Dr. Y.V.Singh, Senior Scientist (Agronomy), IARI,New Delhi, India, has developed protocol for Basmati rice cultivation through organic management for sustainable productivity and better quality. In this protocol he used four (Blue green algae @ 2.0 kg/ha, Azolla @ 1.0t/ha/ Azotobacter @ 0.5 kg/ha, vermicompost @ 5.0 t/ha and Farm yard manure @ 5.0 t/ha) organic inoculants to meet the nutrient requirement of organic Basmati rice-wheat-green gram system and got
The rice (Oryza sativa L.) - wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropping system occupies about 28.8 million hectares mainly spread over Asia’s five countries, namely, India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and China. Organic farming offers alternative system for sustainable production and natural resource system. The aim of nutrient management in organic systems is to optimize the use of on–farm resources and minimize losses. Organic materials such as farmyard manure, compost, vermicompost, biogas slurry, green manures, crop residues, biofertilizers and cover crops are other valuable source of nutrients to improve the growth and yield attributes, yields, nutrient uptake, grain quality and soil fertility. The present book is a part of studies which is conducted to determine the optimum combination organic manures crop residues and biofertilizers for meeting nutritional requierment of rice-wheat and rice-wheat-mungbean cropping systems. It also focuses on studying the impact of organic farming practices on the health of soil, quality of organically grown products in order to find out economics of organic farming of rice-based cropping systems.
This book “Crop Residue Management in Rice-Wheat Cropping System” has written for plant nutrient management in rice - wheat cropping system with nitrogen and potassium fertilizers. The rice-wheat cropping system is one of most widely practiced cropping system in India as well as across the world. The nutrient management in this system is a big task; both crops are heavy nutrient feeder. It requires nutrient cycling from organic residues to maintain nutrient balance in soil. Addition of organic matter to the soil through the return of crop residues also improves soil structure, influences soil water, air and temperature relation, helps to control runoff and erosion and makes tillage easier. Therefore, use of renewable organic sources would be essential for sustainability of the rice-wheat system. This book provides the information about NPK nutrient balance and crop performance under crop residue management practices.
Asian subtropics occupies 21 million hectares of rice-wheat cropping system on their fertile soils. This system carried out on 15 million hectares with highly significant impact for food safety in the area, providing staple food for more than 415 million people.Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has the highest position in food grains in Pakistan: 66% of the total area under food grains is wheat and it contributes 74% of the total food grain production.Tillage is done according to the soil types. Delay in wheat sowing is the result of 6-8 ploughing with planking and loss of high energy.Timely wheat planting after rice ensured in 10 percent higher wheat grain yield in a rice-wheat cropping system.Drilling of wheat in to rice residue using zero tillage has eliminated the time for land preparation and improved crop stand establishment.So,this study has, therefore, been planned to achieve the most economical method for sowing wheat in a rice-wheat cropping system and Quantify the nutrient losses to soil fertility of burning rice straw. Mushtaq Ahmad Gill is the founder of zero tillage and laser land leveling technology in Pakistan and contributed a lot for this research and book.
Rice-Wheat cropping system covers about 11 m ha in India, is the backbone of India's food security. This cropping system produces as high as 12.8 to 17.0 t/ha/annum at different levels of cultivation and is highly nutrient depleting but the factors responsible for success of this system are good economic return, market infrastructural support and very little risk making increasingly popular with the farmers over the years. The introduction of the non-sensitive, input responsive, relatively early maturing varieties of rice and wheat in the mid 60's enabled farmers to intensify land use and increased the acreage under this important cropping system. In recent years, there is a problem to sustain the high yield levels of rice-wheat in India. Several factors including attack of insect pests and diseases are considered responsible for stagnation in productivity of this cropping system. The present investigations were, therefore, carried out with a view to monitor insect pests, diseases and natural enemies operating in rice and wheat ecosystems and to develop an effective bio intensive management strategy to contain population buildup of major insect pests and diseases of rice and wheat.
