With Bin Laden dead, Pakistan threatened by internal power struggles, relationships between the United States and Pakistan at an all-time low, and as the US and Britain begin their withdrawal from Afghanistan, what are the possibilities - and hazards - facing the world's most unstable region? Now, as Washington and the rest of the West wrestle with negotiating with unreliable and unstable "allies" in Pakistan, there is no better guide to the future than Ahmed Rashid. In his follow-up to the acclaimed Descent into Chaos, Rashid focuses on the long-term problems: the changing casts of characters, the future of international terrorism, and the policies and strategies both within Pakistan and Afghanistan and among the Western allies. Pakistan on the Brink offers sensible solutions and provides a way forward for all countries involved.
Pakistan is a frontline ally of the United States in the US war against terrorism in Afghanistan. After the 9/11 terrorist attacks, Pakistan was coerced by Washington to join the US effort to dismantle the Taliban-Al Qaeda terrorist infrastructure in Afghanistan and Pakistan. It is believed that Pakistan has employed a selective approach in the war against terrorism. It has targeted Al Qaeda and other militants but has remained reluctant to target the Afghan Taliban. The underlying reason for this inconsistent behaviour can be located in Pakistan’s conflicting interests in the war against terrorism in Afghanistan. By joining the war, Pakistan gained economic benefits, improved its international standing, and also denied India, an arch foe, an opportunity to use US engagement in the area against it. On the other hand, the removal of the Taliban regime after 9/11 deprived Pakistan of a pro-Pakistan regime in Afghanistan. Moreover, the emergence of an anti-Pakistan regime and the increasing involvement of India in Afghanistan added to Pakistan’s insecurities and Islamabad felt encircled from both eastern and western fronts.Pakistan thus has been reluctant to fight against the Taliban.
The research is aimed to find out the Phenomenon of Talibanization and its impact on Pakistan. I intended to find out the conceptual frame work of Talibanization which originates from Afghanistan and spread in to the region of Pakistan due to pours borders between the two countries, ideological association and social affiliations of people living in the bordering areas of Pakistan and Afghanistan. An objective analysis can therefore serve as an important tool for the future consultation and citation.
Oil and gas exploration in Afghanistan diverted the attention of international community towards the mineral resources of the country. From 1960 to 1980,about fifteen oil and natural gas fields were discovered in northern Afghanistan. In 2008, Russia sought to extend its gas pipeline to Europe. War between Pakistan and India in Afghanistan, civil war in Pakistan and Afghanistan created some difficulties in exploring the natural resources of Afghanistan. Afghanistan and Pakistan finalized a new Afghan-Pakistan Transit Trade Agreement(APTTA)which allows Afghan trucks to carry export goods to Wagah border for destinations in India. This agreement allows Pakistan to use Afghan territory as transit rout. Indian goods for Afghanistan will not be allowed to transit through land route in Pakistan. The new agreement replaced the 1965 transit trade agreement which allows landlocked Afghanistan to import goods through Pakistani ports. The declaration was signed on the occasion of the visit of Afghan President Hamid Karzai to Pakistan on the invitation of President Asif Ali Zardari.
If every individual did not know about the common knowledge of the society, they cannot act, re-act or think about an issue of the society. Media especially print media creates that awareness for the publics. Letters to the editor of the newspapers play his part in making public opinion and making of opinion rest on the fact that it enters on the field of common public perception at the very instant that an event or an issue are calling for opinion. This work aimed at investigating the “U.S attack on Afghanistan and Public response”. To achieve the aim of the work, the source of data which is used in this book is the editorial page i.e. letters to the editor of the two leading English newspapers of Pakistan from the month of October 2001. Both newspapers consist of 134 letters. Furthermore, letters divided into three different categories i.e. . “Anti – Attack”, “Pro – Attack” and “Neutral Response” category. The sample of the work is dailies “Dawn” and “The News International” of Islamabad/Rawalpindi edition. The work is not only about to analyze a public response but also covered the issue that how media presented the “U.S war in Afghanistan”.
Afghanistan is a landlocked country which relies heavily on the road and air transport sub sector. The country mountain terrains, low quality infrastructure, and artificial and institutional barriers to trade add to geographical disadvantage of Afghanistan, and increased the cost of moving goods internationally. Pakistan and Iran provide Afghanistan the most direct route to the sea and international market through the ports of Karachi and Bandar Abbas respectively. In compare to Iran Pakistan has the most advantageous position in Afghan transit trade, by offering the most nearest route to international market through Karachi seaport. The fundamental object of this present research is to measure the geographical disadvantage of Afghanistan, and to estimate the total trucking cost between Afghanistan and Pakistan, and to indicate how distance, infrastructure, time, bribe, and geography increase the transport costs.
The aid relations of the developed nations with the developing world have dual purposes which aimed to use assistance programs as a tool to pursue its goals. Hence, aid instrument serves the mutual interests of both the developed and under-developing countries of the world. After the terrorist strikes on the World Trade Centre, New York, the United States of America on September 11, 2011, pledged to root out the Al-Qaeda Network in Afghanistan with the support of international community and particularly Pakistan.Pakistan being a neighbour of Afghanistan became and played a role of front line ally in the US led war on terror.Consequently, the US congress on October 16, 2001 passed legislation that waived sanctions to revive economic assistance including arms export and military aid to Pakistan.A new era of economic and development assistance was revived by the US and other polities of the world by focusing mainly to combat terrorism.In this regard, the United States Agency for International Development(USAID)and Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) have been playing pivotal role in the development sector of Pakistan since the 9/11 mayhem.
