The theory of cohesion in English proposed by Halliday and Hasan (1976) and Halliday (1994) has made significant contributions to the understanding of cohesion and, to a certain extent, coherence of English texts. Although repetitions have a major function in literary texts, avoiding repetitions is one of the most recurrent norms of translation. This book aims to investigate the density of repetition as the most frequently used type of cohesive device in terms of semantic equivalence in Waiting for Godot by Beckett (1954) and its two Persian translations by Alizad (2009) and Rastegar (2002). The results showed that there was no orderly one to one relationship between the source and target texts with regard to translating repetitions. This book is very much hoped to be useful to teachers and students in the course of teaching and translating .Translating cohesive devices specially the repeated elements from one language to another language is somehow difficult, because of the differences not only in language but also in perceptions due to different cultures. Therefore, teaching and learning translating of these texts has become a challenging job for both teachers and students.
In this study, the researcher aimed to identify and introduce the most frequently used strategies in the translation of grammatical cohesive devices in the novel of "the Catcher in the Rye" by J.D. Salinger. The research is on a corpus-based analysis of English grammatical cohesive devices and their Persian equivalents on the model of Halliday and Hasan (1976). As the result of the study, a number of strategies were introduced in order to transfer the English grammatical cohesive devices into the target language and the study also proved that the most frequent strategy used by the Persian translator is using grammatical cohesion of similar meaning and the least frequent one is using grammatical cohesion of different meaning. The researcher concluded that the grammatical cohesive devices in English are used in Persian differently and the choice of Persian translator in some cases has been the expansion of the translated text, i.e. repetition of the information that is mentioned in the text in order to avoid vagueness and wearisome of the reader.
This research is an attempt to analyze the English and Persian research articles with regard to the occurrence of ellipsis as a type of cohesive tie. Another significant objective of the study is to predict the errors Iranian EFL learners are likely to make when they use English ellipsis in their written and spoken performance. The most important finding of the present study is that these three models of classification are applicable to Persian and English ellipsis. The other important finding is that Persian and English have the same types of ellipsis, the only difference being that one of the types of ellipsis namely quasi-ellipsis present in English is absent in Persian. This verifies McCarty’s claim (2005) that ellipsis is probably a universal feature of languages. The final finding of the study is that the grammatical options which realize ellipsis in Persian discourse vary markedly from those realizing English ellipsis. It is this variation in the realization of ellipsis which results in certain errors on the part of Iranian EFL learners.
The use of hedging expressions is one of the important issues in academic writing. When a researcher states a claim, there is a possibility that his/her claim will be rejected by the academic community. Therefore, employing appropriate hedging devices can be a good strategy for this purpose. Due to the important role of hedging expressions in academic writing, this study attempted to investigate the use of hedging expressions in English and Persian MA and PhD theses. The results of this study showed some groups of hedges were used more than the other groups in the theses. Generally the total number of hedges was higher in English PhD theses compared to Persian PhD theses but it was not statistically significant. And the total number of hedges was significantly higher in English MA theses in comparison to Persian MA theses. It showed that in MA English theses students preferred more tentative style of writing.
Metadiscourse markers are universal aspects of our everyday language and major features of the way we communicate in a range of genres and settings which help writers make coherent and reader-friendly texts. Despite the importance of metadiscourse in composition, reading, rhetoric and text structure and being investigated from different angles recently, it is still unknown to many writers of scientific and academic texts, teachers of English as a second language, translators, editors and those who are involved in the field of linguistics. This book compares and contrasts interactive and interactional metadiscourse markers in English medical texts and their Persian translation based on Hyland’s (2005) model. A corpus of 140 paragraphs of English medical articles and their translation into Persian, published in Sina Journal, were selected and the frequency and types of metadiscourse markers were analyzed in each text using the paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The results showed that there is a statistically significant difference in the amount and types of metadiscourse markers in English medical texts and their Persian translation.
The Book “ MODERNITY IN PERSIAN AND ASSAMESE POETRY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO IRAJ MIRZA, MOHD. TAQI BAHAR, NAVA KANTA BARUA & NILAMONI PHUKAN – A COMPARATIVE STUDY” is regarded as useful reference Book for Studying the modernization of persian and Assamese poetry. It Consists of six important Chapter dealing with Modernism, Modernization of persian poetry, Modernization of Assamese poetry, Modernity in the poetry of Md. Taqi Bahar and Iraj Mirza, Modernity in the poetry Navakanta Barua and Nilamoni Phukan, Modernity in Persian and Assamese poetry – A comparative study
Critical Discourse Analysis(CDA) is an interdisciplinary knowledge and it is connected to social sciences, anthropology, and linguistic at the same time. As Wodak(2002) states CDA with the goal of change, chooses the perspective of those who suffer and analyze the way language is used by those who are in power and those who create the inequalities. The present research is an attempt to criticize the Persian translation of race-related lexico-grammatical items in the English novel “The Help” in the framework of CDA. The findings and results of this research may be useful for translators of both English and Persian. It may also have outcome in translator training courses to raise Student's awareness to the importance of language role in socio-culutral contexts as well as the impact of textual choices of the translators in the process of translation.
