Rwanda and Burundi are transitional states recovering from internal conflicts. In these states, the unleashing of instruments of war created security, governance as well as socioeconomic challenges that threatened both the lives of individuals and the survival of the state. The existence of armed groups, militarized and uncivil society and governments with questionable legitimacy in these states limited their ability to supply major political goods to their citizens due to limited authority. In the two states, substantial peacebuilding and sustainable peace work that uses different strategies has been going on since the end of their respective conflicts to create sustainable peace. Peacebuilding initiatives in the two countries have used different strategies leading to comparable outcomes. While the Rwanda peace process was endogenous the Burundi peace process was more exogenous. The study compared the peacebuilding strategies used in the two countries. This book is useful to scholars in Peace and Conflict studies as well as the general International Studies discipline.
This book entitled “Building Sustainable Peace in Post Genocide Rwanda: prospects and challenges” is based on the fundamental theoretical framework underlying the content therein. The logic is that sustainable peace emerges from 5 basic lines of action in the Rwandan post-genocide era: Understand conflict in its complexity; Fight genocide ideology effectively; Conduct reconciliation successfully; Launch sustainable development and Self Organization. It covers a wide range of dimensions ranging from peace and conflict studies, history, justice and socio-economic development.
It is now 18 years after the 1994 genocide against Tutsi in Rwanda. Many things have already been done regarding the national reconstruction process in which every Rwandan is expected to participate. How are educators taking part in this national reconstruction process? This study explores the level of participation of the National University of Rwanda academics in implementing national social cohesion recovery policies. Building from collected data that indicate a relatively low level of inclusion of peace building issues in academic activities due to limited expertise in peace and conflict studies, the study suggests a two-week-workshop as a peace education intervention in order to improve the National University of Rwanda academics’ skills in conflict transformation and education for sustainable peace and development.
The problem of conflict is a global concern. State and non state actors have made efforts towards addressing the issue of conflict management and peace building in Kenya including the conflict prone area, Trans-Nzioa county using Track I, Track II and Track III approaches. Integrated mission concept has been developed both at the international and at local levels using proactive measures rather than the reactive and crisis driven measures; however, sustainable peace is yet to be realized. This book established the types, scale, motives and severity, to be some of the spelling factors to the changing nature of conflict within the county. Numerous root causes were identified including cultural practices (raids by the Pokot), poverty and competition over land and water resources. Triggers of conflict noted include perceived marginalization amongst groups based on age, gender, education, ethnicity; forced displacements, corruption; and the fuelers of conflict identified include politicians, external attackers and the youth. Coordination amongst various core actors has been enhanced through existing local peace building blocs.
The progress of the society is based, among other things on the society's capacity to involve young men and women in building and designing their future. The society offers limited opportunities for their participation in decision making process especially in peace making and peace building;as such the problem of non-involvement of the youth with its diverse effects on the society's efforts in search for sustainable peace persists.This work is therefore directed to examine the active role played by the youth in Mount Elgon Conflict and seek strategies through which they can be fully involved in peace making and peace building processes.
In East Asia, previous conflicts have had a strong element of external superpower intervention in accordance with the Cold War pattern. This situation is now changing quite dramatically, and more traditional rivalries are resurging, more similar to a 19th century Europe-type situation. The larger Asia-Pacific "region" was most affected by the Cold War, and the recent lifting of the superpower overlay therefore has created a vacuum of great uncertainty in the security field. Several powers have more or less open regional ambitions, which must be related to turbulent and highly unpredictable domestic situations in the countries concerned.Above all of discussions on democratic peace in East Asia, East Asian democracy is closely associated with a decreased likelihood of interstate wars, military disputes, or civil wars in East Asia. More significantly, politico-economic factors in the post-Cold War era greatly contributed to the phenomenon that is labeled democratic peace. Further, they imply that foreign policy strategies aimed at increasing the likelihood of peace in the future by spreading democracy are likely to be more effective in the region.
This book Development, Human Rights and Conflict is an interdisciplinary textbook combining different aspect of human development, human rights and politics analysis to examine the relationship between development and sustainable peace-building in ethnically divided societies. Combining both theoretical and practical approaches based on case study, this book: examines causes of increasing intra-state conflicts in the post cold war world;explores the interwoven relationship among development, human development, human rights violations, internal conflict, and sustainable peace-building; assesses the impact of unintendent consequences of development on human development and peace and finally, it makes several contributions to the theories of development, conflict and peace-building. This book will be essential reading for students of development, human rights, and peace-building disciplines and highly recommended for students, academicians and practitioners of conflict resolution and peace-building combining Human Rights-based Approach (HRBA) in development.
Since their inception, human rights were meant to foster peace among nations. The Universal Catholic Church endorsed this turn in international law, and from Pope John XXIII’s Encyclical Pacem in Terris (1963), to Vatican II and the successive Popes, the teaching has constantly been that the respect for human rights is the way to peace. Now, as the general principles of the Catholic teaching can only be concretely applied in local churches, this work explores how the Catholic Church in Burundi used these human rights principles to advocate for peace in Burundi during three symbolic periods of human rights abuse and violation: 1972, 1983-1984, 1993-2005. And, as Burundi is still struggling to recover from a long period of civil war, this analysis should stimulate the local Catholic Church and other religious denominations to contribute to the advancement of peace using human rights. In addition, as it attempts to apply general principles from Catholic social ethics to a local context, this work is also a contribution to the scholarship in theological social ethics, especially about Burundi where not much has been published so far.
