Challenging behavior in students is a world wide problem.Challenging behavior is a vexed issue in rural areas of Pakistan.There are so many causes behind challenging behavior in students.Poverty and illiteracy of parents are one of the fundamental causes of challenging behavior in the world. The book focuses on the nature and causes of challenging behavior in secondary school students in Pakistan. The book reflects the management strategies to overcome the challenging behavior.The work will be significant for the academicians,researchers,psychologists and parents.
This book is written on the basis of research work conducted by Author for PhD Dissertation. I have collected primary data from the farmers living in rural areas of Pakistan and then I have seen the Socio-Economic impact of livestock on their livelihoods. This book will not only be useful for the researchers but the students and policy makers of different institutions who are working on the poverty alleviation strategies for developing countries. Lot of donor agencies has already started projects to alleviate poverty in developing countries but the results are still not encouraging,by adopting this model of my dissertation, they can improve the livelihoods of rural farming people on sustainable basis. When we see poverty ratio in urban vs rural areas, it is always on higher side in rural areas in almost all developing countries. In this book we have provided recommendations and suggestions to overcome this poverty issue in developing countries and gender can play a vital role in livestock activities to increase their family income.
It is well said that children are considered the future masons of the country and healthy brain is found in a healthy body. Healthy generations can be produced by providing knowledge of immunization to mothers. Due to the combination of unique factors i.e. low rate of literacy, misperception of vaccination, cultural and belief system have sound impact on adoptability of children’s immunization among minorities. The main objective of the present study was to find out the reasons of non-adoption & incomplete adoption of the immunization practices. A sample of 160 Christian minorities was selected through multistage sampling techniques. The result showed a significant and strong association between the mother socio-economic status and practice of immunization. A huge majority of the respondents 93.1% tried to immunize their children and 39% respondents could not complete the whole immunization. A mainstream of the respondents 41.3% got information about immunization through L.H.V and Vaccinators. Data exhibited that higher income, education, role of advertisement, knowledge about basic health units were the factors that had greatly affected the adoption level of child immunization
Pakistan experienced grave external security threats to its prime national security values-political independence, territorial integrity, and sovereignty, immediately after its inception. Pakistan employed various security tools of internal and external balancing other than nuclear weapons to guard its prime values from the strategies of war and black-mail of India. Post 1971 debacle and India''s so-called PNE of 1974 national security evaluation compelled the then Pakistani leadership to exploit the deterrence value of nuclear weapons. After the induction of nuclear weapons in its national security policy, Pakistan successfully held India at bay during Brasstacks Operation-1987, Kashmir Crisis 1990, Kargil War 1999, and Military Standoff of 2001-2002. Nevertheless, Indian leadership is continuously exploring various unwise strategic choices to undermine the existing posture of minimum credible deterrence of Pakistan. Therefore, Pakistan must reevaluate intelligently its nuclear posture to strengthen the fabric of nuclear deterrence.
The study of on-the-job training in service sector has always been a widely discussed topic in the literature. Well-trained workforce is considered a critical success factor for modern organizations in today’s dynamic corporate environment and organizations particularly financial institutions from all around the globe spend huge amounts of money per year on formal on-the-job training of their employees but still much is unknown regarding the phenomenon in the context of developed countries like Pakistan. This book enhances the understanding of a little studied topic by empirically identifying OJT techniques being used in banking organizations of Pakistan and which one is more extensively used than the others. After studying this book academicians and managers will come to know that financial institutions which spend more on OJT of their employees are relatively more successful as human resources contribute to productivity more than physical and other resources. This book also provides some recommendations on how on-the-job training practices can be improved in banks and therefore it will serve as a base for future research on a much important but little studied phenomenon.
The present taxonomic studies is based on specimens were collected from various localities of Pakistan representing 22-species belonging 13-genera of the sub-family Galerucinae of the family Chrysomelidae. Key to sub-family and genera are formulated on the basis of most reliable characters for easy identification. All the species are described in detail with special reference to their claws, antennae, elytra and tarsal characters with their male and female genetilia. The representatives of 13-genera including 21 already described species and one new species are included. All the included genera and species are compared with their closest alliles. A cladistic analysis of 13-Pakistani genera and 22-species is also given on the basis of above characters and a cladogram is constructed showing relationships of the Pakistani genera. The detailed morphology of Oides neobengalensis with its appendages and sclerites of head, thorax and abdomen is also studied.
This study attempts to investigate the impact of exchange rate risk on the exports demand of Pakistan to the rest of the world. The previous studies in Pakistani context had examined this phenomenon on aggregated data which had made over generalization which are not appropriate for any specific sector, thus leading to unrevealed important information. This study is to find out the effects of exchange rate volatility on exports at sectoral level by using disaggregated data set. The results of this study show that exports are negatively influenced by exchange rate volatility and relative prices while positively affected by foreign income. This relationship holds for all sectors where bound testing revealed the existence of long run relationship although some equations results are not statistically significant. These findings can be used to form such policies which result into stabilized and competitive exchange rate, so that exports of Pakistan can be raised.
“Success has many parents but failure is an orphan”. It is well to bear in mind as we look at India Pakistan relations since 1947. The India-Pakistan conflict is considered to be one of the most intractable conflicts in the world. The history of Indo-Pak relations has been mainly a story of conflict and discord, mutual distrust and suspicion. The relations between the two countries have shifted from conflict to de-escalation to conflict and again to de-escalation but very seldom to cooperation. On occasions some silver lines of cooperation appears and then it is quickly covered by thick clouds of mistrust. The study will look into some of the instances where Track Two Diplomacy has resulted in conflict resolution between India and Pakistan, and how it has made a significant contribution in pushing forward the peace processes and has developed new ideas for “sustainable security.”
