Rwanda and Burundi are transitional states recovering from internal conflicts. In these states, the unleashing of instruments of war created security, governance as well as socioeconomic challenges that threatened both the lives of individuals and the survival of the state. The existence of armed groups, militarized and uncivil society and governments with questionable legitimacy in these states limited their ability to supply major political goods to their citizens due to limited authority. In the two states, substantial peacebuilding and sustainable peace work that uses different strategies has been going on since the end of their respective conflicts to create sustainable peace. Peacebuilding initiatives in the two countries have used different strategies leading to comparable outcomes. While the Rwanda peace process was endogenous the Burundi peace process was more exogenous. The study compared the peacebuilding strategies used in the two countries. This book is useful to scholars in Peace and Conflict studies as well as the general International Studies discipline.
This book entitled “Building Sustainable Peace in Post Genocide Rwanda: prospects and challenges” is based on the fundamental theoretical framework underlying the content therein. The logic is that sustainable peace emerges from 5 basic lines of action in the Rwandan post-genocide era: Understand conflict in its complexity; Fight genocide ideology effectively; Conduct reconciliation successfully; Launch sustainable development and Self Organization. It covers a wide range of dimensions ranging from peace and conflict studies, history, justice and socio-economic development.
It is now 18 years after the 1994 genocide against Tutsi in Rwanda. Many things have already been done regarding the national reconstruction process in which every Rwandan is expected to participate. How are educators taking part in this national reconstruction process? This study explores the level of participation of the National University of Rwanda academics in implementing national social cohesion recovery policies. Building from collected data that indicate a relatively low level of inclusion of peace building issues in academic activities due to limited expertise in peace and conflict studies, the study suggests a two-week-workshop as a peace education intervention in order to improve the National University of Rwanda academics’ skills in conflict transformation and education for sustainable peace and development.
Peace building is an array of activities that take place on the far side of conflict. It focuses on rebuilding the post-conflict state in terms of restoring social fabric, rebuilding institutions, infrastructure, etc. As a concept, it was used for the first time in the Agenda for Peace (1992), where the then United Nations Secretary General, Boutros Boutros-Ghali, asserted that post-war shattered states should be reconstructed. This course will put emphasis on the African architecture of peace building within the African Union and the indigenous mechanisms of building peace in Africa. We will look at the causes of conflict in Africa (state failure; Relative Deprivation, Primordial, Instrumentalist, Constructivist and grievance or greed theories; Colonialism and Neocolonialism, etc.). We will discuss the origins of peace building and peace building programs in general, and in Africa and Burundi in particular. The peace building processes will include Political Recovery, Economic Recovery, Social Recovery, Gender and Peace Building, Humanitarian responses and emergency interventions. At the end of this course, the students will be able to evaluate peace building programs and carry
The progress of the society is based, among other things on the society's capacity to involve young men and women in building and designing their future. The society offers limited opportunities for their participation in decision making process especially in peace making and peace building;as such the problem of non-involvement of the youth with its diverse effects on the society's efforts in search for sustainable peace persists.This work is therefore directed to examine the active role played by the youth in Mount Elgon Conflict and seek strategies through which they can be fully involved in peace making and peace building processes.
The general objective of this book is to examine the effect of Uganda’s foreign policy and its role in the Eastern DRC peace building process. Based on the above general objective, specific research objectives are developed as highlighted below; 1. To examine Uganda’s foreign policy from 1998-2003. 2. To identify strategies adopted by the Ugandan Government in the Eastern DRC peace building process. 3. To identify the various challenges faced by the Ugandan Government in the Eastern DRC peace building process.
In this groundbreaking research work, Pastor Wee traces the factors that heralded the deadliest civil war in the West African Sub-region to an intractable conflict between the Americo-Liberians and the indigenous Liberians. He demonstrates convincingly that the current peace in Liberia is fragile and is characterized by hatred, animosity, ethnic division, structural violence, insecurity, land disputes and the quest for retribution. He argues forcefully that the Christian understanding of the concept of reconciliation is the best means for achieving sustainable peace in Liberia. Citing the significant contribution of the Lutheran Church in Liberia as a case in point, Pastor Wee proposes a blue-print for building sustainable peace in post-war Liberia. This is absolutely a must-read for any student of Peace and Conflict Management.
This book Development, Human Rights and Conflict is an interdisciplinary textbook combining different aspect of human development, human rights and politics analysis to examine the relationship between development and sustainable peace-building in ethnically divided societies. Combining both theoretical and practical approaches based on case study, this book: examines causes of increasing intra-state conflicts in the post cold war world;explores the interwoven relationship among development, human development, human rights violations, internal conflict, and sustainable peace-building; assesses the impact of unintendent consequences of development on human development and peace and finally, it makes several contributions to the theories of development, conflict and peace-building. This book will be essential reading for students of development, human rights, and peace-building disciplines and highly recommended for students, academicians and practitioners of conflict resolution and peace-building combining Human Rights-based Approach (HRBA) in development.
