The study tests the significance of multiple risk factors in determination of stock returns in Pakistan using KSE as the benchmark. Pakistan’s market has shown an upward trend as KSE100 improved from 11348 to 16905 points in 2012. The market is also subject to a strong degree of volatility. Individual monthly stock returns from 2006 – 2010 have been used in the study. It will contribute to investor’s understanding of the market and assist research analysts. The study is based on competing Fama-Macbeth models and incorporates equity risk premium, size and value premiums, liquidity premium and momentum premium. The results suggest that in Pakistan, market risk and momentum premiums are strong estimators of equity returns whereas liquidity premium and company specific fundamental factors like size and value premiums do not hold in the country’s equity markets. The limitation is the lack of cross country diversification.
The implication of personified branding in order to brand the political workers of the parties can render the fine traces of democratic reform of Pakistan. This research has attempted to check the impact of promotional strategies upon the brand personality of the political party workers. Three hypotheses have been drawn. The first hypothesis verifies the existence of relationship between the promotional strategies exploited in order to build the persona of the political workers as political brands. The second hypothesis confirms the existence of the same relationship in the sole reflection of the opinions of political party workers. The third hypothesis ensures the relationship between promotional strategies and brand personality of political workers. This illustrates the subsistence of strong association between the effective deployment of promotional strategies and brand personality of the political party workers. This research is among the pioneer work being done in Pakistan on the Political Brand Development.
The boy known as Tor Baz - the black falcon - wanders the tribal landscape of Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan. He meets men who fight under different flags, and women who risk everything if they break their society's code of honour. Where has he come from, and where will fate take him? "Remarkable. Written in a style that has about it the reverberant clarity of fables, but their intention is realist, uncovering a largely neglected world, and their cumulative effect is deeply moving". Sunday limes "Shocking. Its setting alone, in the cruel and punishing highlands, deserts and rocky altitudes where the borders of Pakistan. Afghanistan and Iran meet, is worth the price of admission. Here is a book, to my knowledge the first in fiction, that gives an insiders account of the hard-bitten lives of the scores of tribes, collectively known as the Pawindas, or foot-people. The result is mesmerizing". The limes "Striking. One of the finest collections of short stories to come out of south Asia in decades. Rarely has a writer shown greater empathy for its people, or brought such wisdom and know ledge to writing about a terrain largely inaccessible. I he power and beauty of these stories are unparalleled in most fiction to come out of south". Asia Guardian
Education is the most vital tool for national uplift. Those having achieved thrill in it have become leaders of the world. Unlike them Bangladesh and Pakistan are backward vis-a-vis even other SAARC countries. Yet Bangladesh has offered a unique microfinance system and Pakistan stands against the tide of world terrorism. So, they deserve help. But before granting such aid the dirty political factors need exposure. A search has been initiated in this regard. The education juggernauts in Pakistan in particular are in deep slumber and private parties have free hand to treat the system as business venture. There seems none to resist it. Again, feudalism is jamming the wheels of literacy. However, there exists some kind of system in Bangladesh with, of course, loopholes intact. The study has picked the owners, managing committee members and teachers for scrutiny and finally solved the riddle why literacy graph remains low there. The study has the ingredients to change the education system in this part of the world, commented a US Varsity Professor. It will, therefore, attract educationists, govt. functionaries, Varsity teachers, philanthropists, civil society and researchers as a whole.
The book in hand analyzes the relations between media and politics in Pakistan since 1947. Media faced the toughest of the times in the sub-continent before partition and encountered difficult situations of new kind afterward. How did media react to the repressive actions of the rapidly changing governments and what were the reasons for taking actions against the media in the governments'' view? These and many other significant aspects have been studied in the book. Similarly, economy of the country and its affects on the functioning of media have also been studied with the presumption that an economically weak media is feebler to the actions of the government as compared to the stronger one. How did the media survive and what measures it took for its viability have also been examined. The society and its role in protecting the media as a social institution have also been focused. Some of the dramatic changes in the societal behaviour have been observed and studied in detail. What difficulties and problems the media faced, which hindered its institutional development process, are analyzed and summarised in various chapters of this book.
This books is about Branding Pakistan purely from a Pakistani students' perspective. The concepts of nation and place branding have recently emerged in branding literature. However they have become reasonably dominant due to the concepts of differentiating and developing of identities for nations and destinations to compete with one another. The book first offers a description of the terms branding, nation branding and place or destination branding. An effort has been made to study the awareness and commitment of Pakistani students in branding their country Pakistan. Anholt’s Hexagon has been used as a model to check the cohesiveness of Pakistani students as brand ambassadors along with role of Government of Pakistan as a facilitator.
Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) are the prime source of good quality milk and meat in Pakistan and other developing countries. In Pakistan there are 28.4 million heads of buffaloes, which play a key role in the rural economy of the country. Buffaloes provide more than seventy percent of milk consumed in the country. Pakistan is the fifth largest milk producer in the world. The gastro-intestinal tract of animals provides a shelter for a wide variety of parasites. Ascariasis is the most important parasitic disease of buffalo calves. Its incidence in Pakistan is high upto 37.7% to 48%. Toxocara vitulorum parasites cause this disease in young buffaloes. So this study was planned to record the prevalence of Ascariasis in buffalo calves by using Direct Smear Method, Floatation Method and Sedimentation Method
Pakistan trade suffers from persistent trade deficits. It had a favourable balance of trade only twice;once in 1950-51 because of the increase in prices of primary commodities like cotton and other raw materials as a result of the Korean War boom; the second time was after the devaluation of the rupee and the oil crisis in 1972-73. After that the trade deficits of Pakistan''s economy have been gradually and steadily increasing. So, can the depreciation of the Pak rupee improve this phenomenon? This present study implies the error correction model to estimate the short run equilibrium and heterogeneous panel cointegration method to examine the long run relationship between the real exchange rate and the bilateral trade balance of Pakistan and her selected 4 major trading partners (USA,UK,China and Germany) for the period 1980-2008. Using annual data, the empirical results indicate the devaluation of the Pakistan rupee deteriorates her bilateral trade balance with China but improves it with USA, UK and Germany. In the panel cointegrated framework, a long- run negative relationship between the real exchange rate and the bilateral trade balance exists for Pakistan.