Afghanistan is a land locked country and Pakistan is obliged to provide it with access to sea ports under its international treaty obligations. The first Afghanistan-Pakistan Transit Trade Agreement, also known as ATTA was signed on 2nd March, 1965. The Afghan Commerce Minister Dr. Anwar-ul-Haq Ahady and the Pakistani Commerce Minister Makhdoom M. Amin Fahim signed the new Pak-Afghan Transit Trade Agreement on 28th October, 2010. Certain fears and apprehensions had been expressed that the interests of Pakistan have been compromised at the behest of some external powers. In this background this book provides a comprehensive clarification regarding the agreement and analyzes the positive and negative implications of this agreement for Pakistan.
World is globalizing so does the Business and financial needs. The only solution to cope with these needs is the usage of effective technology. Banking plays an important role in international & local trade. In this book we have tried to impart the technological advancement/problems/solutions of different banks based on the research. This book is not only helpful for researchers, but for banks & other financial institutions to meet with the growing needs of Businesses/competition. This book is also of great help to students, teachers and others who are keen in doing business and investment. Solangi, Muhammad Afzal
The research was conducted in Islamabad, Pakistan. Purpose of this research is to investigate how investing in human capital creates value in the education sector, specifically higher education sector in Pakistan. Teachers of four universities were the sample for the research and they were asked through questionaires that how much important did they and the institutions consider human capital, for value creation. Recommendations, managerial implications of the results and impact on future study has also been given in this research.
This book examines the comprehensive definitions of democracy, types, models, institutions and conditions for democracy.It will provide the insight on the short democratic history of Pakistan since 1947-2007,with special reference of military''s role in destroying the institutions of democracy and problems of democracy in Pakistan from 1999-2007.The book will also help to understand the future of democracy in Pakistan and the micro study will also help to know about the public opinion regarding democracy.
The study is aimed at the investigation of trade implications for Pakistan in the milieu of globalisation. To this end, it examines the nature and application of WTO and identifies its operative tariff and non-tariff instruments. By doing so, it intends to trace out the place of Pakistan in the world market in comparison to its competitors. The study concludes that the pattern of trade preferences and WTO grants do not necessarily guarantee success in the export performance of the recipients. Similarly, various other demand and supply side factors also play an important role in this regard. Nevertheless, the main focus of the study remained on the investigation of trade implications of WTO for Pakistan''s textiles exports and impact of EU enlargement on textile sector of Pakistan. The examination of comparative trade statistics denotes that Pakistan has been one of the leading trading partners of Textile products for the world and proved to be a forefront supplier of selected textiles items over the period under review.
Accounting, auditing, accountability and governance are mutually exclusive. Accounting provides a set of rules and techniques to be followed by interested parties which would be verified by audit so that accountability of those parties is carried out. Governance requires such accountability through mechanisms of legitimation and control. The study in this manuscript is an investigation into the working of a standing Committee called the Public Accounts Committee of the Parliament of North West Frontier Province of Pakistan. This body is entrusted with the task of accountability of public officials for public funds placed at their disposal by the Parliament and to establish whether the funds are spent legitimately within the limits and on the subjects prescribed by the Parliament. The book in hand provides the baseline information for accountants, auditors, students, researchers and relevant Govt. stakeholders. Therefore, it should be in every library of the relevant disciplines.
After years of estrangements, the tragic event of September 11, 2001, once again prompted a ‘marriage of convenience’ between the two entangled partners, the United States and Pakistan, yet for the third time dubbed as the 'third time entente'. However, since 2008, after General Pervez Musharraf left the presidency of Pakistan, US-Pakistan relations have been in doldrums. A number of factors are held responsible viz., Taliban remnants gaining refuge in Pakistan, use of Afghanistan-Pakistan border areas as staging grounds for Taliban offensive against the US and the ISAF forces, Pakistan’s intelligence agencies alleged collusion with the extremist elements, and the unprecedented rise of extremism in Pakistan to such extensity that the very foundation of the country is in ruins. Many of these factors are in fact, attributable to the outcome resulting from the policies pursued by the US during the Musharraf presidency. This book thus, is an attempt to seek answer to the question, ‘what is wrong with US-Pakistan relations’ by reflecting back with a comprehensive analysis of the US-Pakistan relations during the regime of General Pervez Musharraf, the last military dictator of Pakistan.
How and how far foreign aid has affected Pakistan's industrial performance is the fundamental question of this study. It examines the history of aid flows to Pakistan; their interaction with economic growth and planning in the country; the role of foreign aid in the balance of payments and external indebtedness; and the reciprocal links between aid on the one hand and income, employment, investment and the structure of Pakistani industry on the other. The assistance programmes of selected donor countries and institutions are emphasized, with a view to explaining the aid-giving process and tracing its effects on various segments of Pakistan's industrial activity. The authors conclude that the flows of aid have been particularly significant during the second five-year plan. They also reach conclusions about the impact of the flows on Pakistan and the implications of this experience for aid policies in general.