The world is home to 2.2 billion children. Children in developing countries face often deadly complications in their early years as a result of poor healthcare. Child Mortality is the number of children who die by the age of five out of every thousand live births. Malnutrition, malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia are some of the major causes of death and everyday struggles children face in the developing world. According to the UN Survey in 2007 that children in developing countries are thirteen times more likely to die in the first five years of life than those in developed countries. The children of Pakistan are also facing this deadly problem and Pakistani Government is also try to take some effective measures to decrease the rate of infant mortality in Pakistan.
Foreign direct investment (FDI) helps in capital formation in an economy. It also contributes to economic growth in developing economies. Its impact depends on policies, available human resources, physical infrastructure and the nature of FDI in the economy. Since FDI is increasing in Pakistan, it is necessary to examine its effect on the economy. The study attempts to capture the consequences of FDI on the economy of Pakistan.
Banking sector of each country, play vital role in the development and progress of concern nation. America is considered main alliance in international politics as well as its own expenditure flow is favorable to their nation or not is main concern for American nation holders. Pakistan has significant position in the South Asian countries and its recent influences in South Asian countries affecting its financial structure or not. Comparison of Both countries i.e. USA and Pakistan provide guidelines to how to reduce financial problems of the nations that is meaningful for all other nations as well. The graphical representation of selected five, five banks and its average show the future of 2012 as well. This study is not in isolation but after study you will be able to provide financial advice to many companies by selecting the national and other economical factors. It is advantageous for the scholar and those students are now in stage of completion of their finance relating projects, case studies and thesis.
This study attempts to answer whether the formation and functioning of SCO is motivated by the aspirations of its members (particularly China and Russia) to contain the rising political and economic influence of the U.S. and the West or it is determined by a vibrant agenda setting according to the strategic environment. It not only focuses on the impacts of the regional cooperation through the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) for the Central Asian states but will also look at the future prospects of the organization as a vibrant, panregional group. SCO is the successor organization of Shanghai Five, which consisted of China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. The group reshaped itself after the induction of Uzbekistan into the current form and expanded its focus to ensure regional security and stability by including combat against drug manufacturing and trafficking, along with collective economic projects. It also includes four observer nations: India, Pakistan, Iran and Mongolia and also a contact groups with Afghanistan has been set up, bringing substantial weight to the organization.
This is a comprehensive research study which will measure the aspects of awareness, usage, attitudes, perceptions and purchase intent of the target market. This study is needed to gauge the brand perception of packaged food in the mind of the consumer in order to set the future strategy for the brand. Thus a comprehensive research was conducted using both qualitative and quantitative research instruments to ensure accuracy, the responses from the participants was positive and the results from the analyses fulfilled the objective of the study.
This research paper investigates the proposition of the essential development of devolution process, and with the process of decentralization, the contribution of the general public in the government functions increases. The detailed study of the Local Ordinance 2000 gives the idea of presenting powers and authorities to the lower levels. The enhancing competitiveness of Pakistan would largely depend upon the quality of governance and management structures deployed to implement it. Devolution Plan (2000) intended to strengthen the democratic institutions and to empower the people at the grassroots by providing them authority to identify and implement their own need based projects. It was urged that the Plan would increase access of marginalized groups in society to politics, enhance participation of ordinary citizens both in politics as well as the delivery of services, enhance accountability of the government functionaries as well as elected members and improve the delivery of social services. In Devolution plan 2000, an initiative has been taken by establishing Citizen Community Boards (CCB’s) to improve local people participation.
Cotton, known as ‘white gold’, is an important cash crop in Pakistan. The Pakistani cotton industry is a vital component of the country’s economy, accounting for 1.6 % of Gross Domestic Product. Cotton was cultivated on an area of 3.19 million hectares, with production of 11.7 million bales for the year 2008-09. However cotton marketing and pricing system in the country is not developed and both the seed cotton and lint cotton are priced mostly on the basis of subjective assessment. The major problems facing the country’s cotton sector include the absence of a recognized and scientifically devised standardized quality control system,inappropriate marketing practices and fluctuating marketing arrivals. Khanewal is the important, production region in the cotton belt in Pakistan. So keeping in view its importance Khanewal district was selected purposively and then two tehsils (Khanewal tehsil and Kabirwala tehsil) were selected randomly. A representative sample of 40 cotton farmers, 20 commission agents, 20 village beoparies and 20 ginners was selected using stratified random sampling technique. The descriptive statistics was used to calculate the frequencies and percentage of sample.
