This book is basically a Ph.D which aimed to study the media professionals’ awareness and perception about Pakistan’s media policy with specific focus on constitutional provision of the press freedom, sections of Pakistan Penal Code (PPC) pertaining to the press, press laws, Judiciary, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, professional organizations, Press Council, government-press relationship, working conditions, and public & private sectors broadcast media.The book concludes with the suggestions that keeping in view the growing competition in the field of media in Pakistan, there is a need that representative groups of civil society be given dominant representation on Board of Directors of Radio Pakistan and Pakistan Television to liberalize the policies of government controlled media. Also such representation should be given in Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority(PEMRA) to make it more free and professional friendly.
The Great Partition – The Making of India and Pakistan
This book has empirically investigated the impacts of Pakistan’s demand management policies on foreign sector. The transmission mechanism between monetary policy and aggregate demand has been analyzed by using the monetary approach, which depicts that disequilibrium in the balance of payments is the result of domestic money market imbalance. Pakistan is the 27th largest economy of the world in terms of purchasing power parity. During 1970s and 1990s, economic performance of Pakistan remained poor due to nationalization of various sectors and macroeconomic mismanagement. Pakistan’s economy became one of the four fastest growing economies in the South Asia during 2000-2007, which was the result of effective strategies of the monetary authorities. Presently, the economy is suffering due to poor law and order situation and nation’s involvement in the War on Terrorism. The findings of the study are: government budget deficit has significant impact on money supply and increase in money supply has deteriorated the balance of payments proportionally during the period of 1965-99. These empirical findings have equal importance for academicians as well as economic managers of the country.
Pakistan has been experiencing the worst energy/power crisis of its history since 2007. This situation is getting worst on every year passing. It all start with power shortage that slowly turned into deficit in other forms of energy like gas, CNG and other petroleum products when both households and organization / firms resorted to these alternative sources of energy. The severe electricity shortfall compelled the authorities to impose load-shedding schedules of more than eight hours a day. Moreover, in addition to quantification of output losses, the effect on employment, cost of production, delay in supply orders, down fall of income which also effects on their children's education, health related matters of family and other domestic problems.
The domestic water buffalo is a major source of milk, meat, draught, hide and employment to the small farmers in many Asian countries especially Pakistan. The phylogeny and genetic structure of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is still not explored well in Nili, Ravi, Nili-Ravi, Kundi and Azakheli buffalo breeds of Pakistan. The genetic characterization of these breeds were completed using mitochondrial D-loop region and FAO/ISAG recommended microsatellite markers through sequencing and genotyping respectively. A reasonable number of SNPs and Allele variations were identified. The phylogenetic relationships among these breeds as well as with other breeds of the world were constructed using certain Bioinformatics softwares. This revealed very interesting information about phylogeny, history of domestication and origin of water buffalo in Pakistan and added valuable to the AnGR of the region. The work provided the basic data which is very helpful for determining the genetic diversity of buffaloes, breed identification, forensic and paternity tests and designing effective breeding and conservational policies in future.
This study addresses one central question: Why did democracy succeed in India but not in Pakistan? The central argument of the study is that there is political participation of the military in Pakistan but not in India due to three closely inter-related reasons. First, as a result of the British colonial experience in the United India from the 19th century up to the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the Hindus held pro-western and pro-democracy orientation, while the Muslims resisted entrance into the western education system. Second, the early building of political institutions in India prevented the Indian army from seeking a direct role in the mainstream politics of India. In contrast, the constant fragility of the political institutions in Pakistan from 1947 to present, led frequent coup d’etats in Pakistan. Third, there was a significant difference in the way the Indian and Pakistani military perceived them, as an Organ of the state or a custodian of the state. Another important insight of this study is that the US played a strong role in encouraging democracy in India, on the one hand, and supporting the military’s role in the politics of Pakistan, on the other.
Developing countries often have trouble implementing environmental regulations devised by developed countries because standards are too strict, change too quickly, and are not always clearly supported by scientific evidence. The general cost of implementation is also a major barrier. The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the needs and concerns of developing countries especially Pakistan in the realm of environmental law. The pros and cons of this research and venture are compiled in the form of book comprising; firstly brief introduction of problems faced by developing countries in implementing environmental laws and development of environmental laws in Pakistan. Secondly, critical scenario of environmental legislation in Pakistan, thirdly legal challenges faced by developing countries in environmental management and enforcement of the laws in different sectors, fourthly conclusion and recommendations for the improvement of environmental conditions in Pakistan and finally highlighting the ultimate solution as bona fide conclusion. In Pakistan there are realms of laws protecting the environment which go no further than the statute book.
