An experimental study has been carried out for pyrolysis oil and diesel blend was used in single cylinder, 4-stroke diesel engine. Pyrolysis oil is obtained from tire waste by pyrolysis process. Pyrolysis process is a therm-o-chemical decomposition of organic matter in absence of oxygen. Blending of pyrolysis oil with diesel helps to reduce the consumption of diesel fuel. Diesel engine is already optimized for particular fuel i.e. diesel. So, it does not give optimum performance for pyrolysis and diesel blend. In this study, parameters i.e. load, blend proportion and injection pressure were taken as variable for optimization. Optimization of these three parameters is done by DOE (Taguchi Method), which gives optimum performance for given bland.
Around the world, initiatives are being taken to replace gasoline and diesel fuel due to the impact of the fossil fuel crisis, increase in oil price, and the adoption of stringent emission norms. Increase in energy demand, stringent emission norms and depletion of oil resources led the researchers to find alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. Many alternate fuels like Alcohols, Biodiesel, methanol, ethanol, LPG, CNG etc have been already commercialized in the transport sector. In this context, pyrolysis of solid waste is currently receiving renewed interest. The disposal of waste tires can be simplified to some extent by pyrolysis. The properties of the Tyre pyrolysis oil (TPO) derived from waste automobile tires were analyzed and compared with the petroleum products and found that it can also be used as a fuel for compression ignition engine. Test was carried out using 10%,15% and 20% blend of pyrolysis oil with diesel.D85 P15 blend found better in brake thermal efficiency. Ethanol was added in the concentration of 5%, 10% and 15% to Diesel-TPO blend. It was concluded that emission of HC and CO found reduced after adding ethanol into TPO-Diesel blend.
This article presents the test result of four stroke, single cylinder, direct injection, water cooled diesel engine operating on linseed oil and diesel blend. The use of vegetable oil as a fuel in diesel engine cause some problem due to their high viscosity compared with conventional diesel fuel. Various techniques and methods are used to solve the problems resulting from high viscosity. One of these techniques is fuel blending. Non edible Vegetable oil like linseed oil is blended with diesel in various proportions like 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%, and find optimum blend which gives improved engine performance and emission characteristics. From experiment it is observed that brake thermal efficiency of L30D70 optimum compare to other blend. Also fuel consumption increased with increase in blend proportion. Also, CO emission decreased by increased in blend concentration and HC and NOx emission increased by increased in blend proportion. The blend of L30D70 could be useful without more affecting the engine performance.
Recent decades continuous increased in the fuel price and fast depletion of the available fossil fuel reservoir, so it is necessary to find out the alternative fuel for the engine. The use of vegetable oils as a fuel directly in diesel engines causes some problems due to their high viscosity compared with conventional diesel fuel. Various techniques and methods are used to solve the problems resulting from high viscosity like preheating, blending, Esterification etc. One of these techniques is fuel blending. Find the best blend and add the ethanol in that blend in the 5%, 10% and 15% find the engine performance and emission characteristics. Engine performance and emission were investigated and compared with the ordinary diesel fuel in a diesel engine. Experimental results show that the engine power and torque of the mixture of sesame oil–diesel fuel are close to the values obtained from diesel fuel and the amounts of exhaust emissions are lower than those of diesel fuel. It is concluded that it is possible to use Sesame oil in diesel engines as an alternate fuel in the future without modification in the engine.
The pyrolysis process consists of the thermal degradation of biomass feedstock, in the absence of oxygen/air, leading to the formation of solid (charcoal), liquid (tar and other organics) and gaseous products (methane, ethane, carbon monoxide, etc). Pyrolysis can be used as an independent process for the production of useful energy (fuels) and/or chemicals. It also occurs as the first step in gasification or combustion process. An understanding of the chemical processes and transport mechanisms of biomass pyrolysis is important for many applications including optimization of boilers and large scale furnaces, estimating the dominant design variable in pyrolysis reactor and gasifier. This book focuses on modeling and simulation studies of pyrolysis of biomass particles. Dominant design variables are identified for pyrolysis process through sensitivity analysis. The models on pyrolysis of biomass are corrected, updated, and also new models are proposed by incorporating the shrinkage effect. The results are very useful for the design of pyrolysis reactor and gasifier. This book is suitable for students in all engineering discipline. It will also be helpful to research scientist.
