Despite receiving large quantities of aid, many developing countries, especially the Least Developed Countries, have remained stagnant and became more aid dependent. This grim reality provokes vigorous debate on the effectiveness of aid. This study analyzes the effectiveness of aid on education and health sector of Pakistan over the period 1973-2008. This study focuses on the health and education sectors in the light of two Millennium Development Goals; achieving universal primary education and reducing child mortality. We estimate two separate econometric models. One to test the short run and long run relationship between foreign aid and gross primary enrollment in the education sector and the other model test the short and long run relationship between foreign aid and infant mortality rate in the health sector. Our results proved the short run as well as long run relationship between foreign aid and primary school enrollment in the education sector and also proved the short run and long run relationship between foreign aid and infant mortality rate in the health sector.
Nuclear powers India and Pakistan have several times fought over the Kashmir region. Most Kashmiris, on the other hand have been fighting for their right of self-determination as recognized by the UNO. In the past two decades, the region has been witness to a lot of violence which has also strained the relations between India and Pakistan. There have been several rounds of talks on Kashmir between governments of India and Pakistan. Sadly, there has not been any substantial positive outcome in resolving this dispute which has international ramifications. The Kashmir dispute has been analyzed several times in terms of its impact, economical or political, on India, Pakistan and also Kashmir. An analysis through a Kashmiri point-of-view as to what the Kashmiris want and how the two decade long conflict has affected their resolve for self-determination makes for an interesting research. The books thus investigates these issues and reports on the basis of data collected in five main districts of Kashmir. The book contains a discussion of the respondents’ views and their feasibility in light of Kashmiris’ aspirations and realpolitik of south Asia.
Aga Khan Education Service, Pakistan (AKES, P) executed a 22 Million Euro programme sponsored by European Commission during 1997-2002 within the AKES, P schools in the Northern Areas and Chitral in Pakistan under Northern Pakistan Education Programme ‘NPEP Phase-I’ for Educational and Community Development. AKES, P made an investigation sponsored by the European Commission in student learning achievement against the programmatic interventions brought about by this programme. It was thought necessary to measure the degree of current level of impact of the funded interventions through gauging the learning and achievement of the students of AKES, P school system to form a qualitative database to be used as benchmark for future programme needs and developmental planning. This study covers both the traditional districts of AKES, P’s operation in Northern Areas i.e. Gilgit and Ghizer and all the three traditional regions of Chitral in Pakistan (study report on Chitral is separately produced). The study covered four key subjects; English, Mathematics, Science & Urdu in Grades 1A, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 & 8. Additionally secondary grades and teachers' performance was also measured for comparison.
A survey study on the folk medicinal uses with recipes and ethnomedicinal uses of sixty medicinal plants was carried out in three main districts i.e. Umerkot, Daudu and Jamshoro Sindh, Pakistan. Since long time the people of this area have been using medicinal plants and their different parts for the cure of a variety of illnesses. The knowledge about the traditional uses of these medicinal plants and their folk recipes remained untouched for scientific exploration by the pharmacognosists, ethnobotanists, ethnopharmacologists, pharmacists and chemists. The folk uses and traditional recipes of sixty medicinal plants are therefore acknowledged which are typically used in the healing of many health problems and diseases by the people of these three districts of Sindh, Pakistan. Through this study, the medicinal plants are documented on the basis of their folk recipes and ethnomedicinal uses to demonstrate their efficacy to treat various diseases of humans and animals.
Military intervention in politics has been a significant feature of the developing world. Among the South Asian countries, there were number of military interventions in Pakistan’s political system. This study provides causes for which political institutions are in worst situation today and what are the reasons behind them. The decline of traditional structures like political parties, pressure groups, parliament, judiciary, executive and virtual death of political processes like constitutionalism and political processes are the number of reasons for the failure. Due to these reasons Military got a chance to strengthen itself and enter into the political vacuum due to the failure of civilian government. The failure of civilian government, Military dictatorship got its way to take over the control of the state. Therefore, Pakistan experienced phases of military rule and democracy after almost every decade. Despite the adoption of the constitution in Pakistan, the military continued to intervene in the political process of the country. Pakistan inherits a low political culture and low economic development that helped Army to intervene in politics.