A STUDY ON IMPACTS OF FOREIGN AID IN PAKISTAN The impacts and significance of foreign aid in enhancement of social, financial and economic growth and development of Pakistan is evaluated in this book. A research analysis based on financial and economic indicators such as Gross Domestic Production (GDP), Total Debt and Liabilities, Consumer Price Indicators, Inflation in Pakistan and social indicators such as Poverty alleviation, Financial Investment in Education, Women Empowerment, Sanitation and Access to Drinking Water, Children under Five Mortality Rate, Use of Communication Tools and Corruption in Pakistan is performed. All these indicators were evaluated from financial perspective to assess their growth during the foreign aid enrichment phase of Pakistan (2007-09). To conduct this impact analysis, data was acquired from the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Statistics division, Ministry of Finance and Revenue, Ministry of Planning and Development of Government of Pakistan, World Bank, Central Bank of Pakistan, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and World Health Organization in the form of various statistics, quarterly and annual reports.
From the stages of the Mughal Imperial rule, courtiers became substantial landlords holding various hereditary offices with military duties as the Jagirdars and Mansabdars. The Rulers of Bengal, such as the Nawaabs in Murshidabad created the landed nobility of Zemindars, who under the British colonial and imperial rule were made hereditary, thus creating a landed aristocracy that influenced all spheres of life in Bengal till the independence of India and beyond. Bengal was split multiple times and the two parts came to be under different sovereignties- India on the western province and Pakistan on the eastern, shortly before being officially abolished by the Zamindari Abolition Act, 1953, West Bengal and the East Bengal (East Pakistan) State Acquisition and Tenancy Act of 1950, respectively. The formerly ruling families then labored to permanently engulf the newly democratic political arena by creating dynasties that ruled generations after generation rising to the ranks of Presidents, Prime Ministers, governors, ministers, ambassadors, generals and other prominent members of society and continue to exert influence on the lives of the nations which they ruled through generations.
Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) plays very crucial role in global business activities. It can help an enterprise with new and alternative marketing channels, relatively low price production facilities, cheap labor, approached unique technology, competitive environment, unique products and different investment opportunities. It is collection of assets, new technology, expert management, and easy access to market. It provides investment benefits to both home country and host country by the passage of time. It enhances the growth, skills, jobs and development of the host countries. The Government of Pakistan has opened foreign investment in telecom sector, because it a very strong sector among other sectors in terms of economic growth and development of the country. If we review past few years of Pakistan Telecom Sector’s performance and economic growth and development of Pakistan, the FDI shows positive and significant impact on telecom sector of Pakistan, but gradually FDI reduces due to some factors like Political instability, Terrorist Attacks, Less Secure Environment, Inflation, Weak Leadership, Low Literacy Level and Fluctuation in Economic Growth.
Ayubia National Park, Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa Province, Pakistan is one of the 14 national parks in Pakistan. It is internationally known as a hot spot in the moist temperate West-Himalyan mountainous range. Many endangered (threatened) species are inhabited in the Park. The park is enriched with coniferous forests mixed with broad-leaved evergreen and deciduous trees. A total of 420 species of plants (9 species of fungi, 5 of lichens, 5 of gymnosperms, 65 of monocotyledons and 309 of dicotyledons were recorded. A total of 22 species of mammals(10 families),154 species of birds(42 families) and 8 species of Herps (Reptiles and Amphibians; 5 families) were recorded. ANP has now become a permanent breeding territory of leopard. Of the bird species 12.9% were permanent resident, 12.3% were resident altitudinal migrant, 18.9% were passage migrant, 29.2% were summer migrant, 4.5% were winter migrant, 10.4% were occasional, 10.4% were vagrant and 2.6% just take the aerial route. Complete description along with the current status, feeding habits, limiting factors, calling, nesting, gliding, breeding etc of two flying squirrels (Petaurista albiventer & Hylopetes fimbriatus) were also included.
Stream is among one of the main water resources. Several factors that affect the stream water quality include high rainfall, urbanization and solid waste dumping site near the stream. From centuries human have been disposed off waste into the river and indirectly stream are contaminated by surface runoff. So the stream water quality is mainly on threat due to negligence. High level of water pollution has negative impact on human health. Proper efforts are needed for the awareness of the people to safe water resources for drinking and other uses.
This book provide significant knowledge of Afghanistan's geographical location regarding "New Great Game in Central Asia" in this modern era, demonstrate the momentous of pre-post scenario of 9/11, Radical Islam and Importance of Non-State actors. After 9/11, Bush Doctrine, which only shows the decision of "Just War on Terror" regarding Muslim's World specially Afghanistan-Pakistan. Also shows the efforts of "Bonn Conference" for reconciliation and reconstruction of Afghanistan. In this book most important things the role of NATO-ISAF, Afg-Pak relations and perceptions regarding withdrawal of international forces till 2014 or will remain onward.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of internal indicators of corporate governance on performance of commercial banks of Pakistan over the period of 2004-2013. Multiple regression analysis used to estimate the relationship between internal governance measures such as board size, CEO duality, non-executive directors, ownership concentration, managerial ownership and institutional ownership and performance measures such as return on assets, return on equity, earnings per share and market-to-book ratio. Results of the study suggest that internal governance measures have material effects on performance of commercial banks in Pakistan regardless of the fact that banks are regulated and monitored by the State Bank of Pakistan. Findings of this study provide support to bank managers to understand the effects of internal governance measures on performance, to investors to understand the effects of governance measures on performance before making their investment decisions and to regulatory authorities, in particular SECP, to take measures to improve the corporate governance in the country.