Fighting against poverty is one of the core objectives of United Nation Development Programme (UNDP) under the project the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The potential to gain economic opportunities depends on the scale of access to monetary services. Micro finance made possible the access of the poor to the economic opportunities and enhanced their income in order to come out of the poverty cycle. The main objective of the study was to explore the impact of micro credit provided by NRSP on poverty alleviation in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. A survey with the help of purposive sampling was conducted and 100 borrowers of NRSP were selected as respondent from five villages. The result shows that Micro credit had made a significant difference in improving income levels of the borrowers. Micro credit is an effective tool which works as a mediator towards the improved livelihood of the loonies and also enhances their income. Borrowers were satisfied by the utilization of micro credit in a productive and purposeful way. People in rural areas have been benefiting from micro credit scheme.
Agriculture extension is considered an organizational vehicle for transferring technology and involves the communication of innovations to farmers, especially their effective use. Decentralization of agricultural extension has been adopted in many countries. The main rationale for the move is that decentralized administration shifts decision-making authority to lower administrative and political levels. The concept is sound, but its implementation in developing countries has, so far, not been smooth for various reasons. The present study was designed to analyze the communication interventions of EFS with the farmers under the decentralized extension in the Punjab province, Pakistan in order to observe, whether or not the changes made by the Department of Agriculture (Extension) Govt. of the Punjab after the devolution plan have any positive effect on communication.
This Book is about Pakistan as a Nation Brand. This book provides insight to Brand Pakistan as a Nation and its different cities as Destination/Place Brand. The concepts of Nation and Place branding are not old and they have recently emerged in marketing literature. They are getting extra ordinary importance due to Globalism and free Media, also the Nations and Places are constantly competing with each other for distinguishable positioning, image and identities. The advancement in technology has also affected the market of countries. This compelled the countries to start using methods through which they can gain the attention of the world.
In 1993, after a terrifying and disastrous attempt to climb K2, a mountaineer called Greg Mortenson drifted, cold and dehydrated, into an impoverished Pakistan village in the Karakoram Mountains. Moved by the inhabitants' kindness, he promised to return and build a school. "Three Cups of Tea" is the story of that promise and its extraordinary outcome. Over the next decade Mortenson built not just one but fifty-five schools - especially for girls - in remote villages across the forbidding and breathtaking landscape of Pakistan and Afghanistan, just as the Taliban rose to power. His story is at once a riveting adventure and a testament to the power of the humanitarian spirit.
The Research is based on the exploration of women’s contribution in tangible and intangible art of Pakistan. It was the intention to see the sights of gender dimensions in formulation and depiction of different facet of art and culture. The particular aim is to create an awareness and motivation among young generation about the preservation of indigenous culture of Pakistan which is our national heritage. The particular research is intended to identify the gender dimension of folklore in Punjabi culture of Pakistan. The riddles from the community were collected, documented and then analyzed the different aspects of gender.
Corporate governance is now meticulously within the public domain, judging from the consideration it receives from the mass media. The governance of companies specially the listed companies is a complex matter. There is good deal of association between the national and extra-national systems, hard and soft laws, reconciliation between the markets and state regulation, and the apparently irreconcilable corporate and social responsibilities. There is still no clear conformity on the intention of corporate governance or the objective of the company. Should the company’s major aim to maximize the shareholders’ wealth? Should the interests of stakeholders be taken into consideration? and, if so, to what extent? Can there inherently conflicting interests be balanced, and by what mechanisms? This book seeks to provide some insight into corporate governance, including the rules that help promote good and effective corporate governance, with focus on Pakistan. My emphasis is on the relationship between theories and rules which set the groundwork for corporate governance, as well as aspects of corporate governance in the Pakistani context.
The research is aimed to find out Pakistan and the United States of America relations. I intended to find out the historical events highlighted significant issues in the relations between two countries. The current status of the relations has also been highlighted. Important events regarding various issues will helpful to understand the status of cooperation and conflict between two states. A policy recommendation can therefore serve as an important tool for the future consultation and citation. It will also provide the probable direction of Pak-U.S. relations in the future challenges and opportunities. The focus has been on the objectivity of research and analysis on the basis of keeping in view all the possible aspects of the situation in discussion.
The U.S financial crises of 2008 highlighted the role of a depressed financial system in causing an economic downturn. This pioneer empirical study develops a financial stress index for the Pakistan economy during 2000-2013. We use key variables that capture unique aspect of stress in the financial system. Principal component analysis technique is used to aggregate the components to a single index. Empirical analysis reveals that banking sector and stock market volatility are the leading contributors to financial stress in Pakistan. The developed financial stress index is then used to trace high episodes of financial stress. Our index was successful in identifying three main financial crises that attacked the financial system including global financial crisis of 2008. Afterwards, the impact of financial stress on real economic activity is examined using impulse response function and Granger causality analysis. We find the expected results as high values of financial stress index are associated with decline in macroeconomic indicators. These findings will provide useful information to readers about the financial and economic dynamics of a developing economy like Pakistan.
This is a comprehensive book describing the recent status of marine pollution in Pakistan including brief historical background. Pakistan has inherent a number of serious environmental problems which are of great concern in terms of its sustainable economic future. The major pollution in Pakistan is due to uncontrolled use of pesticide being agricultural based economic. This book compiled all type of pollution found in Pakistan such as water pollution Water is life because if no water than no life. Water pollution means any addition /subtraction in natural composition of water Water is polluted when its natural composition is changed and it contains additional materials that make it unsuitable for a given use. Ninety seven per cent of the earth's water is the salt water of oceans and seas. Pesticides are the toxic chemicals used to control any pest population through their contact systemic action. They are used for preventive or corrective purpose. History of oil pollution in Pakistan is not very old as there is no serious oil spill occurred except Tasman Spirit which was an ecological, environmental and economic disaster. Oil spillage always has a long term and short term effect.
