The book deals extensively on India-Pakistan Peace process during former Pakistan President General Pervez Musharraf's period.A peace process is a mechanism or a set of negotiations where the parties involved attempt to avoid war or a war-like situation and wish to settle conflicts peacefully by using techniques such as diplomacy, tradeoffs and mediation.The peace process between India and Pakistan is important in order to solve all the conflicting issues including Kashmir issue.India-Pakistan peace process has gone through several twists and turns and has severely affected by the acts of terrorism like kargil war, parliament attacks, and Mumbai train blasts.
The book describes a study about use of effective and ineffective reinforcement techniques as viewed by secondary school teachers and students of Govt. schools in the province of the Punjab(Pakistan).The study questionnaire items, responded on a 5-point scale, were derived from Skinner's practice oriented behaviorist theory of learning i.e. operant conditioning theory. The survey results indicate that the views of secondary school teachers and students were contrasting and contradictory. Students, unlike their teachers, were of the opinion that theory based scientific reinforcement techniques were not being used in schools. The results justify redesigning and implementing teacher education curricula, especially in subjects of educational psychology and teaching methodology in Pakistan to orient the potential and practicing school teachers in using research based and practice oriented behavior modification techniques.
From the stages of the Mughal Imperial rule, courtiers became substantial landlords holding various hereditary offices with military duties as the Jagirdars and Mansabdars. The Rulers of Bengal, such as the Nawaabs in Murshidabad created the landed nobility of Zemindars, who under the British colonial and imperial rule were made hereditary, thus creating a landed aristocracy that influenced all spheres of life in Bengal till the independence of India and beyond. Bengal was split multiple times and the two parts came to be under different sovereignties- India on the western province and Pakistan on the eastern, shortly before being officially abolished by the Zamindari Abolition Act, 1953, West Bengal and the East Bengal (East Pakistan) State Acquisition and Tenancy Act of 1950, respectively. The formerly ruling families then labored to permanently engulf the newly democratic political arena by creating dynasties that ruled generations after generation rising to the ranks of Presidents, Prime Ministers, governors, ministers, ambassadors, generals and other prominent members of society and continue to exert influence on the lives of the nations which they ruled through generations.
The boy known as Tor Baz - the black falcon - wanders the tribal landscape of Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan. He meets men who fight under different flags, and women who risk everything if they break their society's code of honour. Where has he come from, and where will fate take him? "Remarkable. Written in a style that has about it the reverberant clarity of fables, but their intention is realist, uncovering a largely neglected world, and their cumulative effect is deeply moving". Sunday limes "Shocking. Its setting alone, in the cruel and punishing highlands, deserts and rocky altitudes where the borders of Pakistan. Afghanistan and Iran meet, is worth the price of admission. Here is a book, to my knowledge the first in fiction, that gives an insiders account of the hard-bitten lives of the scores of tribes, collectively known as the Pawindas, or foot-people. The result is mesmerizing". The limes "Striking. One of the finest collections of short stories to come out of south Asia in decades. Rarely has a writer shown greater empathy for its people, or brought such wisdom and know ledge to writing about a terrain largely inaccessible. I he power and beauty of these stories are unparalleled in most fiction to come out of south". Asia Guardian
So for as the impact of online banking on customer satisfaction is concerned only a little search is done in developing countries especially in Pakistan. So to get better understanding of these related issues in Pakistan, this research is conducted to explore how the direct marketing effect the customer satisfaction.The adoption rate of online banking in Pakistan is checked in this study. And either the customer satisfaction is increased or not with the use of online banking. From the customer’s point of view, this study has much importance. They will know about direct marketing in a better way and will able to use online banking easily. For the companies, this study will helpful in CRM (customer relationship management).
Pakistan is always in the debate of international political arena for the diversification of its cultural manifestation that have the garb of Islam to provide the coalesce to the contenders of power. The modern political system was put into force as a value that engaged all segments of the society in the political discourse to determine the nature of political development. So different political forces projected their cause by organizing the political parties and participated in the activity of elections to legitimise not only the system but their existence also. This part of activity manifested the behavioural orientation of the people of Pakistan, and their participation in the political process was better tool to gauge the maturity of their political culture.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of internal indicators of corporate governance on performance of commercial banks of Pakistan over the period of 2004-2013. Multiple regression analysis used to estimate the relationship between internal governance measures such as board size, CEO duality, non-executive directors, ownership concentration, managerial ownership and institutional ownership and performance measures such as return on assets, return on equity, earnings per share and market-to-book ratio. Results of the study suggest that internal governance measures have material effects on performance of commercial banks in Pakistan regardless of the fact that banks are regulated and monitored by the State Bank of Pakistan. Findings of this study provide support to bank managers to understand the effects of internal governance measures on performance, to investors to understand the effects of governance measures on performance before making their investment decisions and to regulatory authorities, in particular SECP, to take measures to improve the corporate governance in the country.