Two samples of Wild grape seeds (Lannea Microcarpa) were used to produce bio-diesel. Oil was extracted from the first sample using the soxhlet extraction method with n-hexane as solvent, and the second sample using the mechanical press engine driven expeller. The mechanical press method was better in terms of the production process, production time and the oil yield, and hence suitable for industrial applications. Alkali trans-esterification of oil was carried out to produce bio-diesel. GC/MS analyses were conducted on the product. The bio-diesel was blended with fossil diesel in different percentages as B5, B10, B15, B20 and B0 respectively. The physico-chemical properties of the bio-diesel/diesel blends were determined and all the ten properties except the colour conform to ASTM standards. The Engine Performance test was carried out and it was observed that B20 is the best blend recommended for use in compression ignition engines.
The continual rise in oil prices, the shortening supply of oil reserves, & the impending threat of global warming due to combustion engine emissions are all reasons to focus on alternatives to energy from fossil fuels. Biodiesel fuel has provided an alternative to diesel oil for over a decade now, & recent research suggests that it will be an even more viable and economical option in years to come. In this book Author has mainly focused on the Transesterification process for extraction of biodiesel form the crude Cotton Seed Oil (CSO). Then conducted an experimental to determine the performance and emission characteristic of the blended Biodiesel in IC engine. The conventional engine was tested for single cylinder at constant rated speed of 1500 rpm throughout its power range using 100% CSO and blends of 20, 40, 60, & 80%. The results found were very impressive, diesel engine performed satisfactorily on biodiesel, & its blends too had better emission properties than diesel. Properties of the 20% blend are very near to diesel fuel & its performance was better than other blends. This book gives huge knowledge for biodiesel production with its performance & emission characteristics.
Oil analysis technique is used as predictive and proactive tools to identify the wear modes of rubbing parts and diagnose the faults in machinery. In this research the wear behavior of diesel engine based on condition data especially on oil analysis will be studied. For analyzing historical data, descriptive statistics will be used as data mining tool to find the relationship between condition factors of machine and its final status. Based on this relationship a specific baseline will be achieved specially for selected equipment in their specific condition. The selected equipment are divided in two major groups (plantation and forestry, general construction) based on their condition to show the effects of condition on wear behavior of same engine in different circumstances. As a result in this project, five different cases are analyzed and the origins of their problems are determined. In addition for each wear material in each condition a new baseline is made based on historical data and also with help of correlation analysis the most effective materials for each condition are identified.
This book is a comparative study of the evaluated biodiesel derived from waste vegetable oil and fossil diesel fuel in the running of diesel engine. The main objective of the research project was to add value to waste vegetable oil by converting to biodiesel for use as diesel fuel supplement and help reduce the cost of petroleum based fuel which is fast depleting. Biodiesel fuel was evaluated on the short-term performance of the selected diesel engine. The operating conditions for the modified reactor were 60L vegetable oil, 10L methanol at a temperature of 65-68 degrees centigrade. The time of reaction was 3hours. The catalyst used was 250g anhydrous Sodium hydroxide. The diesel engine operating combustion conditions were obtained at engine speed rating of 1750 rpm for both fossil diesel and waste vegetable oil derived biodiesel. The average fuel consumption was 0.3396 kg/KWh for fossil diesel fuel and 0.3804 kg/KWh for biodiesel respectively. There was no significant difference in the variation of fuel consumption and thermal efficiency for both fossil and biodiesel fuels.
Several alternative fuels like hydrogen, CNG, LNG, producer gas, biogas, alcohols, vegetable oils etc. are being explored around the globe with a view to supplement fuels and reduce environmental pollution. The alcohol fuels could not be exploited on a large scale because the petroleum fuels were abundant, cheap and easy to produce. Several vegetable oils are being produced in the country. Among vegetable oils rice bran oil can be used as CI engine fuel. Rice bran oil and its ester have been used satisfactorily for partial replacement of the diesel fuel. Use of vegetable oil and ethanol blend gave satisfactory results. But ester of vegetable oil and ethanol has never been used before as fuel in CI engines. The concept of employing alcohol especially ethanol with ester of vegetable oils as a fuel in engines is totally new and revolutionary. This study helped to assess the feasibility of using blend of rice bran oil methyl ester and ethanol as fuel in a diesel engine.
