Jules Verne, The Mysterious Island, 1874: "Yes, my friends, I believe that water will one day be employed as fuel, that hydrogen and oxygen which constitute it, used singly or together, will furnish an inexhaustible source of heat and light, of an intensity of which coal is not capable." -- -- -- -- What if there was a way to capitalize Norways offshore wind potential while becoming one of the largest producers of the fuel of the future - hydrogen? This study elaborates the idea of offshore hydrogen production platforms that could be used to produce hydrogen from offshore wind. Norway is one of the largest producers of fossil fuels and a clean energy pioneer. As the Norwegian energy demand can be covered with hydropower, there is no need to capitalize offshore wind potentials - unless there is another way: by using offshore wind potentials to produce clean hydrogen Norway can develop a large scale hydrogen production economy, maintainting both a leading role in fuel production and clean energy pioneering.
The necessity to reduce green house gas emission and growing difficulties in fossil fuel recovery raise great challenges for the scientific community to develop efficient, low cost alternative energy sources. Hydrogen is sought by many as a way to store and transport energy produced from renewable sources. As a fuel hydrogen produces only water on burning and is not toxic in any way. Photolytic processes are very attractive for hydrogen production due to the zero greenhouse gas emissions, however, they can be commercially used only if limitations related to low efficiency and poor stability can be resolved. In this work we describe a novel cell structure for stable photo electrochemical water splitting that can be prepared by electrodeposition from ionic liquids at high temperature. The deposition methods developed here provide low cost and efficient way to synthesise high quality semiconductors and their alloys. The concept presented in this work can potentially be applied to a variety of efficient, yet unstable systems to achieve efficient and long lasting water splitting.
The actualization of a hydrogen economy requires cost-effective and environmentally benign solutions to hydrogen production. Chemical energy in the form of hydrogen can be stored and converted into electricity at whatever time is needed. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is a carbon-neutral process which converts solar energy into chemical energy (hydrogen) using a light-absorbing semiconducting material to generate the necessary photovoltage to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. So far, record efficiencies in solar-to-hydrogen conversion have been achieved using p-type semiconductors, but only with very expensive materials. However, the spread of this technology relies on the development of semiconductor electrodes made of cheap and abundant elements that are stable in water for a reasonable long time. The semiconductors investigated in this dissertation are cost-effective cuprous oxide electrodes having p-type conductivity, which is ideal for photocathode application. A record efficiency could be achieved by atomically depositing layers of water-stable oxides atop of cuprous oxide, which is otherwise intrinsically unstable in water under irradiation.
The current world’s economy and energy need depends substantially on fossil fuels. This has led to the exhaustive depletion of these non-renewable resources, which has simultaneously resulted in the global warming due to increased green house gas emissions. Hydrogen has the largest energy content per unit weight (32.67 kW/kg) of any known fuel, and can be generated by various ways. When used as a fuel, molecular hydrogen produces only pure water as a by-product. Biohydrogen has potential to become an inexhaustible, cost effective and renewable source of clean energy. Biohydrogen production being less energy intensive can be carried out under ambient temperature and pressure in comparison to chemical or electrochemical ones. Dark fermentation under anaerobic conditions has potential to yield hydrogen at a very high rate with various organic substrates and carbohydrates rich wastes. In the current book, study of an efficient hydrogen producing microbe isolated from cow dung has been incorporated. The microbe was characterized by biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The different physico-chemical parameters to increase the optimum yield of hydrogen have been reported.