Western literature and European cultural studies, specially British and American literature play an undeniable role in the universal and international literature; while Persian literature, Eastern countries and Oriental Cultural Studies have many speakable words toward the world. Most of the Persian poets and writers are full of literary talents in comparison to their contemporary poets, writers and playwrights. They suffer from lack of translations of their works into the foreign languages especially into the international languages like: English or France in sequence of the times. The purpose of this study is to seek in “Translation Criticism of Akhavan Sales’ Selected Poetry Translated in English Based on Farahzad’s model”. The translation of Persian literary texts is important at this time, because numerous people in the world, speak English language and globalization takes place. The corpus of this study narrowed down to the Akhavan Sales’ selected poetry. Akhavan Sales is one of the most famous contemporary Persian poets and the “Nima Yushij’s literary school” followers.
Lexicalization patterns(LPs) differ from one language to another. This study investigates the influence of L1 LPs on the processing of L2 words in sentential contexts by Persian learners of English. The focus was on cases where two different senses of a polysemous word in Persian are realized by two independent words in English. The participants were presented with two types of anomalous sentences: test sentences in which one of the two English words was used in a context where the other word was appropriate and control sentences in which the same word was used in a context where neither of the two words was appropriate. The participants were asked to judge, as quickly and accurately as possible, whether the final word could complete the sentence meaningfully or whether the final word was semantically unacceptable. The participants'' reaction times for correct No responses and their error rates were recorded. A main effect of sentence type and an interaction between sentence type and proficiency level were obtained in the analysis of both RTs and errors. The findings of this study have implications for L2 vocabulary teaching and learning.
South Asian poetry in English, because of the geopolitics and cultural developments of the region, tends to privilege the middle class in its representation. British colonization and Orientalism, bred several generations of middle class in the Subcontinent, and this class “appropriated” English language for artistic expression. When middle class elements are woven into poetic product, distinct patterns emerge. This book is a study of those patterns.
Research has indicated that writing argumentative essay is difficult for L2 students of English, as such the current project intended to examine the difficulties which Iranian EFL students have in writing argumentative essays and also to investigate similarities and/or differences in the way they structure their English and Persian argumentative essay before and after instruction. This study also attempted to portray how students transfer rhetorical patterns in L2 to L1 compositions. This study shed further light into the impact of explicit and implicit genre-based approach in comparison with the no-instruction approach on the argumentative genre. After conducting TOFEL test, 79 subjects were selected. The selected subjects were randomly divided into three groups. All of the three groups did 4 pre- and post-tests. The results show that the participants used basic structure of English argumentative papers in both their Persian and English pre-essays; however, they were weak at handling oppositional structures. The quantitative analysis of the post-argumentative essays revealed that the experimental group outperformed the implicit and no-formal instruction groups.
Metadiscourse markers help writers make coherent and reader-friendly texts, which is of considerable importance in academic writing. The main aim of this book is to investigate how interactive and interactional metadiscourse markers are used by Iranian EFL learners. An inquiry was carried out to investigate cross-cultural similarities and differences in the use of metadiscourse markers in the Discussion and Conclusion sections of the book of three categories: native English speakers, native Persian speakers, and non-native English speakers. Following Hyland's (2005) metadiscourse taxonomy, a corpus of sixty master theses was investigated to search for metadiscourse markers. The results showed that native English writers used more interactive and interactional metadiscourse markers than native Persian and EFL learners which might stem from the insufficient awareness of EFL learners of the role of the metadiscourse markers, intercultural differences, and the fact that they do not usually receive explicit instruction on these devices in Persian academic context.
Translation is the art of reproducing an utterance or a part of discourse from source language (SL) into target language (TL). A part of discourse can be consisting of a paragraph, a phrase, a sentence, and a neologism. Newmark (1988) stated that neologisms could be defined as newly coined lexical units or existing lexical units that acquire a new sense. The case of this study is subtitle of Avatar film (2009) whose 92 new words in English language (SL) and their counterparts in Persian language (TL) have been extracted, recorded and surveyed on the basis of suggested strategies of Silvia`s (2001) model for creation of neologisms and Newmark`s (1988) theoretical framework for neologisms` translation. In this qualitative, descriptive study, Avatar film has been watched and the data have been probed and analyzed in content of text via subtitles.
This book is the result of three years of research by the author to build an intelligent system to provide semantic support for Persian Learners of English. To do so, computational description of Persian Morphology and Syntax has been included. The system constructs semantic representations of the content of both the original English sentences as well as students'' translations as input text. It then compares the discourse states that result from the source text and the target text and reports on a range of mismatches. It is shown that by adding a CALL component to the language teaching system, it is possible to analyze original English sentences and the students'' translations and compare their semantic content using logical forms to provide diagnostic information about lexical and semantic errors made by students.
This book discusses some literature on the transfer of common expressions between languages, an explanation of contrastive analysis and the use of communication strategies by learners such as paraphrasing, borrowing, appeal for help, miming and avoidance when communicating in the second language. This is followed by a short description of the cognitive approach to the translating of metaphors and idioms. Based on years of teaching experience by both the authors, an A to Z extensive trilingual list of common expressions used while communicating involving the English, Malay and Persian languages is given. This list will be useful and worthwhile for everyone who knows any one of these languages or who needs it as a reference to find the translation to these languages and thus be able to understand the expressions as used in communication among people in their society and the real world.