Pakistan is in the race of economic development like other developing countries, and has consumed a lot amount of energy to run her economic cycle. Almost 54% out of total primary energy consumption depends on oil and gas, which contributes more CO2 emission after coal in environment. Therefore, energy consumption is the major cause of environmental pollution. The government of Pakistan like that of other developing countries would never think to mitigate the climate change at the expense of its economic growth. This issue is more sensitive in nature that is going to explore the relationship between climate change, energy consumption and economic growth in case of Pakistan. The EKC curve hypothesis which does not exist in case of Pakistan, tells us that the pollutants are increasing with increasing trend but no yet turning point exists. The government should have to put some efforts in order to reduce and control the air pollution by identification and evaluation of GHG emissions by area and their types of GHG pollutants. The internal emission targets and devises strategies should be met the Kyoto Protocol mitigation goals.
Sugarcane is an important cash crop for many tropical and subtropical countries which account for approximately 75% of global sugar production. It is one of the most important cash crops of Pakistan with annual production of 63.92 million tons of cane cultivated on 1241 thousand hectares of land. The worldwide rank of Pakistan is fifth on the basis of area on which sugarcane is cultivated while it is ranked fifteenth on the basis of yield. Conventional breeding methods pose some serious threats for its safe growth and account for heavy losses of the crop every year. The use of plant tissue culture techniques for the propagation of sugarcane has overcome many problems associated with the traditional breeding methods by ensuring the disease free multiplication of the plants and reducing the time period required for the multiplication.
Rice is being consumed by large population of the world. It is the leading crop in Asia and more than two billion people depend on rice for more than half the carbohydrates and calories. It is an important food and cash crop of Pakistan and Pakistan is famous all over the world for its good taste aromatic rice. But unfortunately, despite of all the advancements in production technologies a considerable portion of the produce is lost to diseases. Many devastating diseases which affect the economics of rice, bakanae disease is one of them. Over the previous few years, the causal agent (Fusarium moniliforme) of bakanae is constantly present in the major rice growing areas (especially in the Punjab Province) of the Pakistan. So, there was a dire need of comprehensive studies on the management of paddy diseases. This guide book provides the scientific methodology and protocol for the management of paddy diseases and a roadmap for the farmers, researchers and students of plant sciences.
This book is a research work on insurance industry of Peshawar Pakistan. The purpose of this research was to identify the reasons of purchase of policy holders for life insurance in Pakistan. It was researched that how policy holders motivates for life insurance and what are the factor which create motivation for life insurance. This study primarily attempts to investigate the relationship among the variable to create rational and emotional motivation in the field of insurance in Peshawar Pakistan. Besides, the study also attempts to identify the reasons behind consumer purchase behavior for insurance. The knowledge from the results of this study serves as basis of recommendations for maximizing and help insurance industry that how to motivate prospective policy holders for life insurance either through rationality or Emotions.
Lots of efforts have been made to make Pakistan a Polio free country for the last two decades, but, Pakistan struggle to be polio free country is not prolific. Pakistan health sector developed vigorous strategies for the eradication of polio in Pakistan, but value of all the strategies is only well documented pieces of paper in plan development due to ineffective implementation. The purpose of the study is identifying the potential factors that are influencing the implementation of polio program in Pakistan. Existing structure, Resistance to Change, Vested Interests and Organizational Culture were taken as independent variables for the effective implementation of the polio program in Pakistan. The regression result shows that there is great influence of the all variables like Existing structure, Resistance to Change, Vested Interests, and Organizational Culture. The result indicated that if the structure of the health sector becomes productive and supportive than the polio may automatically be eradicated from Pakistan.
Madaris have not been the centre of much international debates until recently, especially after 9/11. After the deadly attacks on US various terms like Muslim radicalism, Muslim fundamentalism, and Islamic fanaticism become very popular worldwide. On the other hand there was a school of thought who tried to find answers as to what could be the possible causes of this anti west feelings and from where does this hatred originate. The possible solutions of how to overcome and to avoid such like incidents from occurring in the future were being explored. Lack of education has being widely agreed factor behind this orthodox and extremist thinking. Unfortunately many of the Muslim countries like Pakistan and Afghanistan have some of the lowest literacy rates in the world. Scholars, educators and researchers have agreed that by improving the educational system of these countries might help improving the situation which nourishes and promote the growth of radical ideas and might be able to transform the citizens to the useful citizens of the society.
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is an important fruit crop of Asia and is widely found in Pakistan. Over the last few years the attack of gall formers on mango has increased tremendously in mango growing areas of the world. Little is known about their behavior, taxonomy and management practices particularly in Pakistan. This book, therefore, focuses on the varietal preference and within tree distributional patterns of gall forming insects of mango and the factors (morphological and physiological) mediating their abundance. The abundance of galls has been studied in different mango cultivars and within the individual cultivar as well. The analyses should help shed some light on the importance of leaf traits mediating gall abundance and should be especially useful to field ecologists with the interest to explore the behavior of gall formers and devise management plans.
Challenging behavior in students is a world wide problem.Challenging behavior is a vexed issue in rural areas of Pakistan.There are so many causes behind challenging behavior in students.Poverty and illiteracy of parents are one of the fundamental causes of challenging behavior in the world. The book focuses on the nature and causes of challenging behavior in secondary school students in Pakistan. The book reflects the management strategies to overcome the challenging behavior.The work will be significant for the academicians,researchers,psychologists and parents.
