The child labor is a persistent social phenomenon in the developing world and specifically in Pakistan. In the last decay, the sensitive issue of child labor has got the attention of policymakers, statesmen, and researchers. Any exact information on child labor is usually hard to come by as most of the children work in the unorganized informal sector, which is neither regulated by labor laws nor is monitored by any organization. Legislation against child work or labor is not an ideal solution in a country such as Pakistan. In this regard, other measures such as poverty reduction programs, more facilities for education and vocational training are indispensable
Climate change has created an enormous social, economic and environmental hazard to the world in general and South Asia in Particular. Similarly, Pakistan was confronted by the flash flooding in 2010, which occurred due to melting glacier and an abnormal increase in rain in the month of July. The present study analysed the socio-economic vulnerability caused by the flood and its impact on the livelihoods of the people in Northern Pakistan. It also analyses the difficulties faced by the women of both the ethnic groups “The Afghans and The Pakhtuns”. Moreover, the analysis is made on the pre-event and post-event situations of both of the ethnic communities.
Defense spending of Pakistan remains high in order to sustain a credible deterrence, significant geopolitical position in Afghan wars and combat terrorism. The study analyzes the defense spending in light of perceived and real threats to Pakistan’s security and examines its linkages with economic growth. By developing a theoretical framework to explore the different dimensions of national security, the study empirically investigates the relationship between defense spending and economic growth. Econometric techniques such as Johansen Co-integration and Granger Causality test have been applied to obtain empirical results by using a time series data from 1980 to 2010. The results indicate that there exists a long-run relationship between defense spending and economic growth where economic growth granger causes defense spending. The study also assembles fifty structured interviews from armed forces officers, civil bureaucrats and experts to analyze and bargain the gap between theory and practice. The study recommends that Pakistan should focus more on social sector development, initiate trade with India to build trust and initiate dialogue process on political and local level Taliban.
There is endless literature on job stress, but not a single book on the subject specifically written in the context of Pakistan. The book in hand is the first ever empirical study to discuss the global problem of job stress in relation to work environment in Pakistan. It empirically tests the significance of relationship between work environment and work stress in this South Asian country. The study contains voluminous literature review on stress, which will be extremely beneficial to researchers planning to undertake fresh research on the subject, particularly with reference to Pakistan. The main objective of the study is to see whether the employees in Pakistan also suffer from the global problem of work stress; if so, what causes stress in this part of the world and what is the extent and gravity of the problem. The study also covers the gender disparities in discussion of the chief factors as well as the outcomes of stress.
Tobacco is one of the most important cash crops of the world as well as Pakistan. It contributes substantially to federal exchequer. The industry, directly or indirectly, provides jobs to one million people, whereas 70,000 families earn their livelihood through cultivation of the crop. Tobacco at present is grown over nearly 2% of the total area under cultivation, making Pakistan the 5th largest tobacco producing country. Its share in GDP is about 4%. Tobacco grower’s faces many constrain. One of them is weed problem. Weeds adversely affect the yield and quality of tobacco. On the basis of the field survey, field experiment and farmers and experts opinions, this book is presented. This book is the essential resource for the identification and management of tobacco weeds in Pakistan. Hopefully this book will be very valuable to the graduate students, teachers, herbicides industry as well as for farmer’s community.
The book deals with climate change in terms of global warming and its resultant effects on the river flows of Pakistan. Climate change has been identified as the variation in climatic factors occurringfrom causes other than the natural ones. It has been defined world over as the phenomenon ofglobal warming. The impacts of the phenomenon are varied and cover a wide range includingbiological systems, health issues and climatological systems. Out of the various facets of the issue,the focus of study is on the impacts on river flow. How river flow is affected by climate changedepends upon the sources generating the flow. For Pakistan these are snowmelt and rainfall. Theimpact of climate change on these sources defines the effect on river flow. As a result of thewarming, both these factors are being affected.
HRD in Pakistan, an analytical study is related with the current scenario of HR in Pakistan since existence to date. As no book is available on the topic as such, hence, it is unique book especially for advance studies in HRD for policy makers and planners. In spite of many efforts taken by the Govt Pakistan is lagging behind in this area. A panoramic history of Economic Development of Japan and other Asian Tigers is evident that Human capital occupies central position as compared to any other resource for social development. Pakistan’s track record in this field has never risen beyond a mere average. HRD is based on education, science and technological development; health, food, nutrition, hygienic condition and availability of clean drinking water; information technological development, vocational training and skill development; manpower planning; development in migration outflows and inflow of remittances; all these are itself explanatory and give the clear picture that Pakistan is far behind in all these areas of HRD. The monograph may be used in HR planning and guidance especially in Pakistan.
A prominent influence of online buying and selling on economy has been observed round the globe. This book aims at studying pattern of e-commerce adoption on consumer level in developed and developing countries by conducting a comparative analysis of Sweden and Pakistan. The factors of trust on online sellers, national culture, infrastructure involved in the overall e-commerce activities and education level of consumers are found to have significant impact on the adoption of e-commerce.The proclivity to trust on the online seller and risk taking are influenced, to a greater extent, by different cultural orientation of consumers. Hofstede’s (1980; 2001) frame work of cultural dimensions provide a good insight on national culture to draw its implications for the e-commerce adoption. Swedish culture appears to be more adaptive towards e-commerce than the Pakistani culture, due to its wider differences on the Hofstede’s cultural dimension indices. On the other hand, the digital divide, both in terms of relevant education and infrastructure, is an important contextual factor that encumbers e-commerce to thrive in developing countries like Pakistan.
