This book has empirically investigated the impacts of Pakistan’s demand management policies on foreign sector. The transmission mechanism between monetary policy and aggregate demand has been analyzed by using the monetary approach, which depicts that disequilibrium in the balance of payments is the result of domestic money market imbalance. Pakistan is the 27th largest economy of the world in terms of purchasing power parity. During 1970s and 1990s, economic performance of Pakistan remained poor due to nationalization of various sectors and macroeconomic mismanagement. Pakistan’s economy became one of the four fastest growing economies in the South Asia during 2000-2007, which was the result of effective strategies of the monetary authorities. Presently, the economy is suffering due to poor law and order situation and nation’s involvement in the War on Terrorism. The findings of the study are: government budget deficit has significant impact on money supply and increase in money supply has deteriorated the balance of payments proportionally during the period of 1965-99. These empirical findings have equal importance for academicians as well as economic managers of the country.
It is an understood fact that the technology is an important determinant of agricultural output, we need to quantify the relationship between the improved technology and agricultural output so that we may have a through insight on the incentives of using new methods and techniques in the sector. The study aims to analyze the role of mechanization in the agriculture sector. Empirical findings show that the number of tractors is the important determinant of agricultural output. Study further concludes that the improved seeds, water availability, number of tube wells and labor employed in agriculture sector are positively related to agricultural output.The data for these variables was obtained from Agriculture Statistics Of Pakistan Yearly Book and Pakistan Economic Survey. Johansen cointegration technique was applied on the data to obtain the results.
The main objectives of this book are to empirically analyze the impact of leader’s change-promoting behavior on employee’s readiness for change and whether this relationship is mediated by organizational culture in the context of a developing country such as Pakistan. A sample of 205 responses is drawn from managers based in Karachi. With the help of advanced multivariate statistical techniques, the results indicate that leader’s change-promoting behavior has a significant positive impact on change readiness and this relationship is partially mediated by organizational culture in Karachi. The findings may be generalized on a larger population in Pakistan. The study supports the theory of one of the six conceptual formations of change readiness which refers it to as an employee’s capacity to change. Therefore, managers should clearly advocate the desired change with the help of their own change-prompting behavior as well as establishing a trusting culture in their organization. Both limitations and areas for future research in the context of Pakistan are also discussed.
Since the dawn of Pakistan, the adverse wind of problems is blowing from unexpected quarters i.e. survival in general and governance in particular. One of the fights against overwhelming odds has been the security threats. The tactical retreat has always been dealt with militaristic aspects, imbued with the spirit of war, but the advent of modern ideologies introduced a non-traditional form of security threats. The standing menace of ethical separatism is amongst the non-traditional security (NTS) threats for Pakistan. Ethnic separatism movement in Balochistan is one of the emerging NTS threats to Pakistan. This occurred against the backdrop of administrative paralysis, political failure, unequal distribution of sources, economic imbalance, and compromised educational. Ethnic separatism has grown not only in numbers but also in sophistication; separatists’ movement is host of ethnic nationalism and organized crimes. History can help to overcome this ethnic movement. Political will tempered with justice can lead Pakistan to navigate its way out of a declining present and chart a future consistent with the aspirations of its rudderless and long suffering people.
Phosphorus (P) is growth limiting nutrient and deficient in most soils of the world. Research was conducted on five soil series of Pakistan differing in soil properties. Phosphorus adsorption isotherms were developed and fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich equations to describe P adsorption process. The study suggests that the oxides of iron and aluminum are the main adsorbent at low P concentration, normally applied in agricultural soils and soil CaCO3 play role at high P level. This book is recommended for soil science community working on P chemistry.
Social work Profession is not a newly born profession around the globe and not a very new profession in Pakistan. After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, its people had to face numerous problems including rehabilitation of migrants, hunger & poverty, structural and administrative problems etc. to combat with the problems, considering it the emergent need of the time, the very first batch of skillful social workers was trained in 1952, with the support of U.N.O. later on a 2 years master degree program was started in 1954 at Punjab University, Lahore: Karachi University, Karachi and Dhaka university, Bengal (which was a part of Pakistan then, and now it is an independent country, Bangladesh). Every year hundreds of professional social workers are being trained from different universities of the country since last six decades and Social Work Profession has not attained the deserving status among other contemporary Professions… why??? This book is an effort to know the root causes, hindering in the way of understanding and recognition of Social Work Profession in Pakistan.
Islamic Banking, the Shariah (Islamic law) compliant banking for Muslims, is unarguably at the nascent stage of its development as a financial competitor and alternative to the conventional interest – based banking system practiced around the world. This research work looks into the principles of Islamic banks of Pakistan and focusing three Islamic Banks in Pakistan. The research work analyzes the findings of three banks made by interviews and compare with the conventional banking system, to check that are the principles different or same. This thesis is qualitative in nature, based on theoretical and empirical findings.
Health informatics is the field that concerns itself with the information processing, and communication tasks of medical practice, education, and research, including the information science and the technology to support these tasks. but this culture does not exist in Pakistan. we explores the ideas or ways for implementation of an electronic medical record system at different hospitals of Pakistan. Statistical Suit for colorectal cancer patients record (SSCC) is introducing as a way to facilitate a centralized colorectal cancer patient information repository. Benefits realized by this system included improvements in colorectal cancer patient’s care, clinical research, and patient service and satisfaction. The tool excluded the need of statistician on routine basis in a hospital setting and the doctor have information of lengthy follow up patients, one click away. We also highlight the influence of gender and age on the occurrence of this malignancy in patients in local population by comparing analysis of the data from two largest Tertiary Care Cancer Hospital in Pakistan to give an estimate of the disease burden in heavily populated areas.
