System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is considered as a novel and improved practice to raise rice production constrained by several factors. The book presents a comprehensive review on SRI. The performance of cultivars in relation to methods of planting (SRI and conventional transplanting) and the effect of FYM when used alone or in integrated manner on growth, yield and nutrient uptake of rice is presented.
This study addresses one central question: Why did democracy succeed in India but not in Pakistan? The central argument of the study is that there is political participation of the military in Pakistan but not in India due to three closely inter-related reasons. First, as a result of the British colonial experience in the United India from the 19th century up to the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the Hindus held pro-western and pro-democracy orientation, while the Muslims resisted entrance into the western education system. Second, the early building of political institutions in India prevented the Indian army from seeking a direct role in the mainstream politics of India. In contrast, the constant fragility of the political institutions in Pakistan from 1947 to present, led frequent coup d’etats in Pakistan. Third, there was a significant difference in the way the Indian and Pakistani military perceived them, as an Organ of the state or a custodian of the state. Another important insight of this study is that the US played a strong role in encouraging democracy in India, on the one hand, and supporting the military’s role in the politics of Pakistan, on the other.
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important cereal crop of the world and staple food of Pakistan's people. Over the last few years, weed flora infestation has become a key disaster in crop production. The quality of wheat produce from weed infected fields is inferior because these compete with crop plants for space, light and nutrients, harbor plant pathogens, create hurdles in cultural practices and mixing of their seeds with wheat grains. Owing to weeds infestation, tremendous changes in crop production have been assumed all over the world. This book, therefore, focuses on the use of different post emergence herbicides to reduce growth and spread of weeds from reaching at mature stage when they are extremely harmful to wheat plants. The importance of weed control in achieving better production of wheat is discussed in the light of results.
This book “Assessment of plant geometry on chickpea genotypes under late sown ” has written for Rice and Cotton growing agro-climatic zone of India to achieve good and sustainable yields under late sown conditions. In Indian condition late harvesting of rice and cotton in kharif season delayed the succeeding rabi crop so in that duration which chickpea genotypes and best suitable dates to grow chickpea with minimum effect of normal dates.
“Every man, woman and child has the inalienable right to be free from hunger and malnutrition in order to develop their physical and mental faculties” – 1974 World Food Conference. Food security as a concept originated around the mid-1970s during the discussions of international food problems at a time of global food crisis. The initial focus of food security was primarily on food supply problems of assuring the availability and to some degree the price stability of basic foodstuffs at the international and national level. In India during pre-Independent suffered repeated famines, droughts and food shortages. But during the Green Revolution in the 1960s, the production and yield of food grain rose manifold. This paper looks into the trend of foodgrain production & consumption in India, the linkages between foodgrain production and consumption in India & selected States and the role of PDS (Public Distribution System) in foodgrain consumption in India and States. This paper illuminates some concerns of immediate relevance to policy reform in the context of food security in India through Public Distribution System.
This book provides a broad outline of weed management in aerobic rice. In the 21st century along with population pressure, the scarcity of agricultural land, water and shortage of labour maintained pressure for a shift towards aerobic rice cultivation. Aerobic rice is a new way to decrease water requirements in rice production. Aerobic rice suffers more due to weed menace as the weeds. The labour requirement for weeding is a major impediment to the adoption of water saving aerobic rice. Herbicides are considered to be an alternative or supplement to hand weeding, which accelerates the pace of rice production by chemical weed management practices in aerobic rice. The book would prove useful to research scientists for weed management in aerobic rice.
The agriculture arena in the tropics had a sea change with the introduction of green revolution technologies. Traditional crop varieties and farmer practices were replaced with high yielding and high input technologies. The rice-prawn integrated farming system prevalent in the tidal wetlands of tropics could withstand the windfall, as the traditional tall land races of rice and cultural practices alone were found suited to this unique farming system. The pokkali lands known after the renowned salt tolerant land race of rice: pokkali, are acclaimed for the unique way of reclamation and management of soil salinity and the rice-prawn farming system designed to suit to the seasonal changes in the field water quality. The present publication gives an account of the organic practices of reclamation of acid saline soils, varietal preference, salt tolerance mechanisms of the pokkali land races and the unique way of integrating rice, fish and prawn with the change in the climate and hydrographic parameters. This publication is useful to environmentalists, organic agricultural practitioners, students, extension workers and universities dealing with agriculture and allied areas.