Pharmacy services in Pakistan have experienced both evolutionary and revolutionary changes since 1947. With time the pharmacists interest increased at community level but the quality of services are still not up to the mark. While in comparison with the developed countries like U.K and U.S.A, where community pharmacists are expanding patient care services and have enhanced their role as pharmaceutical care providers, the pharmacy profession in Pakistan is continuously evolving. This study is carried out to explore history for evolutionary and revolutionary changes in community pharmacy practice in Pakistan and to highlight the current scenario in Pakistan. The aim of this research work is to bring forward the ground realities and to analyze the factors that can overcome the barriers thus making community pharmacy practice in Pakistan a success. The healthcare services in community pharmacies, currently insignificant, must undergo reforms to meet the changing needs of modern medicines users. Although pharmacists' contributions to health care are not recognized yet, there is every reason to be optimistic toward making patient care in community pharmacy setting a success.
The information and communication technologies (ICTs) are riding on the horse of ‘Bullet-theory’ with a license to ‘Inject’ facts and figures into Individual, Group, Community, National and Global Spheres – and there is No Escape. In the realm of education ICTs take-on the form of eLearning with eTeaching and eEducation to digitize university-constituents. Since 1990s the experiences with eLearning systems particularly in higher education suggest that adoption of these technologies is neither automatic nor a one-shot activity rather it is a social process demanding multi-disciplinary treatment along the trajectory of development and use practices. However, research also asserts that integration of eLearning in the legacy systems is a more human and social issue than technical and deterministic. There is need for digital literacy of the developers and users to tune their mindset with the social constructivism offered by the virtual learning environments using 24/7 connectivity through a diversity of digital gadgets. This book is an eye-opener for the developers and users of eLearning systems in the higher education institutions of particularly developing countries like Pakistan.
The dividends are the compensation, strewed earnings or the capital stock paid out to the shareholders for risk bearing on the investment. The managers are confronted with the challenge in earning’s management when arriving at the investment and the dividend decisions. Normally, the investment decision is preferred to the dividend one. Due to the wobbly corporate governance and the weak legal system, the growth is not being transformed properly to the investors. As a result the funds are exploited by the management for its own ends. It is an effort to put some light on the dividend paying behavior of the companies in the developing countries particularly in Pakistan.
Parthenium hysterophorus L. is an aggressive weed of family Asteracea. It is native to the subtropics of North and South America but now has invaded Asia, Africa, and Australia, during the last 50 years. Since then the weed has not only naturalized itself in many countries but has spread at an alarming rate. In Pakistan it is spreading very fastly, affecting the Crops, Animal and Human Health related serious problems. Hence proper management of Parthenium is the cry of the day. Parthenium hysterophorus L. have allelopathic effect on weeds and crops of Pakistan and consider a serious threat to the Biodiversity of Pakistan and rest of the world. In Current published research works the Allelopathic effect of Parthenium hysterophorus L has findout on different Weeds and Crops of Khyber Pakhtunkhawa Pakistan through experiments. The results indicate clearly its potential regarding the stimulation and inhibition ability on tested crops and weeds species.
Phosphorus (P) is growth limiting nutrient and deficient in most soils of the world. Research was conducted on five soil series of Pakistan differing in soil properties. Phosphorus adsorption isotherms were developed and fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich equations to describe P adsorption process. The study suggests that the oxides of iron and aluminum are the main adsorbent at low P concentration, normally applied in agricultural soils and soil CaCO3 play role at high P level. This book is recommended for soil science community working on P chemistry.
Use of modern biotechnology started in Pakistan since 1985. In a developing country like Pakistan Biotechnology would attain importance for producing more food and fiber as the country’s population is going to touch the level of 335 million by 2050. By adopting this glorious scientific field Pakistan had already achieved the target of 12.7 million bales of cotton and is one of the largest exporters of cotton yarn in the world; almost 65% of Pakistan’s annual export income. This book has entitled almost all fields of Biotechnology which this country currently has availed. Main focus is given to Agricultural biotechnology in Pakistan, Regulations, Research and Development of Biotechnology in Pakistan,Biofuel, Biodiesel and Biogas In Pakistan, Pakistan Biotechnology Information Centre (PABIC), Biotechnology and Food Security Challenges in Pakistan, GM Crops Development in Pakistan, Scope of Biotechnology in Pakistan and HEC Curriculum, Institutes of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering in Pakistan, eminent pakistani biotechnologists and Regulatory Authorities for GM Plants And Animals In Pakistan.
Pakistan emerged on the world map in 1947 as a federal state. Sindh is a southern province of Pakistan. Pakistan passed its more than half of its history under the rule of military regime. In this Book the politics of Sindh under Zia regime are deeply discussed. The impact of Martial Law and assassination of Bhutto on the politics of Sindh is the main chapter of this book. The people of Sindh launched the movement for the restoration of Democracy in 1983 under the banner of Movement for the Restoration of Democracy (MRD). In the movement hundreds were killed and injured by the states forces. The thousands were sent to jail. The impact of this democratic movement on the politics of Sindh also analyzed. The formation and the politics of ethno nationalist organizations such as Muhajir Quomi movement, Punjabi Pakhtoon Ithad are the topic of this work. The politic of Jeay Sindh Tahreek and other separatist organizations of Sindh are the part of study. The impacts of the politics of those organizations on federations also thoroughly discussed. In this book the democratic movements and Ethno nationalist politics of Sindh are covered.