The book evaluate the performance of canal irrigation system by using special scientific tools like Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System, so that proper measurements could be taken for the sustainable agriculture and water management. Different performance evaluation parameters had been calculated.The purposed data was gathered from field investigation and different government and private organizations. According to the calculations,organic matter ranges from 0.19% (low value) to 0.76% (high value). In comparison of flat and bed irrigation system in wheat crop,the water saving per acre varies from 46.51 to 56.5% of time. The average range of irrigation water saving at site was 51.37%, which provides evidence of 50% water saving in bed planting. Similarly, in rice crop, the range of water saving is 28.91 to 45% which happens due to over irrigation even in bed planting by same farmers. Results showed that on an average percentage yield increase in wheat bed planting fields varies from 11.83 to 29.4 % while 22.27 % increase in yield was obtained from rice bed planting in comparison with flat sowing.
This study applies a benchmarking approach to evaluate and compare the Performance Efficinencies PE of Jui-Naw main canal irrigation system, situated in the lower Hari-Rod river basin of Afghanistan. In this study, a set of performance indicators are used to evaluate and compare irrigation systems within the system comprising of head (U/S), middle (Mid/S) and tail (D/S). Secondly, a data envelopment analysis (DEA) is applied to measure the efficiency of farmers in wheat farms at different sections of the main canal. Evaluation of irrigation performance indicators was carried out using three groups of performance indicators namely, Service Delivery Performance (SDP), Financial Performance (FP) and Productivity Efficiency Performance (PEP). These performance indicators are also used to compare the performance of four other irrigation systems. The comparative performance indicators developed by IWMI were adopted in order to evaluate the efficiency of the irrigation systems. The overall result of this study can be used to support the decision making and guidelines for the planners, governments, and donor agencies.
The principal objective of surface irrigation systems evaluation is to identify management practices and system configurations that is feasible and effective to improve irrigation efficiency. Evaluation plays a fundamental role in improving surface irrigation systems by providing the information required for design,model validation and advising irrigators on how to improve their systems and management practices. The technical performance of the schemes was evaluated by considering conveyance efficiency, application efficiency, dependability of irrigation interval and sustainability of irrigation.Moreover, availability of institutional and support services , market availability and conflict management were investigated through questionnaire administered to beneficiary farmers and other stakeholders. The conveyance loss in Sanka traditional irrigation is greater than Golina modern irrigation scheme but in Sanka participation of farmers and sense of ownership is rated to be 100%.Therefore, if proper canal and canal structures are in place and water users associations are empowered more in order for it to enforce its bylaws it will augment the efficiency of the scheme exceedingly.
This study evaluates lined and unlined watercourses through various methods such as inflow – outflow and ponding method. It aims to examine seepage losses rate in both earthen unlined and concrete lined watercourses in the particular area of Dahla Dam irrigation system in Kandahar. The results indicated that seepage losses rate was 0.0 2526 m3/m2/day at 100 m section in secondary sandy loam canal (KA1) by inflow-outflow method. Likewise, the results from tertiary canal (KA4), unlined watercourse (KA3) and lined watercourse (KA2) by ponding method was 0.332 m3/m2/day, 0.212 m3/m2/day and 0.0478 m3/m2/day respectively. Economic analysis was used to compare two alternatives concrete lining cost with water value which was saved by concrete lining. Furthermore, the capital recovery factor addressed annual cost of concrete lined watercourses USD 2991.97 (134638.91 Afghanis).where the upgrading of the watercourse resulted saving water of 68,211 m3/km/year which valued USD 9377.81, 26839.93 and 26427 per year from wheat, grapes and tomatoes respectively. So, annual net benefit was USD 741.15, 5440.8 and 1106.80 per hectare from wheat, grapes and tomatoes correspondently.
Performance evaluation of irrigation need close and systematic observation, careful review of documentation and interpretation of the management of an irrigation system,. Its purpose is to ensure input resources and expected outputs are being proceed as planned. It is a tool used improve the level of service and efficiency with which resources are being used. This tool was used to evaluate the perfomance of community managed four small scale irrigation schemes in Rift Valley Basin of the Oromiya and South region in Ethiopia.
Irrigation water is the most critical input and plays a crucial role for realizing the full potential of agriculture. However, water is very scarce and it needs its efficient use for irrigation with most commonly used surface irrigation systems and micro irrigation systems. The experiment conducted in summer groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) crop revealed that Sub surface irrigation system (a continuous emitting lateral buried at 30 cm soil depth) increased the highest of 69.33 per cent pod yield and 89.89 per cent fodder yield at the IW/CPE of 0.4 among all irrigation methods (Drip irrigation system, Micro sprinkler system, broad bed & furrow and Order irrigation system) at all irrigation levels( IW/CPE: 0.4, 0.5, 0.6 & 0.7) over border irrigation system. Sub surface irrigation system improved the highest of 72.78 for pod and 93.70 per cent WUE for fodder at the IW/CPE of 0.4 among all the irrigation methods and irrigation levels over border irrigation system.
A field experiment was conducted from December 2011 to April 2012 in farmer’s field at Yeragera village, Raichur, with a view to work out water requirement of groundnut crop under different micro sprinkler irrigation levels and surface irrigation. The comparison was made in terms of growth, yield and quality parameters between surface and different levels of micro sprinkler irrigation. Further the experiment also aimed to compare various irrigation efficiencies and economics of different levels of micro sprinkler irrigation versus surface irrigation.