Stem rust of wheat is one of the major biotic constraints of wheat production in Ethiopia. The evolution of UG99 has become a global threat and Ethiopia is most vulnerable. The current study was conducted to identify sources of stem rust resistance in wheat. At Debre Zeit, two sets of experiments comprising 23 bread wheat and 14 durum wheat cultivars including check cultivars were exposed to artificial stem rust epidemics. A simple lattice design with two replications was used for experiment. Each block was separated from the other by spreader rows composed of PBW343 and Morocco in a 3:1 ratio. Artificial epidemics were created by inoculating the spreader rows with Sr31 virulent stem rust isolate using a syringe three times starting from stem elongation. Seven day old seedlings of wheat were also inoculated with pure ‘PBW343'' isolate maintained in the greenhouse for seedling tests. In the seedling stage, most of the durum wheat cultivars and few of the bread wheat cultivars were resistant. Most bread wheat cultivars were susceptible but the durum cultivars had adequate level of resistance. The resistant cultivars and landraces could be exploited in breeding program.
This book aims to understand the application of different enzymes present in the wheat flour along with wide range of industrial application of technological important enzymes. Wheat flour contains several technologically important enzymes.Although many of theses enzymes are inactive during storage, when water is added they become active and play a significant role in determining the functional attributes in the wheat flour.Attempt has been made to understand different functionality of important enzymes present in the wheat flour. Since,industrial enzyme usage is still a very rapidly emerging field,efforts has been made to include the industrial application of the enzymes present in the wheat flour in the broadest sense.
Ensuring access to education for the Dalits of India has been the greatest challenge for the Indian government in diminishing the social effects of the caste system, which still remain entrenched in Indian society. There have been many different reasons proposed as to why the Dalits suffer from low rates of literacy and primary education enrolment, but the most realistic one describes history and unequal access as the causes. The ancient caste system of India, which has resulted in the social and economic oppression of the Dalits, continues to play a dominant role in India. The Dalits, also known as the scheduled caste or untouchables, have experienced consistent denial to access to education since the 1850s. This decade coincided with Britain’s established control over India, which meant many of the improvements to Dalit education were coming from outside influences, rather than from the national government.
The importance of human capital in fostering the economic growth is well documented by the endogenous growth theorists. While there is a lot of debate as to what constitutes the human capital? It is universally acclaimed that primary education is always the basic pillar in human capital formation. The problem of the less developed countries (LDCs) is not only their low income, but also the low quality of education they impart. India has also suffered due to faulty education system. We try to understand the various aspects of the delivery mechanism in the public primary education system and correlate efficiency in the education system with broad parameters of health and economic well being simultaneously, in the Indian context. The empirical work is based on DISE data and DLHS data.
The book entitled screening of rice entries against yellow stem borer is a author's Master degree research Work. This book consists of topics on the evaluation of rice entries against yellow stem borer and biochemical parameters for resistant entries. This study was undertaken during 2012 - 2013 in Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru College of Agriculture and Research Institute (TNAU),Karaikal, India. For the screening work totally 196 rice entries including three susceptible check has been collected from Directorate of Rice Research and used for field experiment. The data has been recorded during vegetative stage and flowering stage. Top five resistant entries and one susceptible check TN1 has been used for biochemical analysis. The results showed that the plant biochemicals plays major role in their resistant mechanisms.
The present investigation was carried out agricultural college, Bapatla, ANGRAU, Hyderabad, India, with title Response of rice (Oryza sativa L.) to top dressing of phosphorus through complex fertilizers the objective of evaluate the to study the effect of top dressing of phosphorus through complex fertilizers on growth and yield of rice. to find out the optimum time of application of phosphorus through complex fertilizers for rice. to find out a better source of phosphorus for top dressing in rice during 2009–10. The findings of the experiment revealed that All the growth parameters such as plant height, total number of tillers m-2 and drymatter were not significantly influenced by sources of P at different times of application, except drymatter at 30 and 90 DAT
As a cereal grain, Rice is the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in Asia and the West Indies. It is the grain with the second-highest worldwide production, after maize and is the most important with regard to human nutrition and caloric intake, providing more than one fifth of the calories consumed worldwide by the human species. Rice provides 27% of dietary energy and supply 20% of dietary protein intake in the developing world. Asian farmers produce about 90% of the total, with two countries, China and India, growing more than half the total crop. Global rice production has been rising strongly since 2002.
Rice is ranked as the world’s number one human food crop and accounts for more than half of the world’s daily calorie intake. It is an economically important food crop that is domesticated after wheat and helps in poverty alleviation. In the present study, 20 advanced lines were evaluated for yield and yield attributing traits and resistance to bacterial blight. For quantitative trait analysis out of 53 traits, 13 agronomic traits, 29 morphological traits and 11 grain quality traits were studied.