Designing a complete Distribution Network requires critical analysis of both Qualitative and Quantitative factors. Quantitative factors constitute impact on cost of distribution network while qualitative factors have impact on the service level issues. Since, this book deals with a practical industrial problem. Therefore I have taken up a case of Pakistan Tobacco Company, a Subsidiary of British American Tobacco, a Multinational Operating in Pakistan since its birth. It is a FMCG company manufacturing tobacco products in Pakistan. This book studies the impact of different factors on designing of distribution network and then formulates the mathematical model for determines transportation schedule, number of distribution channels in a Distribution Network. In this study, we focused on the minimizing the total distribution network cost by adopting the techniques of Mathematical programming and challenging distribution cost.
Pakistan is a nation which has resilience to survive against all odds. The political turbulence in which the country has been in the past decade was too much to disintegrate a country but it is still integrated. However, political disturbances on domestic level as level as the mounting international political pressure on Pakistan has considerably affected its position as an emerging country. Not only in South Asian region but on an international stage, Pakistan is losing foreign investors’ confidence. The start of the decade brought many challenges for the country. After 9/11 incident, Pakistan has to play role of frontline state against war on terror. Economic growth which has been witnessed in the following years was more of an “Aid-fueled” growth rather than the sustained one. For this reason, serious security issues and instances of domestic turmoil in the country has hurdled the economic uprising. The distinctive characteristics that dominate the Pakistani scene are elitist capture of the state, excessive centralization of power by both the elected and military rulers and collusion between various power structure and politicians.
This book analyzes the effects of abolition of import tariffs and the implementation of fiscal strictness on the overall economic performance, sectoral performance and, household welfare and inequality in Pakistan. These are two major recommendations made by the IMF under the SAP - Structural Adjustment Program - to Pakistan. To address the analytical aspects of the study, a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was formulated, incorporating country-specific features designed to capture special economic conditions and institutional characteristics of Pakistan’s economy. The study focuses on the impact of internal and external macroeconomic shocks and of the policies on the economy; especially the welfare of households. Policy changes considered in the study include changes in the tax rates, government expenditures, and abolition of import tariffs.
India and Pakistan are two powers in South Asia and notable Nuclear Weapon States (NWS) that continue to produce fissile material for nuclear weapons purposes. Both are facing dilemma regarding the future FMCT negotiations in the CD. Pakistan wants to include existing stocks, while India has the upper limit for the future production. Unlike Pakistan, India has the advantage of getting fuel for its nuclear reactors from the P-5 dominated nuclear suppliers group and using its domestic resources for making weapons at a fast pace. On the other hand, Pakistan is in the layers of onion export control sanctions. Therefore, it shouts against the new nuclear apartheid foul. This paper will be a significant endeavour in promoting global non- proliferation and disarmament in the perspective of South Asia through fissile material control and its implications in the region. The study will also be beneficial to the students and instructors of nuclear and South Asian security studies.
The Pakistani Satellite TV channels have recently gone through a massive boom in Pakistan and for the survival of media industry, advertising revenue is the main source. This research aims to study what becomes the reason of the boom, takes through of the media boom and studied its affects on advertising scene in Pakistan and the arising challenges. The advertising and electronic media are intertwined and connected like the symbiosis between the two which is inherent and natural as the income from advertising provides media with partial or even pre-dominant financial feasibility. After 9/11, when the war of terror started and Pakistan chose to become a strategic ally of US war, and with an internal Government shift in Pakistan that decided to open frontiers of the country for foreign investment. With the increase in foreign investment several MNCs find route in the country. At the same time, the Government invited private sector for TV licences and from one state owned Pakistan Television, the industry swelled to the burgeoning industry of more than 55 channels.
Developing countries like Pakistan are mostly depending on agriculture and farm business, if they wish to enhance their economies, it is important to protect farmers by increasing their source of income. Therefore, this empirical research is exposing a new source of revenue on farm gates, while dealing with the economics of agroforestry system in Pakistan. Author encourages farm business owners to generate additional revenue by adopting the agroforestry system on their farmlands. From this research, it is observed that in Pakistan the agroforestry is helping to meet the increasing demands of wood and wood products. Furthermore, besides additional income the agroforestry system also reclaims the soil condition and increases its fertility, with many environmental benefits. The author encourages to the farmers to enhance this system on unproductive lands in order to make them fertile and cultivable.