Justice in peace and reconciliation efforts is a classical problem. Justice is one of the components of a genuine reconciliation together with truth, mercy and peace. However, in many protracted African conflicts, the tendency of those involved in the resolution of conflict is to direct all the efforts into halting violence at all costs and, in so doing, resort to mechanisms of conflict resolution which favour negative peace instead of taking all the time needed to go deep enough, address the root-causes of the conflict and as a result attain positive peace.In this book, Delphin Nzosaba focuses on the challenges of implementing justice in protracted conflict using the case study of Burundi. The Burundi conflict, like other African conflicts, pitted neighbours against neighbours and produced trauma that is directly lived and linked to the perceived enemy and, as time went by, developed a history of animosity and stereotypes which passed from generation to generation. Nzosaba argues that building genuine peace and reconciliation demands that deep-rooted hatred and fears be addressed by taking into account the subjective perceptions and resentful sentiments.
Since their inception, human rights were meant to foster peace among nations. The Universal Catholic Church endorsed this turn in international law, and from Pope John XXIII’s Encyclical Pacem in Terris (1963), to Vatican II and the successive Popes, the teaching has constantly been that the respect for human rights is the way to peace. Now, as the general principles of the Catholic teaching can only be concretely applied in local churches, this work explores how the Catholic Church in Burundi used these human rights principles to advocate for peace in Burundi during three symbolic periods of human rights abuse and violation: 1972, 1983-1984, 1993-2005. And, as Burundi is still struggling to recover from a long period of civil war, this analysis should stimulate the local Catholic Church and other religious denominations to contribute to the advancement of peace using human rights. In addition, as it attempts to apply general principles from Catholic social ethics to a local context, this work is also a contribution to the scholarship in theological social ethics, especially about Burundi where not much has been published so far.
The present peace of work deals with the implementation of peace education and its effectiveness in education. Peace education intends to prepare the child to learn concepts of peace to lead peaceful life. The study entitled “Implementation of Peace Education in Secondary Schools” aims at to inculcate the strategies and values of Peace among the mindsets of the students. Study of peace education could be more meaningful by verifying in oneself. This book is foundation for the prospective teachers to have relevant and responsible interventions with the learners. This book will definitely provide a platform to devoted students, scholars and teachers of peace and harmony to interact with inspiring thoughts contained in this book.
Conflicts in Zimbabwe have caused communities to be divided along political party lines. Violence has been widespread and this has exacerbated economic collapse and social polarization. The acts of violence and loss of life and property and livelihoods must be addressed urgently. In high density urban areas this violence continues to divide communities. This research seeks to explore options for peace-building in high density urban areas of Zimbabwe. The Chitungwiza high density area outside Harare was used as a population of the study. The objectives of the research were to find out residents’ concepts of peace, to explore the history of political violence in Chitungwiza and to seek options for peace-building in Zimbabwe’s urban areas. The study drew on Laderach’s reconciliation and peace-building framework, Chester Crockers’s framework for institutional peace-building. The researcher used a qualitative approach to field research and interviewed victims and perpetrators of violence as well as elected leaders in the Chitungwiza community. The main findings was that options for peacebuilding should start with orientation towards peace-building for community residents.
Peace building is a main goal on the international agenda, yet is unsuccessful. Since 1989 one quarter of armed conflicts are unresolved and half of modern conflicts return to war in five years. I argue the failure to sustain peace is a result of current liberal peace building paradigms. If peace is the process of achieving collective and individual freedom from structural violence, I argue foreign aid must use human rights, particularly economic, social and cultural rights (ESC). Using the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT) and precedents set by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural rights I analyze the human rights impact of the practices of the United States Agency for International Development and the United Nations Development Programme. The past two decades of aid to the OPT reflects liberal paradigms of aid for peace and the prioritization of civil and political rights. By showing that ESC rights are justiciable obligations that can be applied to the practice of peace building, I am expanding the notion of liberalism to include ESC rights frameworks, so that peace building can address (in)securities avoided by liberal peace practices.
This book investigates the role of women religious leaders in ethnic conflict management and resolution in Nakuru and Uasin Gishu districts, Kenya. The book is based on the general premise that in all conflict related situations women bear the greatest brunt of the violence.The book shows that during the ethnic clashes, women are the main victims but they are underrepresented or hardly represented in peace meetings and in the various structures of peace making processes and peace building. Where they are included, the number of women is miserably minimal or negligible. The book has demonstrated that religion can be integrated with gender dimension in peace building, conflict prevention and management. This is underscored by the significant roles of women in peace building which are evident from the work of Rural Women Peace Link, a network of women groups that was geared to peace building in the areas that suffered the effects of ethnic clashes and other violent related conflicts such as cattle rustling.
The problem of conflict is a global concern. State and non state actors have made efforts towards addressing the issue of conflict management and peace building in Kenya including the conflict prone area, Trans-Nzioa county using Track I, Track II and Track III approaches. Integrated mission concept has been developed both at the international and at local levels using proactive measures rather than the reactive and crisis driven measures; however, sustainable peace is yet to be realized. This book established the types, scale, motives and severity, to be some of the spelling factors to the changing nature of conflict within the county. Numerous root causes were identified including cultural practices (raids by the Pokot), poverty and competition over land and water resources. Triggers of conflict noted include perceived marginalization amongst groups based on age, gender, education, ethnicity; forced displacements, corruption; and the fuelers of conflict identified include politicians, external attackers and the youth. Coordination amongst various core actors has been enhanced through existing local peace building blocs.