Diversification and intensification of cropping systems has been area of interest for many research students throughout the world.Rice based cropping systems are the most prevalent and many experiments are done with these both technically and by patterns in farming. This is a book on one such case study carried out on intensification and diversification of rice based cropping system in Kymore plateau and Satpura hill zones in central India.Traditionally the region practices rice-wheat or rice-chickpea cropping systems which have affected soil fertility, productivity etc in an adverse manner. This book covers a system where leguminous crops,oilseed crops, spices etc are included to diversify the cropping system. Also it studies intensification by taking more than two crops annually. This book should be a great read for research students and scholars working on cropping systems.
The application of paddy intensification program in Indonesia using continuously synthetic chemical fertilizer and pesticide by the farmers in their paddy fields in every paddy growing season, slowly but surely, has generated less favorable impacts to quality of ecosystem and to the high production cost. It has generated an idea “back to nature” through the development of organic rice farming system using organic fertilizer and pesticide. However, planting paddy using organic farming system has not been done progressively. This book presents the results of the research which identifies farmers’ motivation factors to plant paddy using organic or conventional farming system in the village of Sumber Ngepoh, East Java province, Indonesia. The economic, social, ecological, cultural, and information factors which very strongly motivate them to apply organic or conventional farming system are presented in this book.
This study focuses to analyze the performance of organic and conventional farming practices in Chitwan. The analysis showed that farming is the major source of livelihood in terms of food security and self-employment for the farmers. Economic and environmental issues are increasing along with increase in area under organic farming. Organic and conventional farming were diverse in terms of land size, livestock holdings and resource use. Because of the labor intensive farming, the observed difference for labor use between organic and conventional farming was not high for particular crop. But the model selected cropping cycle for optimal production plan; labor use was lower in organic farming than conventional farming. Before selecting the appropriate cropping plan for optimal farm plan, local specific factors such as labor availability on time and market access for organic products are also crucial. Economic performance was higher at conventional farms whereas environmental result in terms of nitrogen and phosphorous surplus, organic farming has shown a better performance. Therefore, continuation of organic farming is crucial to support higher economic and environmental performance.
Conclusions drawn on the basis of the results obtained in the present investigation are stated below: 1. Combined application of N150 P60 K120 S40 B5 Mn20 Zn25 (kg ha-1) was the best dose of nutrients in hybrid rice under rice-wheat cropping system which produced highest grain yield (78.91and 75.00 qha-1durng both the years, respectively). It also improved soil fertility status measured as the available N,P,K,S and Zn. 2. For wheat after hybrid rice crop, the application of N150P60K120 kg ha-1 was found most suitable 3. Application of N150 P60 K120 S40 B5 Mn20 Zn25 kg ha-1 in rice showed residual effect on succeeding wheat crop as reflected in respect to grain and straw yields and all the nutrient treatment also improved soil fertility. 4. Application of N150 P60 K120 S40 B5 Mn20 Zn25 kg ha-1 in rice and N150 P60 K120 kg ha-1 in wheat (T1) increased soil available nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulphur and zinc after harvest of each crop. 5. Application of N150 P60 K120 S40 B5 Mn0 Zn25 kg ha-1 in rice and N150 P60 K120 kg ha-1 in wheat (T8) was the best treatment and found most economical followed by T1.
In northern part of India maize-wheat is prominent cropping systems covering around 8.0 and 27.7 mha area under cultivation, respectively. Due to decline in soil organic matter, over mining of nutrient reserve and non-availability of cost effective fertilizer, productivity of this cropping system is declining. Among the various factors for improving productivity, nutrients particularly nitrogen plays a vital role. Fertilizers and biosources are the major sources of nitrogen supply for crops. But experiments revealed that continuous use of chemical fertilizers in an indiscriminate manner leads to deleterious effect on soil fertility and yield sustainability. This calls for a search on alternative sources of nutrients, which can at least partially substitute the fertilizer nitrogen for cereal-cereal system. Since, fertilizer is not a complete substitute for organic matter and vice-versa and their role is complementary to each other. Incorporation of farm waste as straw as well as practice of green manuring is viable options. Hence, an inquiry was made to explore the possibilities of substitution of fertilizer nitrogen through organic sources under maize-wheat sequence.
