The systematic degradation of forests worldwide has ignited innumerable policy conflicts. Pakistan being the most beleagured nation both from internal security and external strategy cannot help but adopt the idea of sustainable development. A comprehensive study of the status of forests in Pakistan, their usability, vulnerability as well as the policy making and implementation is therefore required to ensure sustainable development in Pakistan. This work focuses on major policy makings, their ruptures and future manoeuvres in this regard.Moreover, the study also focuses Pakistan's attitude towards its forest management juxtaposing with international strategic policy formulation.The book extensively excavates the origin and evolution of the idea of sustainable development and its usability in successful management of forest resources in Pakistan.
Pakistan coast is characterized by the presence of coral reefs, the most highly productive ecosystem in the tropical Oceans, distributed in southeastern part of Arabian Sea. In this book we summarize the knowledge on the coral fauna of Pakistan, herein provided on the basis of published literature and present the summarized current status of coral reef ecosystem in Pakistan. Some progress in corals and coral reef research is also discussed. This monograph is based on “The Corals of Pakistan”, historical discovery, research progress of Soft Corals (Octocorallia) and Hard Corals (Hexacorallia or Scleractinia) of Pakistan and provides qualitative data and sophisticated information about the corals of Pakistan. It is noteworthy that the literature published on corals in Pakistan is incomplete and ambiguous as the authorities of species are not mentioned, synonyms are not given and type species are missing. In this monograph we have particularly addressed these issues. The current monograph will provide detailed information and will open new directions in the field of taxonomy and ecology of corals. This research could be used as a reference and a baseline for further studies.
This research book is based on the research conducted for the evaluation Problems and Prospects of Tea Blenders in Pakistan and the study being conducted on Tapal Tea the one of the largest tea blender in Pakistan as the case. The study totally based on secondary information/ data. For the authenticity, Secondary data is collected from the official websites of selected organization on which this report is based. Some information also collected from the staff and others by using the primary data collection.
The research was conducted in Islamabad, Pakistan. Purpose of this research is to investigate how investing in human capital creates value in the education sector, specifically higher education sector in Pakistan. Teachers of four universities were the sample for the research and they were asked through questionaires that how much important did they and the institutions consider human capital, for value creation. Recommendations, managerial implications of the results and impact on future study has also been given in this research.
The purpose of this project is to identify and analysis the ways of increasing the volume of FDI in Pakistan. The whole work consists of two different approaches. The first approach is the identification of the main barrier to invest in Pakistan. In this section, the researcher is looking for the reasons why Pakistan is not making full use of its investment potential. Is it because of the ineffectiveness of Government promotion and facilitation or because of a difficult investment? Can the political and economic situation be considered stable in Pakistan? Does the inefficiency of the legal system establish negative impacts on the investment climate of Pakistan? What is the level of corrupt bureaucracy, and security situation and how does Pakistan take to improve the investment climate in the country? On the basis of such analysis, the researcher makes recommendations to Pakistan on how it can reduce the barriers to increased inward FDI volume.
This book discusses the stumbling blocks stifling the adoption of GPS technology in the public sector of Pakistan. This study has been carried out in order to describe the value of GPS technology and its adoption at various public sector organisations in Pakistan. Data collected for this research has been quantitatively analysed with the help of SPSS. Regression analysis, correlation and cross tabulation were the techniques used to determine the strength of relationship between key variables. Findings of this research indicate that main hurdles in GPS adoption in the public sector of Pakistan are lack of awareness about GPS among masses in general and the stakeholders in particular, lack of initiative on part of government in promoting new technologies, unavailability of GPS infrastructure in Pakistan and prohibitions on map availability because of security reasons.
This study explored the frames used by the Pakistani Elite print media – The Dawn, The News and The Nation – in their editorial coverage of the war in tribal areas from January 2008 to December 2008. Through a content analysis of 322 editorials, the researcher investigated the media''s framing about the long ambiguous debate of whether Pakistan is fighting a war of its own survival or a war of United States interests. Moreover, this study explored the conflict resolution presented by leading newspapers. Furthermore, it interrogates the portrayal of Taliban, United States, Afghanistan and common tribal people of FATA regarding war in tribal areas. Pakistani Elite Media declared the war in FATA as ‘Pakistan''s war'' and a war of its own survival. Our English media consider sole military operation as invalid and counterproductive and support negotiation with Taliban. It''s surprising that despite heavy military and non military financial aid and being Non-NATO ally of U.S, Pakistani leading media framed United States as Foe of Pakistan. Both Taliban and Afghanistan were portrayed as Foe of Pakistan while common people of tribal areas were framed as victims of war.