Madaris have not been the centre of much international debates until recently, especially after 9/11. After the deadly attacks on US various terms like Muslim radicalism, Muslim fundamentalism, and Islamic fanaticism become very popular worldwide. On the other hand there was a school of thought who tried to find answers as to what could be the possible causes of this anti west feelings and from where does this hatred originate. The possible solutions of how to overcome and to avoid such like incidents from occurring in the future were being explored. Lack of education has being widely agreed factor behind this orthodox and extremist thinking. Unfortunately many of the Muslim countries like Pakistan and Afghanistan have some of the lowest literacy rates in the world. Scholars, educators and researchers have agreed that by improving the educational system of these countries might help improving the situation which nourishes and promote the growth of radical ideas and might be able to transform the citizens to the useful citizens of the society.
Youth are the individuals full of enthusiasm, hunger for adventure, innovators, reckless about difficulties and are pillars of future for a county like Pakistan. Food security is a global issue and specially in Pakistan. This book explores the situation of the food security in Pakistan, Problems of rural youth in Pakistan and the role of this immense potential in ensuring food security. Reading this book will be a good source of information for the reader about youth and food security in Pakistan
An extensive study in Hilkot watershed, a catchment of Terbala Dam, was started by the PARDYP in 1998. Studies have been conducted at plot, sub-catchments and the watershed scale for investigating the rainfall – runoff – soil erosion processes in the study area, which lies in the Central Himalayan region having humid temperate climate. PARDYP is a watershed management research and development project involved in the fields of co-operative rural participation, hydrology and meteorology research, soil erosion and fertility studies, conservation activities, rehabilitation of degraded areas and agronomic and horticultural activities. PARDYP operated in five watersheds four of ICMODS’s partner countries along the west east transect through the Himalayas: Pakistan (Hilkot), India, Nepal and China. All the watersheds are located in middle mountains of Himalayas where pressure on natural resources is high. People and Resource Dynamics Project (PARDYP) was funded by SDC and IDRC and implemented by Pakistan Forest Institute (PFI) with the technical support by International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD).
Library Associations play a vital role in the development of librarianship. These provide a forum for sharing professional ideas and experiences to find out the solution of professional problems. Library associations promote the status and education of librarians, offer certificate in librarianship, support the librarians and take care of librarian’s affairs, struggle for their basic rights i.e. pay scale, salary, professional recognitions, work to improve the working conditions in libraries, support and promote research, offer letter of recognition, scholarships and awards for professional development. A study was conducted to evaluate the role of Pakistan Library Association (PLA) in the development of profession. The study also highlights the role of different International Library Associations in the development of profession. Results of the study show the current role of PLA in professional development. It explores the challenges for PLA and its members in professional uplifting. It ends by providing several recommendations in order to overcome professional challenges and to advance the profession of librarianship in Pakistan.
Mass media has taken our lives by a storm. No matter who we are, where we are and what we do, our lives have been made to depend on substantial knowledge of our surroundings in the age of global village. This is precisely where mass media fits into the scene. TV, radio, internet, newspapers and other channels of communication have become the part and parcel of our very lives. It is media that decides which issue should be given what kind of attention and what topic can be brought to people’s attention to elicit a predetermined reaction. In the current affairs, politics make up much of the bulk of the news that newspapers and other media report. In Pakistan, politicians set the tone of public sentiments in the day to matters whether it concerns the economics or the social affairs. There have been great many studies to reckon the overlapping effect of these two important instruments to mould public opinion in the west. This first of its kind study in Pakistan however, tends to gauge whether it is the mass media or politicians that have the stronger impact in opinion building and who sets the agenda of the agenda setters in Pakistan?
Sustainable economic growth has crucial importance for all economies, especially for the developing economies like Pakistan, which faces many different challenges as compared to developed countries in boosting up its economic growth in order to lower its debt burden. This book examines the determinants of economic growth for Pakistan, the impact of domestic debt and external debt on the economic growth of Pakistan separately over period of 1980 to 2010, using Ordinary Least Square (OLS) approach to Cointegration, Unit Root Testing, Serial Correlation Testing, test for checking Heteroskedasticity, Correlogram and CUSUM test of stability. The findings suggested an inverse relationship between domestic debt and economic growth and also the relationship between external debt and economic growth was found to be inverse. These relationships were found to be significant as well. Some policy implications for coming out of debt overhang scenario are also presented.
The objective of this work is to explore various issues related to internal migration in the North West Pakistan. Specifically, an attempt is made to verify various theories related to rural urban migration in the context of Pakistan. It is well known that economic considerations are of primary importance for rural urban migration in normal situations. But what if the masses are faced with abnormal situations such as faced by the people of North West Pakistan during 2009-10.this work shows that economic considerations still occupies the central importance even though survival is the ultimate objective of forced migration.
The book is an unbiased analysis of the events of 1971 during the crisis over Bangladesh and the decisions made by President Nixon. The book also analyzes the controversial decision of President Nixon to send the Enterprise from the point of Zero-Sum game theory.The episode was important from the point of U. S- USSR confrontation. The data was collected from Nixon's Presidential materials from the National Archives at Washington D. C.