From the stages of the Mughal Imperial rule, courtiers became substantial landlords holding various hereditary offices with military duties as the Jagirdars and Mansabdars. The Rulers of Bengal, such as the Nawaabs in Murshidabad created the landed nobility of Zemindars, who under the British colonial and imperial rule were made hereditary, thus creating a landed aristocracy that influenced all spheres of life in Bengal till the independence of India and beyond. Bengal was split multiple times and the two parts came to be under different sovereignties- India on the western province and Pakistan on the eastern, shortly before being officially abolished by the Zamindari Abolition Act, 1953, West Bengal and the East Bengal (East Pakistan) State Acquisition and Tenancy Act of 1950, respectively. The formerly ruling families then labored to permanently engulf the newly democratic political arena by creating dynasties that ruled generations after generation rising to the ranks of Presidents, Prime Ministers, governors, ministers, ambassadors, generals and other prominent members of society and continue to exert influence on the lives of the nations which they ruled through generations.
This study attempts to answer whether the formation and functioning of SCO is motivated by the aspirations of its members (particularly China and Russia) to contain the rising political and economic influence of the U.S. and the West or it is determined by a vibrant agenda setting according to the strategic environment. It not only focuses on the impacts of the regional cooperation through the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) for the Central Asian states but will also look at the future prospects of the organization as a vibrant, panregional group. SCO is the successor organization of Shanghai Five, which consisted of China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. The group reshaped itself after the induction of Uzbekistan into the current form and expanded its focus to ensure regional security and stability by including combat against drug manufacturing and trafficking, along with collective economic projects. It also includes four observer nations: India, Pakistan, Iran and Mongolia and also a contact groups with Afghanistan has been set up, bringing substantial weight to the organization.
For the last two decades, the banking sector is one the most prominent and efficient sector of the Pakistan. The banking industry in Pakistan has shown substantial growth in past few years. Despite of this remarkable performance, the banking sector of Pakistan in terms profitability seems to be underdeveloped when it is compared with the other banking sector of the world. This indicates we have ignored the numbers of banking, financial needs and our country has not attained optimal economic potential yet. Therefore, it is need of time to develop banking sector of Pakistan so that effective mobilization of resources can be make sure.
Pakistan has come a along way in its struggle to eradicate polio. In the early years of the 1990’s the annual incidence of polio was estimated at more than 20,000 cases a year, but over the last 5 years an average of only 100 cases per year have been reported. The national polio eradication effort has made major strides in reaching children with immunization in all parts of the country over the past 15 years. Now the tremendous progress towards the eradication of polio in Pakistan is threatened by stagnation due to difficulties in access in areas affected by security problems and managerial & implementation failures and lack of accountability. Recent floods have posted an additional challenge in terms of mass displacement of population and damaged health infrastructure especially in the Northern Sind and South Punjab. The failure to reach all children, especially in high risk areas, with sufficient doses of vaccine is leading to continued transmission of poliovirus in Pakistan. As on 24 November, Pakistan has reported a total of 119 cases in 2010, more cases than any year since 2000.
Marine turtles in Pakistan are protected, either directly or indirectly, through a series of legal and regulatory provisions. Five marine turtle species, including green turtles (Chelonia mydas), olive ridley turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea), hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata), loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) and leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) have been recorded from the Karachi coast and Balochistan coast. During the present study, we surveyed all known and potential turtle nesting sites, and identified six new nesting beaches, including Mubarak village (Karachi coast), Gwadar (West Bay), Pishukan, Ganz, Sonmiani, and Hingol National Park (Balochistan coast). Nesting of C. mydas and L. olivacea in Pakistan occurs at Hawkesbay and Sandspit along Karachi Coast, and at Ormara and Jiwani along Balochistan coast. The research techniques and information are helpful for wildlife BS., MS and Ph.D students, wildlife biologists, wildlife managers, wildlife conservation organizations etc.
The main object of the said book is about the hospital waste and its effects on the health of doctors and patients in district Dera Ghazi Khan (Punjab,Pakistan). Data has been collected from 110 doctors and 190 patients on the basis of hospital wastes, they undersigned written said book. The book represent the diseases being effects by the patients and doctors in the hospital. This book present the awareness of hospital wastes and related infectious diseases like Hepatitis B, C, T.B and also skin.
Afghan crisis is in the focus of international relations since 1979. The crisis began with the erstwhile Soviet Union’s military intervention in Afghanistan in the defence of Saur (April) revolution of 1978.The central theme in the present study is to analyze in depth the impact of Afghan crisis on the security environment in Indian sub-continent –Pakistan and India. The book is divided into five chapters. Chapter one deals with geo- strategic location, historical background and political developments in Afghanistan. It also focuses on the Pak-Afghan, Indo-Afghan and Soviet-Afghan relations till 1979.Chapter two deals with the genesis and implications of the crisis on regional and international level. Chapter three highlights the impact of Afghan crisis on Pakistan’s security. The forging of US-Pak military relations and Pakistan’s role in Afghan developments are also analyzed. Chapter four focuses on India’s reaction and its security concern in the aftermath of US-Pak military re alignment. Chapter five deals with the Soviet withdrawal. After the withdrawal the crisis led to political instability, factional strife, refugee problem, terrorism and security problems in the region.