If every individual did not know about the common knowledge of the society, they cannot act, re-act or think about an issue of the society. Media especially print media creates that awareness for the publics. Letters to the editor of the newspapers play his part in making public opinion and making of opinion rest on the fact that it enters on the field of common public perception at the very instant that an event or an issue are calling for opinion. This work aimed at investigating the “U.S attack on Afghanistan and Public response”. To achieve the aim of the work, the source of data which is used in this book is the editorial page i.e. letters to the editor of the two leading English newspapers of Pakistan from the month of October 2001. Both newspapers consist of 134 letters. Furthermore, letters divided into three different categories i.e. . “Anti – Attack”, “Pro – Attack” and “Neutral Response” category. The sample of the work is dailies “Dawn” and “The News International” of Islamabad/Rawalpindi edition. The work is not only about to analyze a public response but also covered the issue that how media presented the “U.S war in Afghanistan”.
The study is aimed at the investigation of trade implications for Pakistan in the milieu of globalisation. To this end, it examines the nature and application of WTO and identifies its operative tariff and non-tariff instruments. By doing so, it intends to trace out the place of Pakistan in the world market in comparison to its competitors. The study concludes that the pattern of trade preferences and WTO grants do not necessarily guarantee success in the export performance of the recipients. Similarly, various other demand and supply side factors also play an important role in this regard. Nevertheless, the main focus of the study remained on the investigation of trade implications of WTO for Pakistan''s textiles exports and impact of EU enlargement on textile sector of Pakistan. The examination of comparative trade statistics denotes that Pakistan has been one of the leading trading partners of Textile products for the world and proved to be a forefront supplier of selected textiles items over the period under review.
This study addresses one central question: Why did democracy succeed in India but not in Pakistan? The central argument of the study is that there is political participation of the military in Pakistan but not in India due to three closely inter-related reasons. First, as a result of the British colonial experience in the United India from the 19th century up to the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the Hindus held pro-western and pro-democracy orientation, while the Muslims resisted entrance into the western education system. Second, the early building of political institutions in India prevented the Indian army from seeking a direct role in the mainstream politics of India. In contrast, the constant fragility of the political institutions in Pakistan from 1947 to present, led frequent coup d’etats in Pakistan. Third, there was a significant difference in the way the Indian and Pakistani military perceived them, as an Organ of the state or a custodian of the state. Another important insight of this study is that the US played a strong role in encouraging democracy in India, on the one hand, and supporting the military’s role in the politics of Pakistan, on the other.
The mean of this study to the awareness of non-Islamic festivals is Islamic Republic of Pakistan. This study explains the history of Pakistan and history of festivals that are celebrated in Pakistan. This research is qualitative in nature we found all results based on Quran verses and Hades. Our findings show some festivals that are not synchronize of Islam but still celebrate in Pakistan. The plan of this study to find out the importance of respect to other’s religion by using all prominent rules of respective religions and scared verses of respective religion. We reached at conclusion that love respect and humanity is part of all religions. The aim of this study is to discuss the history of kite flying in indo-Pak sub continent based on news reports and explore the festival causes and human loses bear by the Pakistan. We collect the data and analysis with the help of news reports. Propose of this study to investigate the consumer behavior towards the iconic festival in Islamic Republic of Pakistan. How these festivals diffuse in Pakistan? Study gathers the information through semi-structured interview with 25 respondents. NVivo used to analyze the result.
The purpose of this research study is to assess the tourism industry before and after the militancy in swat and to find out socioeconomic impacts on beneficiaries. Tourism is the source of income for many countries of the world including Pakistan. Because Pakistan has naturally beautiful as well historically rich area. The researcher is interested to find out the socio-economic impacts of militancy on the tourism industry in the area the research study will help social scientist as well as nongovernmental organization for their further research purpose.
This book is based on the investigation about the impact of basic determinants of aggregate import demand in Pakistan by taking sample data of 19 years and applying ordinary Least Squares method. The quantitative estimates revealed that imports of Pakistan are more sensitive to real income and comparatively less sensitive to import prices. The estimated elasticities indicate that imports are sensitive to real income (1.85), and the value of price elasticity of demand for imports in Pakistan is (-0.66). Thus, income elasticity of demand for imports is greater than price elasticity in the case of Pakistan. A relatively small price elasticity of import demand of Pakistan is mainly due to the high domestic inflationary pressures and it suggests that exchange rate policies in Pakistan are not likely to be effective in dealing with balance of payments deficit.
This book is basically a Ph.D which aimed to study the media professionals’ awareness and perception about Pakistan’s media policy with specific focus on constitutional provision of the press freedom, sections of Pakistan Penal Code (PPC) pertaining to the press, press laws, Judiciary, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, professional organizations, Press Council, government-press relationship, working conditions, and public & private sectors broadcast media.The book concludes with the suggestions that keeping in view the growing competition in the field of media in Pakistan, there is a need that representative groups of civil society be given dominant representation on Board of Directors of Radio Pakistan and Pakistan Television to liberalize the policies of government controlled media. Also such representation should be given in Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority(PEMRA) to make it more free and professional friendly.
This book analyzes the impact of 33% quota for women in local government on women empowerment in Pakistan. Examining the advances made and hurdles faced by women councillors, certain obstacles are identified, which help explain why efforts for mainstreaming gender are not changing gender inequality patterns and reducing gender gaps in Pakistan. Future strategies are proposed for enhancing the impact of women’s political participation on women empowerment by institutional transformation.