Juan Cabrillo and the crew of the Oregon have undergone many hair-raising adventures before - but never one quite like this. Jungles come in many forms. There are the steamy rain forests of the Burmese highlands. There are the lies and betrayals of the world of covert operations. And there are the dark and twisted thoughts of a man bent on near-global domination. To pull off their latest mission, Cabrillo and his remarkable men and women must survive them all. A devastating new weapon unleashed in thirteenth-century China . . . a daring rescue in the snowbound mountains along the Afghanistan?Pakistan border . . . a woman gone missing in the jungles of northern Thailand and Myanmar . . . for Cabrillo and company, all of these events will come together - leading to the greatest threat against US security that the country has ever known.
The book stands to describe the state of underground and surface water of the area lying in the District Nawabshah, Sindh, Pakistan. The book can be of an immense assistance for the researchers, pursuing and working on environmental issues, specially, with the quality of water in different parts of the world. The Author tried a bit to analyze and discuss the possible reasons for the deterioration of the quality of the surface water and underground water. Along with the assessment and analysis of quality of water, its applicability as drinking water and also for agricultural purpose is discussed.
Revision with unchanged content. The book in hand aims to examine the privatization of banking sector in Pakistan, its impact on efficiency, economy, employment and new products and services. For this purpose economic model is used to judge efficiency of banking sector for pre-and- post period of privatization of banking sector in Pakistan. The results show that banking sector in Pakistan after privatization of few banks has improved its efficiency. Liquidity ratios, Numbers and values of deposits and Profitability of the banks increased. Value of non-performing loans is controlled. However, spread rate is still higher as compared to pre-privatization period. New products and services have been created to facilitate the customers. Impact on economy, in the sense of mobilization of savings, increase in loan advances and credit, as well as investment have shown an upward trend. Quality of assets of all banks has improved. The results confirm decrease in number but increase in salary and remuneration of employees. The book will benefit the students of Economics and business schools in general and policy makers in developing countries in particular.
A prominent influence of online buying and selling on economy has been observed round the globe. This book aims at studying pattern of e-commerce adoption on consumer level in developed and developing countries by conducting a comparative analysis of Sweden and Pakistan. The factors of trust on online sellers, national culture, infrastructure involved in the overall e-commerce activities and education level of consumers are found to have significant impact on the adoption of e-commerce.The proclivity to trust on the online seller and risk taking are influenced, to a greater extent, by different cultural orientation of consumers. Hofstede’s (1980; 2001) frame work of cultural dimensions provide a good insight on national culture to draw its implications for the e-commerce adoption. Swedish culture appears to be more adaptive towards e-commerce than the Pakistani culture, due to its wider differences on the Hofstede’s cultural dimension indices. On the other hand, the digital divide, both in terms of relevant education and infrastructure, is an important contextual factor that encumbers e-commerce to thrive in developing countries like Pakistan.
The domestic water buffalo is a major source of milk, meat, draught, hide and employment to the small farmers in many Asian countries especially Pakistan. The phylogeny and genetic structure of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is still not explored well in Nili, Ravi, Nili-Ravi, Kundi and Azakheli buffalo breeds of Pakistan. The genetic characterization of these breeds were completed using mitochondrial D-loop region and FAO/ISAG recommended microsatellite markers through sequencing and genotyping respectively. A reasonable number of SNPs and Allele variations were identified. The phylogenetic relationships among these breeds as well as with other breeds of the world were constructed using certain Bioinformatics softwares. This revealed very interesting information about phylogeny, history of domestication and origin of water buffalo in Pakistan and added valuable to the AnGR of the region. The work provided the basic data which is very helpful for determining the genetic diversity of buffaloes, breed identification, forensic and paternity tests and designing effective breeding and conservational policies in future.
Education is the prerequisite for the development of a country. In Pakistan, presently District Mansehra having 36.3% literacy rate against 47 % and 55 % of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and country, respectively. Pakistan has the highest school dropout ratio in world, annually about 35,000 students are drop out of the education system. This menace is mainly attributed to corporal punishment, beatings, social, migration of the families and financial constrainents. In the studied area the drop out ratio of female students were more when comapred with male students. Unawarance of parents about education were found another hurdle in increasing litracy rate. This comprehensive and profusely illustrated book will be highly valuable for undergraduate and postgraduate students of education and researchers involved in the curricula development and allied sectors. Therefore, this book should be available in each library round the country.
Conflict is the most inflamed debate of the present era around the globe. keeping in view its importance,the author made an attempt to explore conflict management styles and their impact on the working environment of educational institutions. Therefore, the empirical evidences about conflict management styles and their impact on working environment were gathered from the four public sector universities of the province of Punjab, Pakistan. The author inferred from the empirical evidences that administrator of the universities mostly used integrating, obliging and dominating style of conflict management. These styles give guidance and support and create coordination and teamwork among the employees. However, sometimes avoiding and compromising style is used to make the conducive environment of the universities. After studying this book, reader will analysed the real picture of conflict management styles and working environment of Pakistan. In a nutshell, the author explored the new horizon in the field of conflict management in the context of Pakistan. Best Regards Dr. Tahir Farooqi
NaCl stress has reached to its alarming state in the history of various regions of Pakistan. Vegetable production is now a problem in salt affected areas of Pakistan. Especially onion is also sensitive to salt stress. In this way the present study was planned to check the effect of salt stress on different cultivars of onion. It proved a significant effect on the growth and physiology of onion. That ultimately affects the yield.