This study examined suitable areas for growing Jatropha plants and focused on the improvement of Jatropha oil as an alternative fuel for diesel engine. To examine land suitability for Jatropha cultivation, this study examined case studies in Suphanburi province, Thailand by classifying land use from landsat-5 TM. Then, GIS based spatial multiple criteria decision-making analysis was used to identify suitable land for Jatropha cultivation. Analytical Hierarchical Processing (AHP) was used to weight multi-factor priority model for land suitability for Jatropha cultivation. The results were obtained that the marginally suitable area for Jatropha cultivation in Suphanburi is 3,569.02 sq.km and 1,577.70 sq.km. and 211.29 sq.km. for highly suitable and moderately suitabille area respectively. The results found that viscosity of 5- 10% of Jatropha blends can be acceptable according to the ASTM standard. For using Jatropha oil (pure), the fuel should be heat more than 100 Celsius before directly used in engine. The study revealed that blending with 5-10% of Jatropha oil can be used directly in diesel engine without any modification or preheating.
As an alternative fuel for compression ignition engines, plant oils are in principle renewable and carbon-neutral. However, their use raises technical, economic and environmental issues. A comprehensive and up-to-date technical review of using both edible and non-edible plant oils (either pure or as blends with fossil diesel) in CI engines, based on comparisons with standard diesel fuel, has been carried out. The properties of several plant oils, and the results of engine tests using them, are reviewed based on the literature. Findings regarding engine performance, exhaust emissions and engine durability are collated. The causes of technical problems arising from the use of various oils are discussed, as are the modifications to oil and engine employed to alleviate these problems. The review shows that a number of plant oils can be used satisfactorily in CI engines, without transesterification, by preheating the oil and/or modifying the engine parameters and the maintenance schedule. As regards life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emission analyses, these reveal considerable advantages of raw plant oils over fossil diesel and biodiesel.
Increase in energy demands, stringent emission norms and depletion of oil resources have led the researchers to find alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. As petroleum is non renewable source of energy and the petroleum reserves are scarce nowadays, there is a need to search for alternative fuels for automobiles. The intensive search on alternative fuels for compression ignition engines has focused attention on fuels, which can be derived from bio mass. On the other hand waste plastic pose a very serious environment challenge because of their disposal problems all over the world. Plastics have now become indispensable materials in the modern world and application in the industrial field is continually increasing. An intricate detail about Pyrolysis has been discussed vividly to obtain plastic oil, which has been experimented to check the feasibility as an alternate fuel for Diesel engines.
This piece of work lends insight on the world’s future energy chart by reporting an experimental based study on biofuels, particularly butanol, being utilized in diesel engines. A literature review is carried out in diesel engine combustion and emissions, as well as in butanol being used as a clean and regenerable fuel. Then, the experimental methodology is introduced, describing equipments and basic setup for the experiments performed in this research. Results from these experiments are reported and discussed in the following chapter, which lead to useful conclusions about butanol utilization in compression ignition engines. At the end, future research directions are recommended for more in-depth investigation in this field. Overall, the topic of this work is interesting, and the study well organized.
This experiment has been done to study the combustion and performance analysis of biodiesel and it's blends prepared from waste cooking oil.The world is also presently confronted with the twin crisis of fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation. Fossil fuels have limited life and the ever increasing cost of these fuels has led to the search of alternative renewable fuels for ensuring energy security and environmental protection. For developing countries fuels of bio-origin can provide a feasible solution to this crisis and can as alternative fuels. With this perspective, considerable attention has been drawn toward the production of biodiesel as a direct substitute or a blending option with fossil fuel to increase its performance efficiency.This research at National Institute of Technology, Agartala, Tripura, India has been done in collaboration with Legion Brothers, Bangalore, India as a part of the B.Tech project