Maharaja Hari Singh was the ruler of the state at the time of division of the sub-continent. This Hindus ruler was not in favor of merger of the state with Pakistan. In fact Maharaja wanted state’s merger with India contrary to the ground realities favoring state’s accession to Pakistan. Pakistan’s stance is that Kashmir is a disputed territory which has been captured by India since 1947 by force. Kashmiris are required to be given their right of self determination in accordance with the United Nations resolutions. Any third option for Kashmiris is not acceptable to Pakistani as it is considered a brain child of India which is purposed only to divert the world attention. Pakistan admits the fact that the Kashmiris are an important party of this conflict, Therefore, their presence in each and every round of the dialogues on this issue is necessary. However, Pakistan’s stance is that the Kashmiris should decide their future under UNO held plebiscite, to join Pakistan or India. Pakistan state policy is that the Kashmir issue should be solved keeping in view aspirations of the people of Jammu & Kashmir in accordance with UN resolutions.
FDI play important role in the development of Pakistan. But during the lost decade certain factors decline FDI in Pakistan. One of the factor is Terrorism. Terrorism in Pakistan made the people homeless, injured and dead, beside these affects terrorism also impact the economic condition of Paksitan. A large number of schools have been damaged. Infrastructure are highly destroyed. Communication become disturbed. So due to these factors the market of Paksitan is not profitable for the investors. in the last decade the investors are trying to search for the safer economy where they make more investment and increased profit. This study highlights the same phenomenon.
In Negotiating Political Spaces: Analyzing Decentralization and Women''s Political Empowerment in Pakistan, Dr. Riffat Munawar examines women''s political empowerment through local government structures in Pakistan. In the recent past, the Musharraf regime in Pakistan undertook steps to increase the participation of women in politics through the inception of decentralization coupled with quota system at national and local levels in the country. The author looks into the nexuses of decentralization and social change, political representation of women in Pakistan''s local government structures and their impact on political culture. Investigating the challenges to women''s political empowerment, Riffat Munawar outlines several recommendations for women in decentralized local politics in Pakistan.
This book examined the food security situation of Pakistan for the annual period of 1971 to 2008. To examine whether Pakistan fulfill the condition of a food secure country is far from developed in the literature. The book analyzes the Auto Regressive Distributed Lag Model to measure the determinants of food security in Pakistan. The determinants are measured along with Long run ARDL model and short run elasticities are measured with Error correction model of ARDL Approach and conclude that the situation of food security in Pakistan need drastic improvement. Hence, the book will be very useful to academics and lay readers.
The glaciers in western Karakoram are important for freshwater supply in the rivers of Pakistan. Global warming influences the future water supply from glaciers. In order to study the hydrological conditions and possible impacts of climate change, runoff simulations are performed for the Hunza basin. The hydrological modelling platform (HMP) of IMGI has been customized / applied to the Hunza basin. Various data obtained from satellite remote sensing imagery and meteorological stations in the study area are processed, prepared and used as input to model. For runoff simulations the basin is divided into five sub-basins. The (sub-) basins are defined by the hydrological response units (HRU) based on the elevation zones and land-cover types including glaciers as well as debris covered glaciers. An estimation of mass balance of Baltoro glacier, using the meteorological data from Shigar meteo- station and applying the hydrological method, indicate slightly negative balance. Various climate scenarios including increased / decreased temperature scenarios as well as their combination with a glacier retreat scenario have been simulated.
The main objectives of this book are to empirically analyze the impact of leader’s change-promoting behavior on employee’s readiness for change and whether this relationship is mediated by organizational culture in the context of a developing country such as Pakistan. A sample of 205 responses is drawn from managers based in Karachi. With the help of advanced multivariate statistical techniques, the results indicate that leader’s change-promoting behavior has a significant positive impact on change readiness and this relationship is partially mediated by organizational culture in Karachi. The findings may be generalized on a larger population in Pakistan. The study supports the theory of one of the six conceptual formations of change readiness which refers it to as an employee’s capacity to change. Therefore, managers should clearly advocate the desired change with the help of their own change-prompting behavior as well as establishing a trusting culture in their organization. Both limitations and areas for future research in the context of Pakistan are also discussed.
The book presents a new EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) model for Pakistan. Two important parameters i.e. urban air pollution caused by motor vehicles and wastewater effluents caused by industrial sector in the country, are the focus of this work. The strategy presented in this book will improve the EIA process and help to prevent further environmental degradation caused by developmental activities in Pakistan on all levels. The book is intended as a guide for the engineers in industry, governmental agencies and consulting engineering firms involved in the day-to-day application of EIA, and as a text for the students in courses related to environmental engineering, planning, management and EIA at undergraduate and postgraduate level.
The research is aimed to highlight Pakistan’s stance over the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The study is also aimed to examine the challenges and opportunities for Pakistan by signing CTBT. The options which are available to Pakistan, and merits and demerits of each one of them highlighted as well. It is important to see the challenges and opportunities for Pakistan by signing the CTBT especially after testing nuclear explosions in May 1998. Thus the book is only limited to Pakistan’s stance on the CTBT. The whole debate has been concluded at the end of the book.The focus has been on the objectivity of research and analysis on the basis of keeping in view all the possible aspects of the situation in discussion. A policy recommendation can therefore serve as an important tool for the future consultation and citation.