Peace building is one of the missions of the Catholic Church. Theologically it is a divine gift to mankind. In fulfilling this mission the Catholic Diocese of Nakuru supports grassroots peace initiatives by participating actively in activities geared towards improving the socio-economic and political spheres of life. Despite the recurrence of conflicts in Molo District during every electioneering year, the church has not abdicated her mission and duty of fostering peace among the residents. In line with her divine calling of being the light and the salt of the world, CDN has ensured harmonious living among people by bringing people from different communities together, ensuring all people get equal opportunities in employment and establishing her institutions evenly across all the communities. The church endevours to achieve sustainable reconciliation and justice to all which according to the Catholic Justice and Peace Commission are the true recipe for er eradicating political and negative ethnicity among the people in in her area of jurisdiction.
Conflicts in Zimbabwe have caused communities to be divided along political party lines. Violence has been widespread and this has exacerbated economic collapse and social polarization. The acts of violence and loss of life and property and livelihoods must be addressed urgently. In high density urban areas this violence continues to divide communities. This research seeks to explore options for peace-building in high density urban areas of Zimbabwe. The Chitungwiza high density area outside Harare was used as a population of the study. The objectives of the research were to find out residents’ concepts of peace, to explore the history of political violence in Chitungwiza and to seek options for peace-building in Zimbabwe’s urban areas. The study drew on Laderach’s reconciliation and peace-building framework, Chester Crockers’s framework for institutional peace-building. The researcher used a qualitative approach to field research and interviewed victims and perpetrators of violence as well as elected leaders in the Chitungwiza community. The main findings was that options for peacebuilding should start with orientation towards peace-building for community residents.
...we told the community the truth, we told them the truth so that they did not victimize us, instead of quarreling with them,we told people this is what we did and it was against our will,we accepted that we had wronged them but we were forced to do so... The empirical material presented in this study indicates that war affected children present themselves using different strategies when narrating their suffering in captivity. Their experience in war is rather ambiguous and we cannot say they are innocent, at the same time we can not deny that they are guilty. what is clear is that ex-child soldiers employ variety of shifting strategies as they negotiate their survival in adversity. The analysis in the study presents ex-child soldiers as active agents in their own lives based on their experience as a generational structure. the study looks at the inter-generational super structure that changed the the social order in Acholi culture while highlighting different contribution of children towards peace building in Northern Uganda.
The general objective of this book is to examine the effect of Uganda’s foreign policy and its role in the Eastern DRC peace building process. Based on the above general objective, specific research objectives are developed as highlighted below; 1. To examine Uganda’s foreign policy from 1998-2003. 2. To identify strategies adopted by the Ugandan Government in the Eastern DRC peace building process. 3. To identify the various challenges faced by the Ugandan Government in the Eastern DRC peace building process.
In this groundbreaking research work, Pastor Wee traces the factors that heralded the deadliest civil war in the West African Sub-region to an intractable conflict between the Americo-Liberians and the indigenous Liberians. He demonstrates convincingly that the current peace in Liberia is fragile and is characterized by hatred, animosity, ethnic division, structural violence, insecurity, land disputes and the quest for retribution. He argues forcefully that the Christian understanding of the concept of reconciliation is the best means for achieving sustainable peace in Liberia. Citing the significant contribution of the Lutheran Church in Liberia as a case in point, Pastor Wee proposes a blue-print for building sustainable peace in post-war Liberia. This is absolutely a must-read for any student of Peace and Conflict Management.
Peace building is a main goal on the international agenda, yet is unsuccessful. Since 1989 one quarter of armed conflicts are unresolved and half of modern conflicts return to war in five years. I argue the failure to sustain peace is a result of current liberal peace building paradigms. If peace is the process of achieving collective and individual freedom from structural violence, I argue foreign aid must use human rights, particularly economic, social and cultural rights (ESC). Using the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT) and precedents set by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural rights I analyze the human rights impact of the practices of the United States Agency for International Development and the United Nations Development Programme. The past two decades of aid to the OPT reflects liberal paradigms of aid for peace and the prioritization of civil and political rights. By showing that ESC rights are justiciable obligations that can be applied to the practice of peace building, I am expanding the notion of liberalism to include ESC rights frameworks, so that peace building can address (in)securities avoided by liberal peace practices.
Transitional Justice is a range of processes made by policies and measures that allow dealing with the evil past after a protracted civil war or dictatorship regime. It aims at accountability, putting an end to impunity and restoring relationships by reconciliation and in rendering Justice to the victims of mass violations of human rights. Justice in a post-conflict state is a baffling issue. It quests to know the truth about what happened, whose truth is it, and who is benefiting from it? In this course, we will focus on these 8 points: the origin of Transitional Justice, the success or the Failure of Truth Commissions, Indigenous Justice, Reconciliation, Reparative and Restorative Justice, Amnesty, international and national courts. We look at Indigenous Justice in Africa such as Kpaa Mende, Magamba spirit, Ubushingantahe and Gacaca. From the South African truth commission to the Gacaca jurisdictions, we will try to understand how the transitional justice mechanisms are shaped by circumstances. As this course is designed for Burundian students, particular attention will be paid to the establishment of the transitional justice in that country.