield advantage of the Oryza sativa.
HUMAN RIGHTS are natural rights without which we cannot live. Human beings are rational. They by virtue of their being human possess certain basic and inalienable rights which are commonly known as human rights. Human rights are birthrights. They are inherent in human beings. Every one can enjoy these rights irrespective of caste, creed, religion, sex and nationality. These rights are not created by any legislation. Human rights are natural and universal They are inherent, innate and inalienable. Hence every human being is entitled to human rights. Globalization, affects the interests of individuals and their rights are violated by the transnational actors. Human rights are a set of claims and entitlements to human dignity, which the existing international regime assumes will be provided (or threatened) by the state. A more cosmopolitan and open international system should free individuals to pursue their rights, but large numbers of people seem to be suffering from both long¬standing state repression and new denials of rights linked to transnational forces.
System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is a popular practice being adopted worldwide to reap rich harvest. In the recent past, the successful SRI practices are being inculcated to other crops in the name of System of Crop Intensification (SCI). The SCI practices also proved to increase the yield levels more than two times. In pursuit of extending the beneficial effect of SRI to SCI in finger millet, the present study was programmed. Finger millet is an important small millet crop ranked third in India in area and production; staple food crop in hilly regions, grown for grain and fodder and cultivated up to an elevation of 3000 metre. By virtue of its superior nutritional quality and dietary fiber, finger millet provides nutritional security to resource-poor farmers. Germinating grains can be malted and fed to infants also. Adoption of SCI practices may enhance the productivity and in turn possible to increase farm income and nutritional security.
Rice blast caused by the filamentous ascomycete Magnaporthe grisea, is one of the most devastating diseases of cultivated rice. Blast disease is a major constraint in certain agro-ecological regions of India. Eastern India has the highest occurrence of blast, followed by North and South. This disease is also a serious problem in Gujarat, as rice is grown under irrigated and high fertilizers input conditions that are conducive to disease development. So the present investigation was taken up to identify blast resistance genes in local and improved cultivars from Gujarat along with IRRI cultivars, to assess genetic diversity among these cultivars using RAPD and SSR markers.
This book investigates the theoretical and practical impacts of the government procurement policy on rice producer price in Bangladesh agriculture. The policy, basically, aims at procuring a targeted amount of rice and wheat at predetermined prices in order to protect the producers’ income by stabilizing food prices and to provide foods to specified target-groups of consumers in course of normal time as well as in emergency period. The study conducted econometric analyses with twenty five years data collected from various government and private sources. The empirical finding of the study indicates that the rice producers are unlikely benefited from this policy even in the short run because of the potential caveats in the theoretical model and in its implementation. In effect, government intervention in terms of procuring food-stuffs deserves further review in order to reach its targeted objectives.
Rice is the basic source of household income in the study villages accounting for about 46 percent of the total income. there is a shift in factor income in rice production from labour to capital with higher and productivity. This book concerns the design for promoting farmer's adoption of the recommended package of practices so as to minimize the technological gap the findings of this research study would be helpful to farmers, students and policy makers to understand the agricultural scenario of India.