Two major problems are facing human life on earth namely, environmental pollution and the near future depletion of conventional fuel. Solutions are being sought for these problems.Many techniques are being used successfully to tackle pollution problem such as improving engine design, exhaust gas treatment, looking for non polluting fuels. Also many research are carried out and applied in the area of clean and renewable energy sources. Solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, tidal energy…etc.Hydrogen is a non polluting and renewable fuel when used in internal combustion engines. Its combustion products are water and nitrogen oxides. The nitrogen oxides can treated by many available techniques. Hydrogen can be produced from electrolysis of water, metal hydrides, plant crops. However, there are still practical difficulties in using hydrogen purely as a fuel in internal combustion engines. It is simpler to use it blended with other hydrocarbon fuels.This book is an attempt to shedding light on using hydrogen blending technique in compression ignition engines. The book is an M.Sc. thesis prepared at Babylon University in IRAQ.
This work is about the preparation of catalysts for preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide in hydrogen rich gases and comparative study of there activity as well as selectivity and thermal stability so this work will be very useful for the persons working in same research area of hygrogen production and removal of carbon monoxide. the method followed in this book work for carbon monoxide removal is find the most appropriate among all like; methanation of CO, PSA , membrane separation methods etc..
This book presents a complete description and review of novel properties and mechanisms of form of hydrogen bonded structure and proton transfer as well as their extensive applications in physical and biological systems. In these investigations, the properties of hydrogen bond and hydrogen bonded system, the theory and properties of proton transfer in hydrogen-bonded systems and its experimental evidences in ice crystal, the behaviours of hydrogen-bonded structure and proton transfer in water and gramicidin A as well as influences of externally applied field on them, the features of hydrogen-bonded structure and soliton theory of proton transfer in DNA and its relationship with biological functions, the biological function and molecular structure of rhodopsin and bathorhodopsin as well as their characters of proton transfer and proton pump are described concretely and in detail. These contents are presented and stated in five chapters, respectively.
Water is one of the most interesting chemical systems to study. Investigation of water clusters can help to understand unique properties of condensed phase and particulate H2O. One of the main problems encountered while studying these systems is the global minimum problem. The potential energy landscape of water clusters becomes more and more complicated with growing number of water molecules. In this work we use a combined approach to search of minima of water clusters. It is based on a combination of three different computational techniques. The first is based on classical molecular dynamics. The second algorithm is aimed at improving orientational structure of water molecules within a given cluster, using a Monte Carlo approach. The third algorithm is based on a Diffusion Monte Carlo method (DMC) combined with local minimization (i.e. PES deformation). The proposed approach is tested on TIP4P water cluster systems. The low energy structures obtained from our optimization scheme are used for analysis of the tendency of transition from amorphous (small clusters) toward ordered, crystal-like structures (big clusters).
The storage of hydrogen is still a major hurdle in front of the hydrogen economy. One conceptual solution is the generation of hydrogen from chemical compounds having high gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen storage capacity such as boron-nitrogen compounds. Recently, sodium borohydride and ammonia borane are considered to be the most promising ones among all other chemical hydrogen storage materials owing to their remarkable gravimetric hydrogen contents and stability in the solid state. The hydrogen stored in NaBH4 and H3NBH3 can be release via hydrolysis route. However, a suitable catalyst is required to generate hydrogen from their hydrolysis at desired rate. An efficient way of increasing catalytic activity of a heterogeneous catalyst is the use of transition metal nanoclusters (NCs) which are more active catalysts than the respective bulk metal owing to their high surface-to-volume ratio. Via this research work, we present our detailed study on the synthesis and characterization of water soluble polymer stabilized nickel(0), cobalt(0) and ruthenium(0) NCs as catalyst in hydrogen generation from the hydrolysis of NaBH4 and H3NBH3.
Hydrogen is an ideal energy carrier with dual benefits, being clean for environment and being renewable. The Hydrogen Energy is the key issues and actions that are crucial to achieve a changeover to hydrogen energy applications as it relates to stationary and on-board applications.Hydrogen storage is most challenge to make the application into economic level. This book introduces new hydrogen storage family, which can help to solve hydrogen storage problem. Layered materials of the structure, MPS3, where M stands for transition metals and other metals, e.g. Mg, are investigated to store hydrogen. In this book the present work reports the results of a study in synthesis and characterization of a new material to be used in hydrogen storage.