Developing countries often have trouble implementing environmental regulations devised by developed countries because standards are too strict, change too quickly, and are not always clearly supported by scientific evidence. The general cost of implementation is also a major barrier. The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the needs and concerns of developing countries especially Pakistan in the realm of environmental law. The pros and cons of this research and venture are compiled in the form of book comprising; firstly brief introduction of problems faced by developing countries in implementing environmental laws and development of environmental laws in Pakistan. Secondly, critical scenario of environmental legislation in Pakistan, thirdly legal challenges faced by developing countries in environmental management and enforcement of the laws in different sectors, fourthly conclusion and recommendations for the improvement of environmental conditions in Pakistan and finally highlighting the ultimate solution as bona fide conclusion. In Pakistan there are realms of laws protecting the environment which go no further than the statute book.
Primary education is very important and plays a vital role in development of country. There are many factors associated with the learning achievements of primary students like class atmosphere, teacher performance, classrooms conditions, family income, parents education and motivational factors like educational assessments. The target group was primary students who studied in Govt. schools. There are many hurdles in way of primary education in Pakistan. The poverty and terrorism are major issues for lack of primary education in Pakistan along many minors issues. In the war against terrorism Pakistan too much paid for by attacking on schools and major educational institutions. Also bearing too much economical loss, due to which Pakistan step back in the race of developmental prosperity and peace for next generation.
Growth, Unemployment and Poverty in Pakistan Growth is the most imperative and momentous apparatus for both developed and developing countries to trim down the fundamental problems of unemployment and poverty. Being a developing nation, Pakistan''s growth occurrence reveals fluctuation.This study attempts to evaluate empirically the role of growth on unemployment and poverty for Pakistan from 1972-2006. The sources of growth are the central character of all economic policies. The interaction between capital, labor, openness of trade, foreign direct investment and inflation have occurred significant position as factors of growth and these variables are used in this study. Not only growth but also pattern of growth is now become a highway towards the sustained growth and to minimize the crucial problems of unemployment. Unemployment is the wastage of valuable human resources. Unemployment makes severe the problem of poverty. This study is based on Two Stage Least Square. The empirical results show that growth has no significant impact on unemployment and poverty. Sustained growth with employment generation can minimize poverty.
Madaris have not been the centre of much international debates until recently, especially after 9/11. After the deadly attacks on US various terms like Muslim radicalism, Muslim fundamentalism, and Islamic fanaticism become very popular worldwide. On the other hand there was a school of thought who tried to find answers as to what could be the possible causes of this anti west feelings and from where does this hatred originate. The possible solutions of how to overcome and to avoid such like incidents from occurring in the future were being explored. Lack of education has being widely agreed factor behind this orthodox and extremist thinking. Unfortunately many of the Muslim countries like Pakistan and Afghanistan have some of the lowest literacy rates in the world. Scholars, educators and researchers have agreed that by improving the educational system of these countries might help improving the situation which nourishes and promote the growth of radical ideas and might be able to transform the citizens to the useful citizens of the society.
Agriculture is the largest sector of Pakistan economy and major driving force for the growth of national economy. Improvement in crop production will not only help the economy of Pakistan but will also benefit a large portion of country's population. This book provides the fundamental knowledge about the role of crop rotation and crop residues managment in improvement of soil N & C dynamics and its impact on cereal yield. The low soil fertility is one of the serious problem of field crop production in different regions of the world. This book provides valuable information for the agricultural graduates, researchers, faculty and development oragnizations engaged in boosting of crop yield. The book explians the importance of legume crops and cropping systems to reduce the reliance on chemical fertilizers for high cereal yield.
This report was an effort for compilation of the research that had been held in the past in the field of glaciology using remote sensing as a technique. For this purpose, results of different research papers and projects in the chronological order have been discussed and a debate on the comparisons is presented. On the basis of thorough literature review, normalized difference snow index (NDSI) has been identified as a quick way to assess snow and glacial extent in the study area. Satellite data captured through Landsat MSS, TM and ETM+ in 1977-79, 1989-1992 and 1999-2001 respectively, have been used to conduct this study, providing us with a temporal window of 24 years. With the application of NDSI, different thresholds have been used to identify and hence quantify the extent of snow/glacial cover in Northern Areas of Pakistan. Northern Area of Pakistan has 5 districts consists of Ghizer, Ghanche, Skardu, Diamer and Gilgit Districts. Most of the Glaciers are found in the high altitude of Northern Areas. Glaciers in Pakistan cover 13,680 sq. km area which is 13% of mountain regions of the Upper Indus Basin (UIB).
Though Pakistan has been impressively following a liberal trade policy by substantially slashing the general tariff since 1992, yet there have been some commodity groups (food related and fuels and oil)which have been protected with rising trends in the import tariffs. Here the welfare loss of the selective protectionist trade policy and welfare gains of general liberal trade policy incurring on the poorest and ordinary households using data on Household expenditure, prices, and labour wages are measured. The uniqueness, inter alia, of the book is that first time nontraded goods have been included in the trade and welfare analysis of Pakistan. In case of Pakistan, the present book suggests substantial gains for poorest and ordinary households from liberal trade policy and substantial losses to them from selective protection. Keeping in view the nature of the theme, the present book can be a very useful source for MS and PhD research students of international economy, economics and development economics. It can be a wonderful piece of work for the general readers as well who are interested in knowing about global economic and trade mechanisms and dynamics.
