Flooding and submergence are major abiotic stresses and are serious problems for growth and yield of flood sensitive crop. Excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under oxidative stress is an integral part of the many stress situations including oxygen shortage. Generation of ROS is the characteristics for hypoxia and re-oxygenation. Protection against ROS involves several antioxidants and most important pathway is ascorbate- glutathione cycle. Ascorbate peroxidase catalyzes the first reaction and is consider being a key rate limiting enzyme of this pathway. This book describes the possible role of Ascorbate peroxidase and its regeneration system with flooding tolerance mechanism in rice. This may help to propose new strategies to analyze APX gene knockout or to engineer transgenic plant (i.e. rice) tolerance to flooding stress. This book should especially useful to researchers / scientists in agriculture and life science field for future development of flooding tolerant rice cultivars.
This research work aimed at reduction of arsenic in rice grain which is a prominent source of arsenic poisoning through water management. Varied levels of deficit irrigation were tested against common farmers' practice. It showed how deficit irrigation could be used at farmers' field to minimize the entry of poisonous arsenic into human body through food-chain. Besides, the research also aimed at saving water which is a precious natural resource.
The Achievement of food security is one of the main challenges of many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. A steadfast increase in rice production can substantially contribute in ameliorating food security. Actually, rice is a staple food for more than half of the world’s population and its consumption is increasing rapidly in sub-Saharan Africa. In Cameroon, per capita consumption of rice has increased from 2.3 kg in 1961 to 22.4 kg in 2005. About 87 % of the rice consumed in Cameroon is imported, mean while the natural conditions in the country are favourable for the production of rice to satisfy local demand and for export. The dominant rice cropping systems in Cameroon are irrigated and lowland rainfed agriculture. The main question addressed in this book is “What are the potentialities of Southern Cameroon for upland rice production?” In this study, land evaluation was used to assess the suitability of Southern Cameroon for rice cultivation.
The present study was based on two experiments: one carried out in pot under natural condition and other carried out in field. In potted plant the effects PGPRs and Rhizobium leguminosarum have been studied on the growth, yield parameters and N2 fixation of chickpea under natural condition. Kinetin was found to be the most affective in increasing growth parameter and nitrogen fixation of chickpea. Application of Rhizobium inoculum, generally increased growth yields components and Nitrogen fixation. The pattern of response to hormone and Rhizobium inoculum was consistent in the three consecutive years. It would suggest that that both the efficiency and the longevity of the nodules favorably affected by kinetin application. A three-year chickpea-wheat rotation study in fields was carried in a well-drained sandy soil to quantify nitrogen fixation by chickpea and determine its residual N effects on soil N-fertility and yield of following wheat crop. Continuous chickpea crop and its rotation with wheat enhanced N fertility level of the soil. Our results support the strategy of using legumes in rotation with wheat in the arid region forenhancing soil N-supply and increasing wheat yield.
Biodiversity is one of the important cornerstones of sustainable growth and represents the biological riches of the country. India is one among the twelve mega biodiversity countries of the universe that accounts vast number of insect species, of which Lepidopteran insects particularly moths are dominating and fascinating group. The northern Maharashtra also represents good faunal diversity, present work helps to identify some aspects of diversity of the moth fauna of the area which is not carried out previously. This book deals out not merely in the identification of moths, but also offers information regarding methods to conduct diversity studies for moths. This book has offered a catalogue of the moth fauna of North Maharashtra for the first time and sets the basis for systematic research in the field. In all, 405 moth species belongs to 23 families have been identified and illustrated with their images.
India is the world’s second largest rice producer, accounting for more than 20% of global production. However, there is still food insecurity for millions of Indian households, and the cost of maintaining the huge current subsides for fertilizer, power and other inputs as well as price subsides is a great fiscal burden for the nation. Under these circumstances, the opportunities offered by the system of the rice intensification [SRI] and its extensions to crop production in many areas should be considered. At the present the productivity effects of SRI management have been demonstration in 42 countries round the world. In India about 1.7 million farmers are estimated to have adopted the technique on more than 7.5 lake hectares across 160 districts. Tamil Nadu and Tripura are the leading states for adoption of SRI, but many others are following suit. In this project the economic status of SRI and Non SRI farmers in Thoothukuidi district was studied. Three villages viz,. Padmanathamangalam. Ponnakurichi, Petmanagaram was selected for study and the farmers in those villages, both SRI and Non SRI, were interviewed.