Village Islampure is located in Tehsil Babozai District Swat, the study area were affected due to insurgency which creates economics problems in the study area, most of the people of Islampure were poor and engaged in making handicraft, handicraft as a cottage industry is prominently contributing to life standard improvement, while bringing some positive changes through life patterns. All these life pattern are directly molding relative behavior toward attainment of certain specific objective as in industry linked through history with past increase ramification on the locals pertaining not only to livelihood but behavior modification. Also the present study is an attempt to explore the possible facts, contributing to the continuity of these industries along with its effects, upon the life pattern of its stakeholder.
Sugarcane is an important cash crop in the country contributing 3.6 percent in value-added of agriculture and 0.8 percent to total GDP. It is an important source of income and employment for the farming community of the country. The research work in this book was based upon the primary information collected from 60 growers (25 selling directly at purchase centers of corresponding sugar mills, 25 selling to private purchase centers/middlemen and 10 were selling directly at mill gate), 10 middlemen, 2 sugar mills and 8 purchase centers (4 private purchase centers and 4 mill’s purchase centers to evaluate their marketing margins. According to results sugarcane farmers were facing many problems during marketing process. They also highlighted the problem regarding lack of mills development activities and the supply of inputs, credit and refined sugar at low rate. Regarding sugar crises government should announce support price before sowing of sugarcane crop to pursue farmers to put large area under sugarcane. Government should monitor working of mills by checking their stocks of sugar and should import sugar at proper time.
Natural disasters are a common phenomenon faced by developed as well as developing nations all over the world. A World Bank (WB) report asserts that twenty-four out of forty-nine Least Developed Countries (LDCs) are under extreme threat of disasters. Among them Pakistan is situated in the hub of climatic changes and has also faced many disasters, naturally caused due to geographical location, geophysical position and resources endowments. This phenomenon has been addressed by this book introduced by Neelofur Jamil.It aims to investigate the relation between the disastrous situation and the need for capacity building to prevent and deter these situations by utilizing qualitative approach. In the aftermath of flood in 2010, most of the government institutions established for disaster management were paralysed and not in the position to deliver the required functions conferred upon them by the constitution of Pakistan. This situation increased the vulnerabilities of the affected people. Hence this book tries to examine the need for capacity building to cope with the disastrous floods in future and also to give trainings to the people at gross root level and strengthen the preparedness
Social work Profession is not a newly born profession around the globe and not a very new profession in Pakistan. After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, its people had to face numerous problems including rehabilitation of migrants, hunger & poverty, structural and administrative problems etc. to combat with the problems, considering it the emergent need of the time, the very first batch of skillful social workers was trained in 1952, with the support of U.N.O. later on a 2 years master degree program was started in 1954 at Punjab University, Lahore: Karachi University, Karachi and Dhaka university, Bengal (which was a part of Pakistan then, and now it is an independent country, Bangladesh). Every year hundreds of professional social workers are being trained from different universities of the country since last six decades and Social Work Profession has not attained the deserving status among other contemporary Professions… why??? This book is an effort to know the root causes, hindering in the way of understanding and recognition of Social Work Profession in Pakistan.
Pakistan leasing sector is a major component of non banking financial institution (NBFI) and has played a vital role in economic growth of Pakistan. Leasing is an institutional arrangement that channelize resources to small and medium size enterprises to fund their business needs. The objective of this study is to empirically examine the relationship between the growth and its determinants (Liquidity, Leverage, Profitability, Size, Inflation, and Terrorism) on the leasing sector of Pakistan over the period of 2005-2008. The relationship is determined by applying Ordinary Least Square Regression, Pearson Correlation and Descriptive Statistics. The result of the study indicates that there is a positive relationship between growth, leverage and profitability, and a negative relationship between growth and terrorism. The study found positive but insignificant relationship between size, inflation and liquidity with growth. The comparative analysis between leasing firms and Modarabas shows that there exist positive relationships between profitability, Size with Growth but statistically significant in leasing firms and insignificant in Modarabas.
