This work is an attempt to focus on the study of the Post-Colonial Society.It contextualizes issues like identity, nationalism, democratic tolerance, plurality, respect for public virtue, as well as constitutionally guaranteed rights under the Post-Colonial order from both the European and Non-European narratives. The emphasis on the debate on the Post-Colonial Society especially in the Pakistani context serves not only the ground from which a fair and just discourse on civil society be built but also opens a room for a better understanding of politics of the governed combined with a call and a need for religious tolerance along with the recognition of minorities and multiple ethnic identities in Pakistan. The normative and empirical discourses are highlighted within the milieu of the contemporary political culture which attempts to challenge the top-down modelling by the bottom-up theoretical understanding on the Post-Colonial Society in Pakistan.
This is a comprehensive research study which will measure the prospects and problems of cement industry of Pakistan. This study is needed to gauge the standard of manufacturing the cement in Pakistan. Thus a comprehensive research was conducted using both qualitative and quantitative research instruments to ensure accuracy, the responses from the participants was positive and the results from the analyses fulfilled the objective of the study.
Nullah Aik and Nullah Palkhu are important water resources in Sialkot and receive industrial effluents, municipal sewage that degrade the water quality and disrupt the ecological integrity. During present study, water and fish samples were collected at 18 sampling sites on seasonal basis from 2004 to 2006. Water samples were analyzed for 38 parameters. Cluster Analysis identified three different classes relatively unimpaired, impaired and less impaired regions on the basis of variations in water quality. COD, TDS, Fe, Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni were found to be higher than the permissible limits Significant variations in heavy metals accumulation were observed in organs of studied fish species. The concentration of Pb and Cr was recorded higher than permissible limits. A total of 24 fish species of 12 families were recorded. Biological Integrity index was developed for the assessment of stream health. Sites located in upstream of Nullah Aik showed higher IBI scores, which dropped to its lowest in downstream sites near Sialkot city, which gradually improve far downstream. These results can be helpful for future management of other polluted streams and small rivers in the same eco-region.
Revision with unchanged content. The book in hand aims to examine the privatization of banking sector in Pakistan, its impact on efficiency, economy, employment and new products and services. For this purpose economic model is used to judge efficiency of banking sector for pre-and- post period of privatization of banking sector in Pakistan. The results show that banking sector in Pakistan after privatization of few banks has improved its efficiency. Liquidity ratios, Numbers and values of deposits and Profitability of the banks increased. Value of non-performing loans is controlled. However, spread rate is still higher as compared to pre-privatization period. New products and services have been created to facilitate the customers. Impact on economy, in the sense of mobilization of savings, increase in loan advances and credit, as well as investment have shown an upward trend. Quality of assets of all banks has improved. The results confirm decrease in number but increase in salary and remuneration of employees. The book will benefit the students of Economics and business schools in general and policy makers in developing countries in particular.
The study analyzed the constraints faced by the farmers to rural credit by utilizing two household level data sets. The first survey Pakistan Rural Household Survey (PRHS) 2001 was utilized to study the purpose, source structure and utilization of rural credit and; the second which covered nearly 160 households from Sargodha District 2007 was used to calculate the demand and interest rate function by applying Heckman two stage procedures. The focus of this study was to find out the affect of credit constraints of institutional credit on consumption and production pattern of the rural farm households. After measuring the probability of being constrained used to study affect on consumption pattern of farmers who were credit constraint. The frontier production function was used to study the affect of credit constrained and un-constrained farmers. The study will help to make the policy makers to make a well structured policy for the credit-constrained farmers. This will ultimately used as an instrument to reduce the poverty in Pakistan. We are highly obliged and indebted to Dr. Sohail J. Malik for his kindness, willing cooperation, support, and assistance throughout this work.
Labour market is measured as the main route for set up the connection between international policies, the resulting GDP growth and poverty alleviation. So the findings of this study will support government policy makers and planners to be better aware about current situation of the labour market flow and on the behalf of this information they can generate better employment opportunities, improve the quality of education and training and provide full package of effective policies on migration. This book is designed to exploring the detail structure of labour market in terms of its forceful components such as educational attainment, migration decision, and labour market outcomes (participation rate, employment and earnings of employed). The data on Labour Force Survey (LFS) 2009-10 was used, conducted by Federal Bureau of Statistics (FBS), Pakistan. Multiple Regression, Neural Network Multilayer Perceptron and Hierarchical Log-linear Analysis used for analysis purpose.
This book discusses the stumbling blocks stifling the adoption of GPS technology in the public sector of Pakistan. This study has been carried out in order to describe the value of GPS technology and its adoption at various public sector organisations in Pakistan. Data collected for this research has been quantitatively analysed with the help of SPSS. Regression analysis, correlation and cross tabulation were the techniques used to determine the strength of relationship between key variables. Findings of this research indicate that main hurdles in GPS adoption in the public sector of Pakistan are lack of awareness about GPS among masses in general and the stakeholders in particular, lack of initiative on part of government in promoting new technologies, unavailability of GPS infrastructure in Pakistan and prohibitions on map availability because of security reasons.