Among intercropping practices mixed cropping deals with growing two or more crops simultaneously with no distinct row arrangement. In this book, barley-wheat mixed cropping studies under various moisture deficit stress levels revealed that mixed cropping improves productivity, water use efficiency and stability. Barley matured early and absorbed much of its water at early stages, leaving more space for late maturing wheat in the mixtures. Therefore, mixed cropping of these two crop species helps combine important characters in a cropping system so as to enhance productivity through complementary resource uses in the drylands. Thus mixed cropping of barley and wheat can be an insurance to stabilize productivity and water use efficiency, and minimize crop failure risks in stresses of drought and high temperature spells that are difficult to predict in dryland areas. The results also suggest that variety development is a necessity to cope with high temperature stresses of the lowlands or for such stresses caused by climate change. The book can serve as knowledge input to organic farming, researchers, teachers and agricultural development extension workers.
The Soil organic carbon stocks under the five dominant cropping system/land use of Tumkur district of Karnataka were studied. Soil pedons were excavated in typical areas of the land use systems for detailed study. Organic matter content of each pedon calculated to a depth of one meter was used for interpolating the carbon stock for unit area under each land use system. Study showed that forest land use systems had highest level of carbon in fine earth. Among the annual crop production systems, soils under Ragi recorded more fine earth carbon as well as total carbon stock. The relatively low organic carbon of soils under annual crops was attributed to low net productivity with removal far exceeding the inputs. Coconut plantation system had highest fine earth carbon as well as total stocks of organic carbon. The total organic carbon stock per square meter to a depth of one meter under different land use/cropping system followed the order Coconut > Ragi > Rice > Ground nut > Forest. This preliminary study will be useful for further research in more accurate estimation of Soil Organic Carbon stocks and increase the efficiency of Carbon sequestration in soils of tropical regions.
Soil organic matter characterization in arable soils is essential to sustain agricultural lands. The present investigation was initiated with some representative soils of Khulna and Jessore district to characterize organic matter under different cropping patterns. The study has a scope to focus on the effects of organic matter characterization of four soil series under different cropping patterns of the study areas. Laboratory investigations were conducted in Soil science discipline, Khulna University to characterize organic matter of Ganges meander flood plain soils under different cropping patterns. Sixteen representative soil samples from different locations of Ganges meander flood plain soils were collected for study. The soils belong to Amjhupi, Ishurdi, Mirpur and Sara series. Organic matter characterization was done by humic acid, fulvic acid percentage, E4/E6 ratio, coagulation threshold value, and C/N ratio and they varied significantly under different cropping patterns.
Survival of Little Seed Canary Grass: The little seed canary grass is one of the notorious weeds in the rice-wheat cropping systems in the Indo-Gangetic Plains and elsewhere. The management practices advised to farmers have often failed to control this weed. With significant impact on wheat yields, the weed has become news in the popular and scientific media. In order to design and implement an effective weed management regime, it is very important that the biology of the weed is well understood. In this respect, the survival mechanism of the little seed canary grass and its seed is studied in the rice- wheat cropping conditions where alternative drying and wetting conditions prevail. Designed to understand the seed survival and germination patterns under different soil and cropping conditions, this study, has provided valuable insights into the seed survival conditions for the little seed canary grass and could provide a means to design better crop management practices. This book will be useful for students, researchers and practitioners who are interested in the subject of weed management in general and in rice-wheat cropping systems in specific.
Rice is the staple food for millions of people in the Asia-pacific region; 90% of the world’s rice is grown and consumed in Asia. The indiscriminate use of chemicals in the rice environment thus polluting the fragile system has created an increasing awareness and interest among the rice farmers on organic farming. Weed infestation is regarded as one of the major causes of low crop yields throughout the world and can cause 50-60 % reduction in grain yield under puddle conditions and 91% yield reduction in non-puddled conditions. Organic weed control encourages weed suppression rather than elimination. This is done by promoting soil health through a combination of crop rotation, cover crops, biologically based bio-fertilizers, compost and mulch. Proper management through organic methods offer varied benefits over chemical herbicides, including increased biodiversity, improved soil nutrition and structure, and protection of ground and surface water. The present research work is aimed to confirm this possibility in weed control and evaluate the influence on yield performance in organic rice farming system employing non-chemical weed management practices.