This book explores lives and livelihood of Devdasis in Maharashtra, India. Though Devdasi has been termed as the Servant of the God and having no legal husband as such, on the other hand Devdasi exploited on a massive level. Hindu system has given secondary status and compared them with the animals. Devdasis in current times belong to Dalit community, and treated inhumanly by rest of the society because of marginalized caste and their profession. This book would be useful for social sciences students and everyone who wanted to deepen their knowledge about Indian society.
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is the fourth most important food crop in the country after rice, wheat and maize. It is a leading crop in terms of protein and dry matter production per unit area and time. Potato is utilized in preparation of readymade products like fried items (Chips, French fries), dehydrated products (Flakes, granules, starch, gravy thicker, potato custard, powder etc.) and canned products. The per capita availability in India is about 17.7 kg (1/3 of the world average), which emphasizes further, increase in productivity. water is the key input in potato production and its stress drastically reduces the tuber yield even for short period at tuber formation stage. Maintenance of optimum soil moisture in the root zone is necessary to meet the crop requirement for higher yield. Potato growers are still practice the furrow irrigation, though it is less effective in water use efficiency as compared to drip or fertigation system. In this context, mulching is also one of the important cultural operations which are employed to conserve the soil moisture, regulate the soil temperature, suppress the weed growth, possess the fertility and improve the texture of the soil.
India is a country of agriculture however due to increasing population and loss of soil fertility; there is a strong need to obtain sustainable agriculture. One way to achieve sustainable agriculture is to apply plant growth promoting rhizobacteria to agricultural fields. Exploration of diversity and plant growth promoting traits of bacteria such as Acinetobacter from rhizosphere of wheat; a major cash crop; was thus undertaken. In this investigation, use of Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis along with genus specific primers and the nested PCR approach helped to account the complete Acinetobacter population and thus has publicized that diverse Acinetobacter species associated with rhizosphere of wheat varieties cultivated in different soil types. The investigation also revealed that there transpires “rhizosphere effect” on Acinetobacter species associated with wheat rhizosphere. Further, this study has given an insight to the beneficial role of associated Acinetobacter species in plant growth promotion of wheat. In conclusion, this piece of research work has commenced a new paradigm to reveal role of Acinetobacter in sustainable agriculture.
India is the second largest producer of wheat in the world after China. The quality of Indian wheat needs improvement not only for domestic consumption but also for meeting international standards for export purpose. Both RAPD and ISSR markers are found to be efficient to assess genetic diversity within and between species of wheat. Glutenin protein SDS-PAGE found efficient to detect polymorphism among wheat cultivars for dough quality. Cultivars GW-273 and GW-322 showed highest Glu-1 score of 10 out of 10, indicating superior dough quality for bread making. Allele Dx5+Dy10 were found to be responsible for good dough quality. PCR based screening assay of HMW and LMW glutenin genes showed usefulness in screening of cultivars for good and poor dough quality. Sequencing of HMW-GS Dx5 gene fragment from cultivar GW-273 shows four cystiene amino acids at N-terminal end, which could play major role in determining high elasticity of dough by making disulfide linkage between them and other proteins like LMW-GS and gliadins. Present study may be useful in genetic engineering approaches for developing transgenic wheat with improved dough quality and for the development of export potential.
India has rich heritage of species and genetic strains of flora and fauna. Overall six percent of world species are found in India. It is one of the twelve mega-biodiversity countries of the world having over 150,000 species of plants and animals. Bamboo and rattan constitute important species occurring widely in the Indian forests.India is the secondest largest genetic resource in the world. These valuable genetic resource need to be tapped for food production.
This book provides a broad outline of drip fertigation in rice. Rice crop requires very large amount of water under the traditional flood irrigation method. However, due to growing demand in the domestic and industrial sectors, water is becoming increasingly scarce, and there is a need to develop ‘water saving irrigation techniques’ that require less irrigation water than the traditional methods. The need to produce more rice with less water is crucial for food security for many Asian countries. Addressing these issues requires an integrated approach to soil – water – plant - nutrient management at the plant - rooting zone. One of these technologies is fertigation, which is the direct application of water and nutrients to plants through drip irrigation system, which accelerates the pace of rice production by drip fertigation in rice. The book would prove useful to research scientists for water management in rice.