The rice (Oryza sativa L.) - wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropping system occupies about 28.8 million hectares mainly spread over Asia’s five countries, namely, India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and China. Organic farming offers alternative system for sustainable production and natural resource system. The aim of nutrient management in organic systems is to optimize the use of on–farm resources and minimize losses. Organic materials such as farmyard manure, compost, vermicompost, biogas slurry, green manures, crop residues, biofertilizers and cover crops are other valuable source of nutrients to improve the growth and yield attributes, yields, nutrient uptake, grain quality and soil fertility. The present book is a part of studies which is conducted to determine the optimum combination organic manures crop residues and biofertilizers for meeting nutritional requierment of rice-wheat and rice-wheat-mungbean cropping systems. It also focuses on studying the impact of organic farming practices on the health of soil, quality of organically grown products in order to find out economics of organic farming of rice-based cropping systems.
Dr. Y.V.Singh, Senior Scientist (Agronomy), IARI,New Delhi, India, has developed protocol for Basmati rice cultivation through organic management for sustainable productivity and better quality. In this protocol he used four (Blue green algae @ 2.0 kg/ha, Azolla @ 1.0t/ha/ Azotobacter @ 0.5 kg/ha, vermicompost @ 5.0 t/ha and Farm yard manure @ 5.0 t/ha) organic inoculants to meet the nutrient requirement of organic Basmati rice-wheat-green gram system and got
This study focuses to analyze the performance of organic and conventional farming practices in Chitwan. The analysis showed that farming is the major source of livelihood in terms of food security and self-employment for the farmers. Economic and environmental issues are increasing along with increase in area under organic farming. Organic and conventional farming were diverse in terms of land size, livestock holdings and resource use. Because of the labor intensive farming, the observed difference for labor use between organic and conventional farming was not high for particular crop. But the model selected cropping cycle for optimal production plan; labor use was lower in organic farming than conventional farming. Before selecting the appropriate cropping plan for optimal farm plan, local specific factors such as labor availability on time and market access for organic products are also crucial. Economic performance was higher at conventional farms whereas environmental result in terms of nitrogen and phosphorous surplus, organic farming has shown a better performance. Therefore, continuation of organic farming is crucial to support higher economic and environmental performance.
This book based on empirical research provides comprehensive information on genetic analysis of blackgram under two cropping systems. In fact one of the areas in research on increasing plant productivity in developing countries is the preservation of inherent stability of traditional farming systems. Such farming systems are characterized by small holdings and growing of different crops under mixed and intercropping systems in variance to monocropping employed in large farms in developed countries. This shift in priorities is under standable because a substantial contribution of farm output in developing countries comes from small farms. Without radical alterations, there are remote chances of improving traditional farming systems.One such instance is the intercropping of maize with blackgram as a secondary crop in the mountainous tracts of North-Western India. It has been established by our study that significant progenies x cropping system interaction exists for grain yield and its component traits in blackgram-maize cropping systems. It may help to develop suitable breeding and selection criteria to seek genetic improvement of blackgram where it is intercropped with maize.
Diversification and intensification of cropping systems has been area of interest for many research students throughout the world.Rice based cropping systems are the most prevalent and many experiments are done with these both technically and by patterns in farming. This is a book on one such case study carried out on intensification and diversification of rice based cropping system in Kymore plateau and Satpura hill zones in central India.Traditionally the region practices rice-wheat or rice-chickpea cropping systems which have affected soil fertility, productivity etc in an adverse manner. This book covers a system where leguminous crops,oilseed crops, spices etc are included to diversify the cropping system. Also it studies intensification by taking more than two crops annually. This book should be a great read for research students and scholars working on cropping systems.
This study examined the analysis of enterprises combination, costs and returns in cassava based farming systems in Osun state, Nigeria. A total of 80 cassava-based farmers were selected using simple random sampling technique during 2007/2008 cropping season. The data were analyzed using Descriptive Statistics, Economic Land Equivalent Ratio (ELER), Net Farm Analysis and Simple Regression Analysis. Generally, all the cassava-based enterprise systems generated higher net farm income per unit of land cultivated than sole cropping of cassava crop. In all combining two enterprises, particularly Cassava + Maize generated the highest net farm income of about N21,514 per hectare. The economic land equivalent ratio with the overall mean of 1.52 showed that the cassava with other crops systems generate higher net revenue per unit of land than sole cassava cropping.
In the case of rice, which is a highly fragile wetland ecosystem, the impacts of high external input farming are prominent and far-reaching. Considering the threats of intensive farming in rice, there is an urgent need to study in detail, the environmental concerns and awareness of the stakeholders of rice farming. This is because; it is their concern that would be reflected upon the rice ecosystem in Toto. The study entitled ‘Environmental concerns in rice farming‘ becomes relevant in view of the fact that the various dimensions of environmental concerns of the stakeholders, could become the starting point of greater policy level interventions for sustainable farming and natural resource management. The study focuses on the environmental concerns and awareness. The book has meticulously gone through the B-C ratio of organic, conventional and cow based minimum budget rice farming and the social benefit cost ratio of eco friendly rice farming based on farmers’ perception supported by relevant studies. Some of the important policy prescriptions in the light of the study, which the government can undertake to make sustainable agriculture a reality, are also evidently mentioned.
