In the area of energy technology, we find hydrogen (1) in gaseous, liquid, or solid hydrocarbons; (2) in nuclear fission and fusion processes and, (3) as synthetic fuel produced by dissociation of H2O or hydrocarbons using primary energy. The gate to use hydrogen as a fuel opens through the storage of hydrogen. There are number of ways of storing hydrogen but the most practical method for onboard application is ‘Metal Hydride’. Recently Zirconium based alloys have attracted a great deal of attention for their substantial hydrogen storage capacity. But the high stabilities of these hydrides as indicated by their high enthalpy values make these alloys unsuitable for hydrogen storage applications. The present book is an outcome of the research efforts to increase the equilibrium pressure and thus to reduce the stability of their hydrides. Another purpose of this study is to obtain knowledge of structural and magnetic characteristics of the alloys and relevant hydrides.
Revision with unchanged content. As reserves of conventional crude oil are depleted, there is a growing need to develop unconventional oils such as heavy oil and bitumen from oil sands. In terms of recoverable oil, Canadian oil sands are considered to be the second largest oil reserves in the world. However, the upgrading of bitumen from oil sands to synthetic crude oil (SCO) requires nearly ten times more hydrogen (H2) than the conventional crude oils. The current H2 demand for oil sands operations is met mostly by steam reforming of natural gas. With the future expansion of oil sands operations, the demand of H2 for oil sand operations is likely to quadruple in the next decade. As natural gas reforming involves significant carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, this sector is likely to contribute largely to the increase of CO2 emissions. With the current concern in global warming in which CO2 is a major concern, it is imperative to look at the production of H2 in a CO2 constrained world. This book presents a process that minimizes CO2 emission and captures CO2 at minimum energy penalty in typical H2 plants. The results will be useful for hydrogen production plants using steam methane reforming taking into account mitigating CO2 emissions.
Hydrogen peroxide is very difficult to produce in the industries, due to instability characteristics thus why we can not use the hydrogen peroxide produced in the nature. WBCs is simplest example for that,I used these characteristics with the help of bacteria S. aureus to produce water and free oxygen particles after degraded of hydrogen peroxide, which means we found a simple creature that produces the oxide without any cost which can be used in the future.