This research documented the findings on major considerations like property rights, role of institutions, water users’ interactions, value of water and propose strategies related to conservation and sustainable management of tank irrigation systems in South India. The research was undertaken in tank intensive districts of Tamil Nadu state, India. The claim over the benefits of a tank system was regulated among users by both legal and customary rights. Farmers attached higher social value over the tank irrigation system.Among various uses of tank, domestic, agricultural and LSD uses dominated the scenario. Women were empowered to participate in tank management by assuming various roles. Farmers were found to be the major competitors for tank water. The strategies proposed for sustainable management of tank system are strengthening the existing WUA,representation of women among the office bearers of WUA and rehabilitation of rainfed tanks.
The pressure on land is increasing day by day to get food, fodder, fuel wood, timber etc. due to increase in human and livestock population of India. Therefore, the existing natural resources are deteriorating and creating the land degradation. To minimize the land degradation and fulfill the demand of fuel wood, timber, green and dry forages for human and livestock in the country, silvipastoral system has been identified as an ideal alternative. Research works reported in the literature on various aspects such as establishment, forage production from under storey, leaf fodder and fuel wood through pruning of trees, total production from the system, livestock production, soil amelioration, changes in microclimate, grass and tree interaction and economics of the system has been collected and discussed in this review. Studies revealed that total biomass and livestock production per unit area and per unit time can be enhanced manifold through silvipastoral system as compared to grazing lands available in the present situation.
This book is an outcome of research carried out for 4 years at Fergusson College, University of Pune (MS), India in association with Baykoula Research Centre, Neka, Mazandaran,IRAN. The research was focused on formulations of organic fertilizers and testing these fertilizers in rice farming system. The book encompasses five chapters pertaining to effect of organic fertilizers on rice productivity and soil properties. Chapter-I comprises a review on organic fertilizers, effects of organic fertilizer on rice growth, productivity,biochemicals and antioxidant enzymes as well as on soil minerals. Chapter-II incorporates effects of different formulations of organic fertilizer on rice growth and productivity. Chapter-III relates to influence of organic fertilizers on biochemical parameters and antioxidant enzymes. Chapter -IV relates to effects of organic fertilizer on soil properties. A brief summary is also included at the end. Different formulations of organic fertilizers and their effects on rice productivity and soil properties provide useful information to the students , teachers and researchers in the field of Botany and Agriculture and even to soil scientists.
Rice is the basic source of household income in the study villages accounting for about 46 percent of the total income. there is a shift in factor income in rice production from labour to capital with higher and productivity. This book concerns the design for promoting farmer's adoption of the recommended package of practices so as to minimize the technological gap the findings of this research study would be helpful to farmers, students and policy makers to understand the agricultural scenario of India.
This book seeks to deal with problem of access to justice from the point of view of power dynamics, by analyzing ancient legal model, Mughal legal model, British India legal model and present access to justice model and the model provided under the Constitution. Delivery of justice is highly affected by extra-legal power play. The author wants to focus on the inaction on the part of Executive heads and the Protector of fundamental rights i.e. Supreme Court, in administration of justice in India, for that he would analyzed the Ancient India legal system, legal system prevailed during British period and the present legal system and also the system provided under the Constitution of India. The author would try to find out whether Executive, Legislature and Judiciary are performing its functions for the dispensation of complete justice. Further, he thinks that there are many hindrances in the present system of administration of justice which make the access to justice difficult.The State, under the Indian Constitution, like that of Ancient Indian Constitution i.e. Rajdharma, is under the duty to intervene in every field to create and maintain a level playing field.
The application of paddy intensification program in Indonesia using continuously synthetic chemical fertilizer and pesticide by the farmers in their paddy fields in every paddy growing season, slowly but surely, has generated less favorable impacts to quality of ecosystem and to the high production cost. It has generated an idea “back to nature” through the development of organic rice farming system using organic fertilizer and pesticide. However, planting paddy using organic farming system has not been done progressively. This book presents the results of the research which identifies farmers’ motivation factors to plant paddy using organic or conventional farming system in the village of Sumber Ngepoh, East Java province, Indonesia. The economic, social, ecological, cultural, and information factors which very strongly motivate them to apply organic or conventional farming system are presented in this book.
Change in method of crop establishment from traditional transplanting of seedlings to direct seeding has occurred in many rice growing countries in response to increasing production cost, especially for labour and water. It also aids in quick rice establishment, early harvest and thus early sowing of wheat. Sowing of pre-germinated rice seeds under puddled condition either manually or drum seeding method reduces the demand of water for puddling and minimized the emergence of weed flora by placing the seed, stems and stolens of weeds into sub-surface. Direct seeded rice is subjected to greater weed competition because both weed and crop seeds emerge at the same time and compete with each other from the germination as a result less grain yield. Uncontrolled weeds reduce the yield by 96 % in dry seeded rice and 61% in wet seeded rice. Control of weeds is important to reduce the weed competition as well as to maximize the efficient utilization of resources. Herbicides are considered to be an economical alternative to manage weeds against age-old practice of hand weeding, which is costlier and also becomes impracticable.