The study has investigated the relationship between culture and language learning in Pakistan. The motivational factors (i.e. instrumental or integrative motivation) of Pakistani learners have been reviewed in relation to culture and language teaching. For this purpose, first of all, the existing culture and language teaching models and approaches have been analyzed and their application in the context of L2 in Pakistan has been assessed. Then, native and non-native literature of English has also been discussed from a cultural point of view. The study, especially, investigated the cultural representation with respect to ESL learning in Pakistan in two areas. Firstly, the representation of culture in textbooks has been studied. The textbooks, which are used in Pakistan, have been analyzed in comparison with the textbook of other countries. They have been analyzed on the basis of the source culture, the target culture and the intercultural representation. Secondly, the study investigated the effectiveness of using the native culture for L2 learning in Pakistan. For this purpose, the selected extracts were used in class, and then the data was collected through questionnaire.
The study is designed to conduct indepth investigations into the nature and magnitude of FDI flows, their characteristics and their attraction factors to Pakistan economy in dynamic econometric model. The study highlights the degree of attraction of cost related, investment environment, development strategy factors with ownership, internalization and other political risk, business conditions, historical trends of investment factors on FDI flows. The inter relationship macro, domestic and foreign capital variables are investigated. The purpose is to determine the causal relationship and to understand as to what extent the FDI flows react to developmental characteristics of the country.
Developing countries like Pakistan are mostly depending on agriculture and farm business, if they wish to enhance their economies, it is important to protect farmers by increasing their source of income. Therefore, this empirical research is exposing a new source of revenue on farm gates, while dealing with the economics of agroforestry system in Pakistan. Author encourages farm business owners to generate additional revenue by adopting the agroforestry system on their farmlands. From this research, it is observed that in Pakistan the agroforestry is helping to meet the increasing demands of wood and wood products. Furthermore, besides additional income the agroforestry system also reclaims the soil condition and increases its fertility, with many environmental benefits. The author encourages to the farmers to enhance this system on unproductive lands in order to make them fertile and cultivable.
The Pakistani Satellite TV channels have recently gone through a massive boom in Pakistan and for the survival of media industry, advertising revenue is the main source. This research aims to study what becomes the reason of the boom, takes through of the media boom and studied its affects on advertising scene in Pakistan and the arising challenges. The advertising and electronic media are intertwined and connected like the symbiosis between the two which is inherent and natural as the income from advertising provides media with partial or even pre-dominant financial feasibility. After 9/11, when the war of terror started and Pakistan chose to become a strategic ally of US war, and with an internal Government shift in Pakistan that decided to open frontiers of the country for foreign investment. With the increase in foreign investment several MNCs find route in the country. At the same time, the Government invited private sector for TV licences and from one state owned Pakistan Television, the industry swelled to the burgeoning industry of more than 55 channels.
This book will provide the details of different crisis witnessed by Pakistan's Capital Markets since year 2005 and onward and will assist regulators for adding the additional critically needed elements of transparency, accountability and integrity to capital markets to avoid any further crisis and provide necessary risk management regulations prior to the problem. In this publication you will find how in-house badla become major cause for different crisis. In addition to this regulated market as established in the “Carry Over Transactions Regulations, 1993”, brokers have customarily engaged in unregulated COT lending through what is commonly referred to as In-house badla. The purpose of the study is to understand the role of regulators in capital markets of Pakistan focusing the impact of the price floor imposed on Karachi Stock Exchange in the year 2008 which includes objective and outcomes as well as how it effect the investors, economy and image of Pakistan, and why regulators allowed off market trades even the price floor was imposed. Target audience, print and electronic media, local and foreign fund managers, different regulators of the world markets and bank treasury etc.