Field experiments were conducted at Cropping Systems Research Centre, Karamana, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala during summer/third crop/puncha season in 2007 and 2008 to find out the effect of nutrient sources under different management systems. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with four replications. The treatments consisted of four management systems viz., System of Rice Intensification SRI (M1), Integrated Crop Establishment Method (ICM) (M2), Package of practices (PoP) (M3) of Kerala Agricultural University and Conventional management practices (M4) in main plot. Nutrient sources viz., organic sources (S1), integrated nutrient sources (S2) and inorganic sources (S3) were the sub plot treatments.
The application of paddy intensification program in Indonesia using continuously synthetic chemical fertilizer and pesticide by the farmers in their paddy fields in every paddy growing season, slowly but surely, has generated less favorable impacts to quality of ecosystem and to the high production cost. It has generated an idea “back to nature” through the development of organic rice farming system using organic fertilizer and pesticide. However, planting paddy using organic farming system has not been done progressively. This book presents the results of the research which identifies farmers’ motivation factors to plant paddy using organic or conventional farming system in the village of Sumber Ngepoh, East Java province, Indonesia. The economic, social, ecological, cultural, and information factors which very strongly motivate them to apply organic or conventional farming system are presented in this book.
Rice is the staple food for millions of people in the Asia-pacific region; 90% of the world’s rice is grown and consumed in Asia. The indiscriminate use of chemicals in the rice environment thus polluting the fragile system has created an increasing awareness and interest among the rice farmers on organic farming. Weed infestation is regarded as one of the major causes of low crop yields throughout the world and can cause 50-60 % reduction in grain yield under puddle conditions and 91% yield reduction in non-puddled conditions. Organic weed control encourages weed suppression rather than elimination. This is done by promoting soil health through a combination of crop rotation, cover crops, biologically based bio-fertilizers, compost and mulch. Proper management through organic methods offer varied benefits over chemical herbicides, including increased biodiversity, improved soil nutrition and structure, and protection of ground and surface water. The present research work is aimed to confirm this possibility in weed control and evaluate the influence on yield performance in organic rice farming system employing non-chemical weed management practices.
This book “Crop Residue Management in Rice-Wheat Cropping System” has written for plant nutrient management in rice - wheat cropping system with nitrogen and potassium fertilizers. The rice-wheat cropping system is one of most widely practiced cropping system in India as well as across the world. The nutrient management in this system is a big task; both crops are heavy nutrient feeder. It requires nutrient cycling from organic residues to maintain nutrient balance in soil. Addition of organic matter to the soil through the return of crop residues also improves soil structure, influences soil water, air and temperature relation, helps to control runoff and erosion and makes tillage easier. Therefore, use of renewable organic sources would be essential for sustainability of the rice-wheat system. This book provides the information about NPK nutrient balance and crop performance under crop residue management practices.
Aim of the diagnostic study was to gain insight in the development potential of livestock for the rice-based economy of Office du Niger (ON) in Mali. Via surveys, interviews and farmer group discussions, we studied the functioning of various farming systems and value chains. Findings show that in ON rice is the prime agricultural activity: though half of the farm households own cattle (for capital insurance and draught power), livestock management is troublesome due to a lack of grazing land and water points etc. Rice production is lucrative, but half of the farmers do not have the land and/or capital to attain a good production and sell a profitable price. The ON supports rice farming via the provision of infrastructure and subsidies but the hierarchical structure and limited human resources hinder the timely availability and quality of these services. More affluent farmers do cope, but poorer farmers have problems to make ends meet. Diversification towards intensive livestock production seems a possible way out.
This work was done as a research for the MPhil degree of the author at the University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka, which was submitted in 2005. The title of the research project was "faunal diversity in rice fields under organic and inorganic based farming systems in wet zone of Sri Lanka". The main objectives of the said research were to compare the faunal diversity between two rice cultivation fields using organic and chemical based inputs. The research was supervised by Professor Asoka Gunawardena (University of Ruhuna) and Dr. Devaka Weerakoon (University of Colombo). The findings of this research were already published as several journal articles.
From the last half of 19th century with the increase in the world’s population, food production and fertilizer consumption has increased continuously but, the rate of increase in consumption of chemical fertilizer is terribly high than that of the rate of production increased. Indiscriminate application of chemical fertilizer, mainly nitrogenous fertilizers polluting our habitat in many ways. Our natural eco-system is also being badly affected, soil productivity is in declining phase. The increasing trend of nitrogenous fertilizer application has a long term detrimental effect on environment, human as well as on soil health. The most horrifying aspect of the modern chemical input based intensive agriculture is the rapid fall of chemical fertilizer response . Now we must find an alternative low-chemical resource based energy conserving and natural resource-efficient farming method for achieving long term sustainability in farming system as well as environmental stability confirming food security of the world. Organic farming has expanded rapidly in recent years and is seen as a sustainable alternative to chemical-based agricultural systems .
Increasing crop yields is a need for all farmers, researchers and development agencies in agriculture. Intensification of crop production does it through efficient and sustainable cropping systems; the focus of this book. Topics covered include difference between farming and cropping systems; requirements of stable cropping systems; factors that make cropping systems sustainable; limits of monocultures and tenets of multiple cropping; design and examples of crop rotations; advantages and biological basis of yield benefits of intercrops; case studies on intercropping research; double cropping; sustainable agroforestry practices; ecological agriculture including use of cover crops, green manures, crop residues, integration of livestock and integrated nutrient management; ratoon and relay cropping, ley farming and zero grazing; conventional tillage and zero tillage or conservation tillage; elements of integrated pest management and IPM packages and informal seed supply systems. The book is targeted at students of agriculture and related land use systems, policy makers and all professionals involved in agricultural development.