Training is an imperative instrument facilitating the organization where effectiveness of the training process has always been under debate. The factors of organizational behavior, which are the individual, the group and hence the structure, are impinged significantly by diverse employee perceptions where transfers of training and satisfaction with activities of Training transfer are clearly conspicuous. The current research evaluates and understands the impact made on the effectiveness of training by perceptions held by the employees at the Pakistan Metrological Department, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Nuclear powers India and Pakistan have several times fought over the Kashmir region. Most Kashmiris, on the other hand have been fighting for their right of self-determination as recognized by the UNO. In the past two decades, the region has been witness to a lot of violence which has also strained the relations between India and Pakistan. There have been several rounds of talks on Kashmir between governments of India and Pakistan. Sadly, there has not been any substantial positive outcome in resolving this dispute which has international ramifications. The Kashmir dispute has been analyzed several times in terms of its impact, economical or political, on India, Pakistan and also Kashmir. An analysis through a Kashmiri point-of-view as to what the Kashmiris want and how the two decade long conflict has affected their resolve for self-determination makes for an interesting research. The books thus investigates these issues and reports on the basis of data collected in five main districts of Kashmir. The book contains a discussion of the respondents’ views and their feasibility in light of Kashmiris’ aspirations and realpolitik of south Asia.
“Education, Earnings and the Labor Force” is an attempt at presenting in a comprehensive and analytical manner the impact of human capital and other non-human capital factors on the monthly earnings of the labor force especially in Pakistan. The book includes a chapter on education system of Pakistan highlighting some crucial issues jeopardizing the growth and development of the whole society. Another chapter which contains a quite sizeable review of the studies concerning the role of education and schooling in economic growth and development is of great value for the students who want to do research in this field of knowledge. The book is an attempt to highlight the importance and significance of the human capital in the progress and development of the nations.
This is a comprehensive research study which will measure the prospects and problems of cement industry of Pakistan. This study is needed to gauge the standard of manufacturing the cement in Pakistan. Thus a comprehensive research was conducted using both qualitative and quantitative research instruments to ensure accuracy, the responses from the participants was positive and the results from the analyses fulfilled the objective of the study.
The book deals with climate change in terms of global warming and its resultant effects on the river flows of Pakistan. Climate change has been identified as the variation in climatic factors occurringfrom causes other than the natural ones. It has been defined world over as the phenomenon ofglobal warming. The impacts of the phenomenon are varied and cover a wide range includingbiological systems, health issues and climatological systems. Out of the various facets of the issue,the focus of study is on the impacts on river flow. How river flow is affected by climate changedepends upon the sources generating the flow. For Pakistan these are snowmelt and rainfall. Theimpact of climate change on these sources defines the effect on river flow. As a result of thewarming, both these factors are being affected.
The research study intends to investigate the role of general attitudes towards advertising in Pakistan. Attitude development here pertains to the evaluative criteria that consumers select by the degree of product information available, social affiliations and hedonism. Exposure to advertisements is specifically analyzed in the form of Mass Media advertising including television, radio and newspaper etc.Advertising is considered as both an institution and an instrument in Pakistan. The institution component plays an economic role in our society while the instrument component measures the qualities and failures of advertisements.The analysis reflects that the emotional appeals accompanied by nostalgia highly attract the potential consumer towards advertisements followed by product information & social integration Therefore, this book provides a guideline for advertising companies to not only focus on consumer perceptions but also on the latest promotional gadgets that promote mass media tools.
In the canvas of extended South Asian politics, Pakistan-China friendly diplomatic ties are prominent as one of the most durable friendships, stood firm the pressures of time and swinging geo-strategic conditions. Nevertheless in the changing regional and international dynamics, this relationship has become more versatile, particularly keeping in view the trajectory of Indo-U.S. strategic partnership and the downward spiraling of Pakistan-U.S. relations. Therefore present effort is aimed to explore the avenues of strong Pakistan-China bilateral partnership while deeply analyzing this historical relationship in all fields of cooperation. China and Pakistan friendship may reinforce as long as sustained India-Pakistan rivalry and dwindling Pakistan-U.S. ties remain in South Asian politics. Pakistan would remain fixed with China as its most reliable strategic partner in counterbalancing India, and somewhat the U.S. diplomatic manipulation and negligence. Besides China will also have an intrinsic stake in escalating Pakistan’s political and military stability in terms of its long-term security interests in the Southern, Central and Western Asian region.
This book is the documentation of medicinal flora of Malam Jaba Valley, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan. We also focused on the conservation issues of flora of valley. This book will help the botany students. the social structure and the problems of the local people of Malam Jaba Valley also discussed. The inhabitants of Malam Jaba valley facing the problem of deforestation. This book also include recommendation for the conservation of medicinal flora.
This book is a journey into a country infested with terrorism and militancy arising from the US war against terrorism. Having remained under US-backed military rule for most of time since its independence from the British Raj in 1947, Pakistan has been struggling to acquire a civilian face , a task made difficult by a powerful elite, clergy and an ideologically rigid media. Civil society, the crux of democracy, in the country has shown a great potential to lead the effort towards democracy, but it has not received support from the media. The book using an analytical framework explores whether the press in Pakistan has promoted civil society or not. It covers the period of General Ziaul Haq, who foisted his own brand of Islam on people of Pakistan, and moves to political governments of Benazir Bhutto, the first Muslim woman prime minister, and Nawaz Sharif. The regime of staunchest US ally General Pervez Musharraf is also included to show how the press during his regime dealt with civil society in Pakistan. Of course, it is about seeds of democracy in Pakistan versus terrorism and militancy.