There has been a considerably large scale growth in Islamic finance & banking in Muslim countries around the world and especially in Pakistan during the last twenty years, mainly to ensure the delivery of social & economic development through financial services in accordance with Islamic teachings. The study achieves its objectives by measuring the degree of customer satisfaction of Islamic banking customers, investigating the reasons to identify why customers deal with Islamic banks, and further making recommendations to conceive Islamic banking products in accordance with customers preferences. It also brings different shades of opinion to the fore on the subject such as profile and banking habits of Islamic banking customers, their awareness, usage, perceived importance and degree of satisfaction with the current products and services offered by the Islamic banking sector in Pakistan.
The Male Erectile Disorder is the most common of all the sexual dysfunctions for which men seek help from the sexologists throughout the world. The research on this crucial area of male sexuality is relatively non existent in Pakistan. The author has rightly conducted a qualitative analysis of the case histories of men with erectile dysfunction. The results of the research reveal the distribution patterns of Male Erectile Disorder as it occurs in Pakistan. The author has documented the clinical and social correlates of the erectile dysfunction. The etiological perspectives within the context of Pakistani culture have been explained. The author gives recommendations on how to improve the sexual health of men in Pakistan. The formation of PAkistan Society of Sexologists (PASS)is a right step in this direction. The book is a must read for those who want to know about the sexual lives of men in Pakistan.
How and how far foreign aid has affected Pakistan's industrial performance is the fundamental question of this study. It examines the history of aid flows to Pakistan; their interaction with economic growth and planning in the country; the role of foreign aid in the balance of payments and external indebtedness; and the reciprocal links between aid on the one hand and income, employment, investment and the structure of Pakistani industry on the other. The assistance programmes of selected donor countries and institutions are emphasized, with a view to explaining the aid-giving process and tracing its effects on various segments of Pakistan's industrial activity. The authors conclude that the flows of aid have been particularly significant during the second five-year plan. They also reach conclusions about the impact of the flows on Pakistan and the implications of this experience for aid policies in general.
Pakistan pre-dominantly combines of four major ethnic groups. Living in an ethnic group or having some ethnic identity is somewhat a natural phenomenon. The materialized form of ethnicity is an ethno-national movement .The factor of Nationalism originates and then these Movements entirely affect the state structure, leading to disintegration.The black event of Bangladesh still haunts the decision makers of Pakistan. Ethno-national movements have inside out approach. There are domestic factors which influence the international factors to intervene and play a role of catalyst. When the vacuum is created within the state then the international Factors play their part. The leading ethno-national movements of Pakistan have been focused in this work. The Paktunistan movement, its rise and integration into the system, the Balochistan movement looking at its domestic factors and the MQM, its leadership and its political stature. The rise of ethnicity leading to ethno-national movement can have most malignant effect on any state and Pakistan is the glaring example of such experiment in the past event of Bangladesh.
The world is home to 2.2 billion children. Children in developing countries face often deadly complications in their early years as a result of poor healthcare. Child Mortality is the number of children who die by the age of five out of every thousand live births. Malnutrition, malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia are some of the major causes of death and everyday struggles children face in the developing world. According to the UN Survey in 2007 that children in developing countries are thirteen times more likely to die in the first five years of life than those in developed countries. The children of Pakistan are also facing this deadly problem and Pakistani Government is also try to take some effective measures to decrease the rate of infant mortality in Pakistan.
Aga Khan Education Service, Pakistan (AKES, P) executed a 22 Million Euro programme sponsored by European Commission during 1997-2002 within the AKES, P schools in the Northern Areas and Chitral in Pakistan under Northern Pakistan Education Programme ‘NPEP Phase-I’ for Educational and Community Development. AKES, P made an investigation sponsored by the European Commission in student learning achievement against the programmatic interventions brought about by this programme. It was thought necessary to measure the degree of current level of impact of the funded interventions through gauging the learning and achievement of the students of AKES, P school system to form a qualitative database to be used as benchmark for future programme needs and developmental planning. This study covers both the traditional districts of AKES, P’s operation in Northern Areas i.e. Gilgit and Ghizer and all the three traditional regions of Chitral in Pakistan (study report on Chitral is separately produced). The study covered four key subjects; English, Mathematics, Science & Urdu in Grades 1A, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 & 8. Additionally secondary grades and teachers' performance was also measured for comparison.
Growth, Unemployment and Poverty in Pakistan Growth is the most imperative and momentous apparatus for both developed and developing countries to trim down the fundamental problems of unemployment and poverty. Being a developing nation, Pakistan''s growth occurrence reveals fluctuation.This study attempts to evaluate empirically the role of growth on unemployment and poverty for Pakistan from 1972-2006. The sources of growth are the central character of all economic policies. The interaction between capital, labor, openness of trade, foreign direct investment and inflation have occurred significant position as factors of growth and these variables are used in this study. Not only growth but also pattern of growth is now become a highway towards the sustained growth and to minimize the crucial problems of unemployment. Unemployment is the wastage of valuable human resources. Unemployment makes severe the problem of poverty. This study is based on Two Stage Least Square. The empirical results show that growth has no significant impact on unemployment and poverty. Sustained growth with employment generation can minimize poverty.