The day by day progress of Pakistan has resulted in the development of industries and towns. Contamination is a problem which is related with this progress. Gujranwala District is one of the most developed and industrialized parts of Pakistan selected for this research. In current study seven heavy metals Hg, Pb, Ni, As, Cu, Cd and Ag were detected in the meat samples of cattle (Buffaloes). Out of these, mercury, lead, cadmium and arsenic are the principal lethal metals. The reason for selecting cattle is that they feed on vegetation and are infected by metal pollution as much as the humans. The main reasons for pollution by metals are industries, automobiles, polluted water, pesticides in fields and contaminated soil.
The world is home to 2.2 billion children. Children in developing countries face often deadly complications in their early years as a result of poor healthcare. Child Mortality is the number of children who die by the age of five out of every thousand live births. Malnutrition, malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia are some of the major causes of death and everyday struggles children face in the developing world. According to the UN Survey in 2007 that children in developing countries are thirteen times more likely to die in the first five years of life than those in developed countries. The children of Pakistan are also facing this deadly problem and Pakistani Government is also try to take some effective measures to decrease the rate of infant mortality in Pakistan.
Adjacent to Pakistan's Khyber Pakhtunkwa Province, the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan is a region that has always captured the attention of the international community. A direct legacy of the British Empire, even after the creation of Pakistan in 1947, all successive governments in independent Pakistan have followed in the footsteps of their predecessors by exercising the archaic British model of administration and retaining the Frontier Crimes Regulation (FCR) 1901. Despite 64 years of independence, the people of FATA have been subjected to outdated laws that deny them the same democratic political system, fundamental human rights, and economic opportunities prevailing in the rest of Pakistan. As aconsequence of prolonged neglect and isolation from the State, rampant poverty and dismally low literacy rates define the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA). And with the inability of the government to acknowledge it as a significant and integral part of Pakistan that needs to be integrated, the tribal region has over a period of time, fallen into the hands of extremist groups.
Parthenium hysterophorus L. is an aggressive weed of family Asteracea. It is native to the subtropics of North and South America but now has invaded Asia, Africa, and Australia, during the last 50 years. Since then the weed has not only naturalized itself in many countries but has spread at an alarming rate. In Pakistan it is spreading very fastly, affecting the Crops, Animal and Human Health related serious problems. Hence proper management of Parthenium is the cry of the day. Parthenium hysterophorus L. have allelopathic effect on weeds and crops of Pakistan and consider a serious threat to the Biodiversity of Pakistan and rest of the world. In Current published research works the Allelopathic effect of Parthenium hysterophorus L has findout on different Weeds and Crops of Khyber Pakhtunkhawa Pakistan through experiments. The results indicate clearly its potential regarding the stimulation and inhibition ability on tested crops and weeds species.
A STUDY ON IMPACTS OF FOREIGN AID IN PAKISTAN The impacts and significance of foreign aid in enhancement of social, financial and economic growth and development of Pakistan is evaluated in this book. A research analysis based on financial and economic indicators such as Gross Domestic Production (GDP), Total Debt and Liabilities, Consumer Price Indicators, Inflation in Pakistan and social indicators such as Poverty alleviation, Financial Investment in Education, Women Empowerment, Sanitation and Access to Drinking Water, Children under Five Mortality Rate, Use of Communication Tools and Corruption in Pakistan is performed. All these indicators were evaluated from financial perspective to assess their growth during the foreign aid enrichment phase of Pakistan (2007-09). To conduct this impact analysis, data was acquired from the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Statistics division, Ministry of Finance and Revenue, Ministry of Planning and Development of Government of Pakistan, World Bank, Central Bank of Pakistan, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and World Health Organization in the form of various statistics, quarterly and annual reports.
Karachi is the largest city of Pakistan. It is the largest industrial center and business hub of the country. It emerged from a small fishing village in 1729. The city was properly planned and expanded during the British rule(1839 to 1947).After creation of Pakistan it was the first capital of the country. Due to its rapid population growth and areal expansion the city has developed a complex pattern of land use and land value.The city comprises orient and modern land uses.The cantonments and civil lines mark the legacy of the British colonial rule.The bazaar is a typical retail market of South Asian cities.Squatter settlements are characteristics of the cities of Less Developed Countries.The high rises, Malls and Marts are features of Western Cities
In Pakistan the proper management of solid waste is decisive to the health and well-being of urban inhabitants. In most cities of Pakistan, several tons of garbage is left uncollected on the streets and open areas each day, which becomes the sources of a feeding ground for pests and insects that spread environmental hazardous and disease, clogging drains and creating a myriad of related health and infrastructural problems in city. There is a dire need to play an important role in formulating an environmental policy that boost up effective and efficient solid waste management practices in Pakistan. Proper management of solid waste would improve local government effectiveness and efficiency, and well established MSWM mechanism will reduce health diseases in Pakistan.
The book is an attempt to see the dynamics of US -Pakistan Strategic Relations.The author analyses various divergent views and posture of two countries for strategic collaborations during last five decades & how Pakistan gets Front-line states status during Soviet intervention in Afghanistan and soon after this becomes forgotten ally.The book also examines Pakistan's enhanced bargaining position when America needs it most& how various sanctions were imposed when US did not have any immediate interest to accomplish.