Stock Market or Equity Market is an essential part of economy. It serves as the mirror and health indicator of an economy through which the physical fitness of a country can be judged. In Pakistan with the increase of media and business studies, common public got awareness about Equity Market furthermore day by day increase in inflation and urge of people to be in accordance with the modern age demands some extra source of money so, stock market got attention. But still a mystification, perplexity and confusion occurs about the considerations, circumstances and causes which influence Equity Price. This book investigates the macroeconomic determinants of Equity Price in Pakistan. The macroeconomic variables are Inflation (CPI), Money Supply (M2), Exchange Rate (Re/US$), Economic Activity (Real GDP) and Interest Rate. The determinant market would be All Pakistan Listed Companies at Karachi Stock Exchange. The investigation would be conducted using Vector Error Correction Model (VECM). The research study and the results of the research study attempt its best and anticipates to help the researchers and all the stakeholders of Equity Price in Pakistan and the globe over.
News Media and Journalism in Pakistan deals with two main issues of journalism in Pakistan. One is the primary concept of media system in Pakistan. This has been thoroughly discussed through the use of exhaustive theoretical framework. The second aspect of the study is study of journalist professionals in the context of communicator research. Communicator research in the present study deals with professional role conceptions of journalists in two main cities of Pakistan, namely Peshawar and Islamabad. The overall structure of Pakistani media system, its interaction with other social systems in the country has been put into context. The overall idea coming out of the whole study gives the image of an institution that is weak in itself, but the group of professionals working in it are powerful enough to survive in the face of a very powerful political system. The main yardstick for professionalism in the country is security, job and personal. Professionalism in the Pakistani media is more of a self concept than reality.
Afghan crisis is in the focus of international relations since 1979. The crisis began with the erstwhile Soviet Union’s military intervention in Afghanistan in the defence of Saur (April) revolution of 1978.The central theme in the present study is to analyze in depth the impact of Afghan crisis on the security environment in Indian sub-continent –Pakistan and India. The book is divided into five chapters. Chapter one deals with geo- strategic location, historical background and political developments in Afghanistan. It also focuses on the Pak-Afghan, Indo-Afghan and Soviet-Afghan relations till 1979.Chapter two deals with the genesis and implications of the crisis on regional and international level. Chapter three highlights the impact of Afghan crisis on Pakistan’s security. The forging of US-Pak military relations and Pakistan’s role in Afghan developments are also analyzed. Chapter four focuses on India’s reaction and its security concern in the aftermath of US-Pak military re alignment. Chapter five deals with the Soviet withdrawal. After the withdrawal the crisis led to political instability, factional strife, refugee problem, terrorism and security problems in the region.
The word biomass is the combination of two “Bio”, which is the prefix indicating the action of living organisms and the “Mass”, which is the matter in the body. The Waste Agricultural Biomass (WAB) is the agricultural residue, assorted as field residues and the process residues. It is a clean, renewable source of energy, and is one of the replacements of a non-renewable energy sources. This book focuses on the management, quantification, characterization and energy potential of WAB in district Sanghar of Pakistan, which is one of the largest districts of province Sindh. For characterization seven field residues and four process residues were collected and after processing as per standard methods they were analyzed for density, volatile and organic matters and calorific values. The volatiles and organic matters were determined by using Thermo Gravimetric Analyzer (TGA) and calorific value was determined by Adiabatic Bomb Calorimeter. A field survey was performed in order to know the status of WAB in each taulka of district Sanghar, on the basis of survey, total nine residues were identified for energy conversion stand point and their energy potential was determined.
U.S.-Pakistan-China triangle depicts the interplay of complex power politics between regional and extra regional powers in South Asia. Pakistan and China have enjoyed a long and flourishing relationship for the last 6 decades whereas U.S.-Pak relations have gone through various ups and down. This analytical study focuses on U.S. Factor in Sino-Pak relationship while applying Neo-realist theory. A detailed analysis of ‘Indian factor’ in this triangle is also discussed keeping in view the improving Indo-China and Indo-U.S. relations. Pakistan has the most important Geo-Strategic location in South Asia and enjoys cordial relations with China despite being a major U.S. ally in War against Terrorism. In the emerging bipolar world, it will be imperative for Pakistan to gain maximum economic and political interests from both states in order to tackle Indian threat to its security and prosperity. This analysis will help the students and academia of Politics & International Relations to shed some light on this complex triangle and the power power politics in South Asia.
Islamic republics of Pakistan and Iran - leading developing models of contemporary Islamic political systems - have been analysed comparatively. Both Constitutions contain Islamic provisions but suffer in implementation from elites - ‘feudal’ landlords and the military in Pakistan, and the Ulama’ leadership in Iran. Islam emphasises justice and freedom to “call for the good and forbid evil”. In uplifting the 'oppressed' masses, Iran achieved greater success, although it is deficient in civic freedoms with rampant corruption. Compared with Iran’s popular revolutionary movement, Zia ul-?aq’s Islamisation suffered from a ‘top-down’ approach. Urgently needed in Pakistan are land reforms and Ulama’ efforts to build unity. The Pakistan Constitution is now improved by reinstating a parliamentary system. It is proposed, fuqaha’ assist parliamentarians in drafting new legislation. In Iran, the Wilayat-i Faqih (Rule of the Jurist) system has considerable merit but transgresses Islamic principles in the poor consultation with civil society, lack of accountability and restricted elections. The study findings are highly relevant for countries seeking to establish ideal Islamic political systems