Food security is an issue of great importance. In South Asian countries including India millions of people suffer from hunger and malnutrition. Malnutrition in all age groups, especially among children, low birth weight due to under-nutrition of mother during pregnancy and underweight of children and cases of starvation deaths are common in these countries. But a civilized society in the 21st century cannot allow this to happen. So it is a major challenge to the Government to provide the minimum food-grains to all poor people at a very subsidized rate so that they can maintain their life and livelihood security. Food-security measures, analysis of the overall situation of food security in India and some policy prescription in detail are meticulously discussed. This book is prepared for the students of economics, development economics, sociology and social works. Those who work, in India or abroad, on issues of income inequality, hunger, under-nutrition, minimum support prices for procurement of food-grains, operation of PDS, regional disparity in the consumption of food-grains, price stabilization and food inflation etc will be immensely benefitted from the matter of this book.
The rice terraces of the municipality of Banaue, Philippines have been cultivated for several centuries. Over this period of time, the ecological system has been strongly influenced by the indigenous Ifugao people cultivating the rice fields. The culture and social habits of the inhabitants have developed deep ties with the rice terraces. Thus, the two systems have become strongly interrelated and interdependent. The processes and structures in this unique system have evolved for centuries to produce an abundance of ecosystem services and benefits in one of the most impoverished regions of the Philippines. This research aims at assessing the long-term development of ecosystem services and the adaptive capacity of a rice-based cultural landscape. Taking the different pressures into consideration, the book defines a suitable and relevant set of indicators describing the ecological and socioeconomic state of the system. The resilience of the rice terraces and the community living off them is assessed by comparing the result of these indicators with descriptions of the area in the previous literature. Finally, considering the resilience of the system, management options to enhance the adaptive capacity and improve the livelihood of the indigenous people of Ifugao are presented.
Human life on earth strongly depends upon a countable number of plant species. Most important food crops that are being utilized in the world are wheat, rice, corn and sorghum. Among them wheat(Triticum aestivum, L) is the most widely grown crop and is highly esteemed in the world. Diallel cross technique is one of the most efficient technique which can provides information to exploit the genetic mechanism and inheritance pattern for manipulation of polygenic traits involved in early generations and are particularly suited to autogamous crops like wheat. Thus this technique enable plant breeder to screen his breeding material in early generations. The present studies are, therefore, initiated with the prime objective to get the comprehensive knowledge about nature of gene action and magnitude of its contribution to various characters in a 5 ? 5 diallel cross. Information derived may be effectively exploited in developing and formulating an efficient breeding program for the evolution of better quality and high yielding varieties.
This book deals with cotton-wheat production system (CWPS)which occupies an important place in the agricultural economy of several south Asian countries. Instability of Cotton-wheat production system (CWPS) has increased particularly during the post transgenic hybrids phase mainly because of these hybrids calling for intensive crop management being cultivated under all situations specially resource poor conditions leading to violent fluctuations during adverse years and thereby affecting the socio-economic status of these developing countries. This book may be helpful to researchers, students and extension scientists who are working on transgenic cotton or systems. Shortfalls are always a vital part of any manuscript, so suggestions or others re-searchable issues on CWPS, will be always welcomed and appreciated for further improvements.
The present study was based on two experiments: one carried out in pot under natural condition and other carried out in field. In potted plant the effects PGPRs and Rhizobium leguminosarum have been studied on the growth, yield parameters and N2 fixation of chickpea under natural condition. Kinetin was found to be the most affective in increasing growth parameter and nitrogen fixation of chickpea. Application of Rhizobium inoculum, generally increased growth yields components and Nitrogen fixation. The pattern of response to hormone and Rhizobium inoculum was consistent in the three consecutive years. It would suggest that that both the efficiency and the longevity of the nodules favorably affected by kinetin application. A three-year chickpea-wheat rotation study in fields was carried in a well-drained sandy soil to quantify nitrogen fixation by chickpea and determine its residual N effects on soil N-fertility and yield of following wheat crop. Continuous chickpea crop and its rotation with wheat enhanced N fertility level of the soil. Our results support the strategy of using legumes in rotation with wheat in the arid region forenhancing soil N-supply and increasing wheat yield.
India, in terms of production and area, now occupies the second place among wheat growing countries of the world. The total world wheat production is estimated at 605.9 million tonnes from 216.6 million ha during 2005-2006 to which contributed 11.4%. Sulphur is essential for synthesis of proteins, vitamins and sulphur containing essential amino acids and is also associated with nitrogen metabolism. Sulphur improves both yield and quality of crops. Sulphur deficiency in soil is the increase with intensification of agriculture. The fertilizers responsive varieties have accelerated the depletion of sulphur increases in soil, even from lower soil depth. The continuous use of sulphur free fertilizers have resulted in wide spread deficiency of sulphur in Indian soils and become more beneficial in light textured soils which low in organic matter. Information on effect of sulphur on yield, quality and uptake of nutrients under wheat crop is limited. Keeping above facts in view the present investigation was conducted to study the Effect of sulphur levels on physico-chemical properties of soil and performance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).