National Bank of Pakistan (NBP) the central bank of the Pakistan not only plays a key role in the economic development of the country but also has significant global influence. National Bank of Pakistan maintains its position as Pakistan's premier bank determined to set higher standards of achievements. It is the major business partner for the Government of Pakistan with special emphasis on fostering Pakistan's economic growth through aggressive and balanced lending policies, technologically oriented products and services offered through its large network of branches locally, internationally and representative offices. The study cover all aspects of NBP e.g. Products, services and financial statement analysis of NBP year 2009. NBP is facing some problem like Ineffective Utilization of Assets, Complex Procedure and Dissatisfaction of Customer, High Cost Due to Duplication and Over Staffing, Liquidity Problem. These all can be control by Advertisement of Products and Services, Decentralization and New Technology, Utilization of Resources, Restructuring of Operations and Human Resource System.
Local people of Cholistan desert of Bahawalpur (Pakistan) have always used medicinal plants for their common health problems by traditional method. Indigenous knowledge of local people about medicinal plant is directly linked to their culture and history. The present study was designed for the Ethnobotanical evaluation of Cholistan desert, which is one of the resource based area of medicinal plants. Indigenous knowledge of local people about the medicinal uses of plants is the source of ideas for new research in drug development and for wider use and economic benefit. There are large number of unexploited plant species in the area which could prove useful. The local people of this desert have good knowledge of the utilization of medicinal plants and this knowledge is going to be lost because of the interference of modern cultural changes. The observations emerged from the present study to be substantiated with pharmaco-chemical studies in the order to evaluate their effectiveness.
The book focuses on various political alliances during 1954-1999. The dynamics of opposition alliances of military and political regimes illustrate that the small and unorganized political parties could not challenge the authority individually. Therefore they took the route of alliances on the basis of minimum common points with the leadership of dominated component parties excluding their common political programme. These alliances were marriages of convenience among divergent groups for short term gains. With the change of objectives, conditions and realities, these alliances ended in chaos or their allies parted away and adopted their own stands, in changed political circumstances. The political personalities rather than political ideologies and party programmes were the dominant factors behind the formation of alliances and coalitions. However the sentiment for democracy has remained always very strong among the masses. The society at large co-operated with all these political alliances seeking to promote democracy with different intensity, but the politicians frequently changed sides defying public trust and thus failed in bringing any healthy change in Pakistani Politics.
This study attempts to answer whether the formation and functioning of SCO is motivated by the aspirations of its members (particularly China and Russia) to contain the rising political and economic influence of the U.S. and the West or it is determined by a vibrant agenda setting according to the strategic environment. It not only focuses on the impacts of the regional cooperation through the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) for the Central Asian states but will also look at the future prospects of the organization as a vibrant, panregional group. SCO is the successor organization of Shanghai Five, which consisted of China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. The group reshaped itself after the induction of Uzbekistan into the current form and expanded its focus to ensure regional security and stability by including combat against drug manufacturing and trafficking, along with collective economic projects. It also includes four observer nations: India, Pakistan, Iran and Mongolia and also a contact groups with Afghanistan has been set up, bringing substantial weight to the organization.
In the recent years, prevalence of HIV in Pakistan has arisen from 85000 in 2005 to 96000 in 2007. It has taken the form of a concentrated epidemic in two high risk groups, namely, injection drug users and males who have sex with males. Similarly the number of Pakistani women infected with HPV is elevating dramatically. Screening for HPV in Pakistani female patients is not commonly practiced, and as a consequence, HPV prevalence and its correlation with cervical cancer is unknown. This book, therefore, provides information on the prevalent subtypes of HIV-1 in Pakistan population particularly the high-risk groups and earthquake 2005 affectees. It demonstrates the divergence patterns of HIV in Pakistan, UAE and Kenya population. We also discussed the prevalence of HPV infection and genotypes of HPV in healthy sexually active women presenting in gynecology clinic for evaluation and in Pakistani women diagnosed with cervical carcinoma. Our findings emphasize on the need of country-wide screening, treatment and increasing awareness about HIV, its mode of transmission and ways of prevention. Our analysis also underscores the demand to implement regular HPV screening for Pakistani women.
The core idea behind this study was to gain an understanding of the relationship between organizational mergers and human resource concerns. Exclusively the concept of employee satisfaction, commitment and turnover intentions were examined in relation to banks that were being merged in Pakistan. Variables such as psychological effects, cultural conflicts, job insecurity were examined for a possible significant or insignificant relationship to employee job satisfaction, commitment and turnover intentions. It was hypothesized that; employees were dissatisfied as a result of merger, employees did not feel committed after merger and hence they intend to leave the job. The quantitative method of data collection that is questionnaire was used by the researcher. The outcomes were discussed under provisions of research questions developed in the study. This is done through a discussion of the conclusion drawn from the findings. It was thus wrapped up that when an acquisition is made, management should not only focus on the end result, but also pay attention to the human resource factors that can lead to the success or failure of merger.
Foreign direct investment (FDI) helps in capital formation in an economy. It also contributes to economic growth in developing economies. Its impact depends on policies, available human resources, physical infrastructure and the nature of FDI in the economy. Since FDI is increasing in Pakistan, it is necessary to examine its effect on the economy. The study attempts to capture the consequences of FDI on the economy of Pakistan.
The world is home to 2.2 billion children. Children in developing countries face often deadly complications in their early years as a result of poor healthcare. Child Mortality is the number of children who die by the age of five out of every thousand live births. Malnutrition, malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia are some of the major causes of death and everyday struggles children face in the developing world. According to the UN Survey in 2007 that children in developing countries are thirteen times more likely to die in the first five years of life than those in developed countries. The children of Pakistan are also facing this deadly problem and Pakistani Government is also try to take some effective measures to decrease the rate of infant mortality in Pakistan.