Climate change is believed to affect the hydrological cycle and thus it would have significant implications on the regional scale agricultural water availability. In this study an Agricultural Water Availability Index was developed for Rechna doab, Pakistan. This index was used to evaluate the present and future agricultural water availability. Moreover this study also demonstrates the use of remote sensing to determine the soil moisture content on a regional or basin scale. Water availability for the future scenarios was assessed by statistical downscaling technique to downscale Tmax, Tmin and precipitation using the HadCM3 GCM outputs for the study area. The study results demonstrate that the variation in water availability will increase both spatially and temporally and there will be critical water shortage during the wheat sowing period. Therefore suitable climate change adaptation options were forwarded to cope with the shortages. This study can be used for making better surface water allocation in the future on the basis of knowing water availability on a spatial scale.
There is an asymmetry between India and Pakistan in conventional military capabilities. India is superior militarily, politically and economically than Pakistan. The growing defence production gap and Indo-US nuclear deal is disturbing the balance of power. The imbalance has trigger the conventional, missile and nuclear arms races between two countries. It severely destabilizes the security situation and deterrence stability in South Asia. To maintain peace and stability, it is necessary for India and Pakistan to shift their focuses from traditional security to non-traditional security. With the changing dynamics of security,India and Pakistan can change the nature of their relationship as nuclear neighbors through establishing bilateral arms control regime, increasing co-operation in economic field, using media as negotiating tool and through public diplomacy and youth-culture exchange program.
The book studies the effects of trade liberalization on economic growth in Pakistan through various channel variables. For this purpose a trade policy openness index is constructed. The results indicate that there are ten broad pathways through which trade liberalization has an indirect effect on economic growth. Trade liberalization positively affects growth through its impact on physical capital, human capital, foreign investment, inflation, real exchange rate, foreign debt, corruption and foreign exchange market distortions, while it negatively affects growth through government consumption and democracy. The results also indicate that the positive effects dominate the negative ones, thereby delivering the overall positive effect of trade liberalization on economic growth. This effect is economically reasonable and statistically significant. This result is robust to alternative estimation techniques, equation specifications and inclusion of some other channel variables.
A decade long civil war in Pakistan has crippled the country’s economy, agriculture and social setup . National concordance, cohesion and the concept of Pakistani nationalism has disappeared. Provinces hate each other. The brutal killing of innocent children and women of Pashtuns and the destruction of their homes is considered to be the worse kind of human rights violation in world history. In Baluchistan, Pakistani forces killed thousands Blochs and forcefully disappeared over 12000 political workers. After Musharaf resigned, Interior Ministry estimated 1,100 Bloch had “disappeared” during his rule. Interior Minister, Rehman Malik has accepted that nearly 100,000 settlers from Punjab and other provinces have been driven out of Baluchistan during the ongoing insurgency. Four private armies headed by local Bloch nationalists, being used by some hidden hands, have taken up arms against the security forces and are active to break up the country with the support of external forces.
In the last few years, there has been a significant increase in population growth all over the world, particularly in the developing world. This has been accompanied by intensive urbanization, increased industrial activities and a greater exploitation of forested and cultivable land. These transformations have provoked a large increase both in the quantity of discharge and the range of pollutants that could reach the river waters and have undesirable effects both on fish and fisheries. River Kabul is the source of drinking, watering live stock, irrigation and fishing for million of people in Pakistan and Afghanistan. River Kabul is used as a source of live lihood for thousands of fishermen living along the bank of the river. A tremendous fish decline has been occurred in the recent past as been reported by the Fisheries Department of the Province. Aim of study was to quantify the quality and quantity of pollutants casing havoc in the inhabitant fish population. For this purpose a study was carried out by the Department of Zoology, University of the Punjab to sort out the remedy.
The book is an attempt to see the dynamics of US -Pakistan Strategic Relations.The author analyses various divergent views and posture of two countries for strategic collaborations during last five decades & how Pakistan gets Front-line states status during Soviet intervention in Afghanistan and soon after this becomes forgotten ally.The book also examines Pakistan's enhanced bargaining position when America needs it most& how various sanctions were imposed when US did not have any immediate interest to accomplish.
Pakistan is at a crossroads of its fiscal policy planning process. Pakistan’s economic performance has been marred by persistently high fiscal deficits which has resulted from the inability to raise sufficient revenues. Tax-to-GDP ratio is an important indicator to raise sufficient revenues. Unfortunately, tax-to-GDP ratio of Pakistan has remained stagnant at 10-11%, which is alarming.Pakistan needs to generate taxes to support its fragile economy. Value Added Tax (VAT) has been tried and tested all over the world and it has helped many economies to stabilize. Being an indirect tax, it needs to be rationalized according to local environment and business culture. Pakistan is being asked to implement a Reformed General Sales Tax Regime (RGST), a form of a VAT model, by International Monetary Fund (IMF) as part of the structural reforms required against the current economic bailout plan. VAT is being rejected with the reason that it would have adverse impact on Inflation. The present study is the first attempt in Pakistan to check the impact of proposed Value-Added Tax on Inflation and viability of implementing VAT in Socio-Economic conditions of Pakistan.