Training is an imperative instrument facilitating the organization where effectiveness of the training process has always been under debate. The factors of organizational behavior, which are the individual, the group and hence the structure, are impinged significantly by diverse employee perceptions where transfers of training and satisfaction with activities of Training transfer are clearly conspicuous. The current research evaluates and understands the impact made on the effectiveness of training by perceptions held by the employees at the Pakistan Metrological Department, Islamabad, Pakistan.
The study was conducted at national level and data was gathered from all four provinces of Pakistan.The major purpose of the study was to investigate the nature and extent of the contribution of private sector in the development of primary education in Pakistan.The main objectives of the study were to prioritize the problems faced by the private sector, to find out grass root level data regarding enrollment at primary level; and to find out quality of education provided by the private sector. THe study helped in finding the enrollment of both male and female students of sample cities of all provinces of Pakistan. Data regarding school management, school organization,category of school, physical faclities and academic situation of private sector was gathered from private sector. The study also helped to find out the problems faced by the private sector and measures to improve the standard of primary education in Pakistan.
Pakistan is going through a critical phase of its history and facing enormous challenges at both internal and external fronts due to the menace of extremism and terrorism in the country. Analysis of Pakistan’s short and troubled history testifies that its drift into extremism was gradual and international developments, regional rivalries and adoption of certain policies by the different regimes in power, all have contributed to the problems Pakistan is facing at present. In post 9/11 scenario, Pakistan has become a center of international attention, initially, due to its front line role and lately, due to ever expanding terrorism in the country with links to international terrorism. This phenomenon has caused severe security challenges to the state and society of Pakistan. This study highlights the specific challenge Pakistan is facing in the post 9/11 scenario and finally recommends some remedial measures to overcome these problems.This work should be useful for all those who want to know about the nature of problems Pakistan is facing today.
The present book describes the importance, distribution and management of sub tropical dry deciduous forests (STDDF) of Pakistan. Economic importance, distribution, management, conservation status and uses of indicator species, which are indigenous woody plants (trees and shrubs) are elucidated in details. These species are studied in different districts of Pakistan i.e., lower Swat, Malakand, Northern Mardan (Rustum), Northern Sawabi (Gadoon–Amazai), Buner, Haripur, Mansehra, Abbottabad, Rawalpindi, Jehlum, Northern Gujrat, Northern Sialkot, Mirpur and District Kotli. Distribution of these forests shows that variability in temperature and extent of precipitation seem to be influencing factors. There is a gradient of decreasing annual rainfall from east to west which make them more gregarious in the eastern parts as compared to west. This book provide a baseline for the conservationists, foresters and policy makers for better management of sub tropical dry deciduous forest.
Modernization in library trends is the gift of the emerging technologies. These technologies have reshaped the resources and services of present day libraries. Speedy improvements in the pace of information generation, processing, storage and transmission have revolutionized the role of libraries in communicating information services to their patrons. This book consists of eight chapters.The first chapter contains a case study of public sector universities of Islamabad, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan Pakistan.The second chapter is about Higher Education Commission (HEC) Digital Library.Third chapter is related to internet.Fourth chapter deals with the study of Information Literacy.The fifth chapter is designed to obtain, analyze and interpret data regarding developments of university libraries through decades and available services in the public sector university libraries of Pakistan.Chapter six discusses the current status of government college libraries in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.Seven is designed to focus impact of technology on university libraries in Balochistan.Chapter eight discusses impact of digital technology on university libraries in N-W.F.P
There are thousands of children in Pakistan who are involved in the worst forms of the domestic labor which is playing havoc with their lives. These children are not only deprived of education, healthy development, the right to health, the right to protection from abuse, exploitation and neglect, the right to live with their family and the right to play but their future is also completely blighted. The study findings are reflective of inhumane and slave like working conditions of child domestic workers. Facts collected from the field are clearly indicating the deprivation of Child domestic workers from their basic rights of health, education, protection and livelihood. Harsh and unkind behaviors of employers along with ignorant attitude of parents are the main contributing factors towards the increasing vulnerability and exploitation of these children.Information provided in this report leads to a better understanding of the situation of child domestic workers and provides a basis for interventions that lead to safer and better opportunities for these children.
Writing this book on a key aspect of marketing has been an enjoyable experience. This book comprehensively covers the issues of branding, billboards and its impact on the perception of customers. The First chapter contains an introduction of the book and its key concepts. The second chapter covers theoretical background of constructs in detail. Third chapter discusses the methodology of work. Whereas, the analysis of the results, its discussion, and recommendations educates the research cycle as it encompasses the full gamut from qualitative to quantitative work. Additionally, the book provides a case study of telecom industry operating in Pakistan. I expect that students will enjoy this book.