The book provides a comparative analysis of the development of Initial Teacher Education (ITE) and Training in England and Pakistan, while utilising a six-dimensional framework for ITE. The research examines to what extent the initial teacher education and training programmes provide an adequate preparation for all the needs of the primary school teachers in England and Pakistan. An integral part of this exploration was the identification of particular aspects of an ITE programme which had a significant impact in enhancing: a) the effectiveness of the programme; and b) the overall quality.The second notable feature is that this study is a comparative one. The researcher chose two countries where initial teacher training programmes were being implemented, albeit in different ways. England and Pakistan are two contrasting countries from different global regions and having different cultural and social contexts. This is not a problem for comparison because the issue is whether they provide an adequate and enriching professional preparation for beginning teachers in their respective contexts.
The purpose of this project is to identify and analysis the ways of increasing the volume of FDI in Pakistan. The whole work consists of two different approaches. The first approach is the identification of the main barrier to invest in Pakistan. In this section, the researcher is looking for the reasons why Pakistan is not making full use of its investment potential. Is it because of the ineffectiveness of Government promotion and facilitation or because of a difficult investment? Can the political and economic situation be considered stable in Pakistan? Does the inefficiency of the legal system establish negative impacts on the investment climate of Pakistan? What is the level of corrupt bureaucracy, and security situation and how does Pakistan take to improve the investment climate in the country? On the basis of such analysis, the researcher makes recommendations to Pakistan on how it can reduce the barriers to increased inward FDI volume.
Wheat is a staple food crop of Pakistan, dominating all crops in acreage and production. It is cultivated in all the four provinces of Pakistan viz. Sindh, Balochistan, Punjab and Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa. The major production area is in Punjab (71.17%), followed by the Sindh province (13.38%). The crop Diseases Research Institute, PARC, University of Karachi has been conducting regular trials on control of nematodes associated with wheat using chemical and organic amendments which have given encouraging results and are being presented in this book for the use of nematologists, researchers, students and teachers working in this field.
The broad aim of the book is to show the parallel increase and decrease in the volume of FDI in telecommunication sector. It will also highlight the factors of decline of FDI in Pakistan Telecom Sector after 2008. Further an attempt has been made in the book to examine the impact of political violence (an extreme form of political instability) on foreign direct investment. For analysis secondary data has been used over the time period from 2001-2010. During 2001-10, particularly after joining the war on terror, the approach of the government of Pakistan towards foreign direct investment (FDI) in telecommunication sector was according to the model of political violence. In case of Pakistan, the political violence is graded on top, which affects the overall foreign investment, particularly the FDI in telecom sector was affected very badly by political violence (transnational terrorism).The violence includes suicide attacks, bombings, target killings and kidnapping. Unfortunately, the phenomenon of political instability in Pakistan has a frequent chain. The instability and frequent changes in the elected governments created an environment of uncertainty.
Children from poor families in Pakistan, like in many of developing countries, tend to work at early age, and typically have lowest educational level and suffer other social disadvantages. Child labour is usually linked with low human capital investment, poor education and health, and future poverty incidence. Low rates of productivity growth further contribute to the intergenerational poverty trap and hamper economic growth. This persistent problem means a loss of future human resource development of country and the denial of children’s birth right to education and recreation. There is a desperate need to find out effective tools for re-integration of children especially who are trapped in Worst Form of Child Labour, which may be helpful for reduction of child labour and eventually may eliminate this problem under the prevailing socio-economic conditions of the country. This research will be helpful as a useful reference in efforts to find out effective counterfactuals for eradication of WFCL in Pakistan.
The India-Pakistan Composite Dialogue Process (CDP) has sailed through numerous highs and lows in bilateral relations since 1997. From 2004 to 2008 the Composite Dialogue Process has gained momentum and tried to address all outstanding issues between the two countries. It had completed four rounds and the fifth round was in progress when it was paused in the wake of the Mumbai terrorist attack in November 2008. This book dwells on the history of the peace process since its inception in 1997 and examines the progress made in the eight baskets of issues namely Peace and Security CBMs; Jammu and Kashmir; Siachen; Sir Creek; Tulbul Navigation Project; Terrorism and Drug Trafficking; Economic and Commercial Cooperation; and, Promotion of Friendly Exchanges in Various Fields. Amongst the major achievements of CDP can be cited a number of Confidence Building Measures related to peace and security; enhanced people to people contacts through bus and train services; continuation of ceasefire along the LoC since 2003; setting up of the Judicial Committee to look into the humanitarian issue of civilian prisoners/fishermen held in each other’s jails and substantial growth in bilateral trade.
Ornithology has traditionally emphasized the systematics, anatomy and distribution of birds. The study of birds to find ways to conserve restore and maintain the diversity of birds and ecology. In large part, this book is designed to maintain diversity, ecology and indicate the threats to birds. Over goal is to provide some feeling for the excitement, engendered by recent research on birds. We also want to promote a sense of urgency for the need to protect birds and wetlands. It is critical that a high diversity of birds continue to be around to fascinate future generations.
"Corporate Responsibility and Firm Financial Performace in Pakistan" places greater emphasis to identify the role of Corporate sector of Pakistan in Corporate Social Resposibility(CSR) and its relationship with the financial performance.I have worked diligently to bring clear picture of Corporate sector of Pakistan and their CSR practices in the new age.The objective of the research was to high light the importance of Corporate Responsibility and its impact on firm financial performance in Pakistan that shows statistically insignificant relationship between donations one of the selected parmeter of CSR and firm finacial performance.