Rice is a major food crop in Ghana with an average yearly import bill of $100 million. Most of the local production comes from irrigation schemes and valley bottom areas. However, the expectation of high rice production from these two systems has been difficult to realize. This research reported in this book investigated the performance of the two types of rice production system. The work was aimed at assessing the performance of the two types of rice schemes with the view to formulating a framework for determining the appropriate mode of development for rice production in Ghana. Due to the lack of data on water delivery, an alternative methodology for assessing the water delivery performance was employed. This made use of the concept of fuzzy sets to process the responses of the farmers regarding their perception of the water delivery system. The study also provided an opportunity to investigate the impacts of management transfer. This work should be very useful to managers of irrigation schemes and also policy and decision makers in the agricultural sector who are interested in advancing irrigation. It also adds to the ongoing debate about irrigation management transfer.
Tamil Nadu is India's fifth largest producer of rice, next to West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh. The Cauvery delta region of the composite Thanjavur district in the state is known as the Rice Bowl of South India. Rice is grown in 2.1 million hectares accounting for about one-third of the gross cropped area under diverse environments in the state, like; rain-fed tank, tank, tank cum well, canal (river) and canal (reservoir) irrigation systems. The rice productivity growth had been declining at the rate of -0.40 per cent (during period 1990-91 to 1999-00) as the yields of existing varieties had already been plateauing. Recent breakthroughs in the development of tropical hybrid rice technology had how ever provided an alternative option for raising yield levels for sustained production growth in rice especially in favourable irrigated eco-systems. A nation-wide network on Development and Use of Hybrid Rice Technology – initiated by the ICAR with support from the UNDP,FAO and IRRI. Under this network,TNAU has released four rice hybrids so far, namely; CORH 1, CORH 2 ADTRH 1 and ADTRH 2.Hence, it was decided to take-up this hybrid technology impact study.
This book “Crop Residue Management in Rice-Wheat Cropping System” has written for plant nutrient management in rice - wheat cropping system with nitrogen and potassium fertilizers. The rice-wheat cropping system is one of most widely practiced cropping system in India as well as across the world. The nutrient management in this system is a big task; both crops are heavy nutrient feeder. It requires nutrient cycling from organic residues to maintain nutrient balance in soil. Addition of organic matter to the soil through the return of crop residues also improves soil structure, influences soil water, air and temperature relation, helps to control runoff and erosion and makes tillage easier. Therefore, use of renewable organic sources would be essential for sustainability of the rice-wheat system. This book provides the information about NPK nutrient balance and crop performance under crop residue management practices.
Pakistan annually produces about 25 million tons of wheat & 6 million tons of rice. Storage of these grain is undertaken for various domestic and commercial reasons. During storage heavy quantitative and qualitative losses are known to occur that reduce the food availability and render monitory losses. Major shortcomings in this regard are poor sanitary conditions, leaky and poorly maintained warehouses and ill trained storage officials. Storage losses are not only a problem in wheat and rice but also effect the other stored grains. During storage, insect pests are known to cause considerable damage and weight loss to these commodities. In this study seven (7) methods of loss assessment were examined to investigate the actual losses in stored IRRI-6 and Basmati varieties of rice and wheat stored in public sector godowns. Studies have concluded that during one year storage 1-2% average loss on dry basis was recorded depending upon various factors. Study also pin pointed the areas of future research.
The research investigated and evaluated in this book provides the valuable information for the students, researchers and scholars. This book can serve as a valuable guide for improving the rice yields viz-a-viz conserving the irrigation water. The evaluation of this crop in respect of different spacings and seedlings per hill can give a clear cut figure of the two interrelated parameters for the yield improvement of the said crop as well as microclimatic conditions in the crop canopy. The quantification of meteorological parameters like the intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), temperature and relative humidity within and outside the canopy using different treatment combinations (Spacings and Seedlings per hill) can give a clear cut picture of crop health as well as yield advantage of the Oryza sativa.
Plant Introduction Centre of Pakistan Agricultural Research Council carried out the research study at Malir and Gaddap Karachi. The area is being irrigated by the runoff collected from the catchment of Gaddap, which is stored in Thado-dam. Mostly the crops are lemon and Guava having fruits from May to July and the area under study was 3.65 hectors, the climate in this area is mild to humid and the rainfall range from (180 to 250 mm per year). The soil is sandy and pH range from 7.5 to 8.5. The fruit trees were planted at 12mx12m and 11mx11m under the drip irrigation system consisted of the water source, motor pump, main, sub main and lateral line, micro tubes and pressure gauge. The data was collected at the head, mid and tail of the alternate laterals in the command of each sub main. Drip Irrigation system The emitters flow rate was measured by graduated cylinder used to measure the volume collected for a given time with the help of stopwatch. Discharge uniformity was measured to find out evenly the water was distributed within the installation drip irrigation system. The discharge uniformity under different distances of hydrozones from water source on main line basis is 97%.
Nepalese government has been investing much from the scarce resources in irrigation sector. But, targeted goals have not been achieved due to poor performance of the irrigation systems. A survey research was conducted in 2009 A.D. To assess the performance of Praganna Irrigation Project with respect to crop productivity, intensity, input use, farm income and employment in Dang district of Nepal. Simple random sampling was used to select 60 beneficiaries and 30 non-beneficiaries. PIP has been operating under management of WUGs and supported by the Government of Nepal. The productivity of major cereals (rice, maize, wheat) was found higher in beneficiaries than in non-beneficiaries. The cropping intensity in beneficiaries (221.17%) was significantly higher than in non-beneficiaries (168.34%). 65% of the beneficiaries were food sufficient where none of the non beneficiaries were food sufficient. Gini coefficients for gross household and gross farm income were calculated as 0.37 and 0.44, respectively for beneficiaries; and 0.44 and 0.27, respectively for non-beneficiaries. So, there existed inequality in distribution of gross household and gross farm income within both categories.
Since decades, irrigants have been delivered into root canal space using syringes and metal needles of different sizes and tip design. Clinical researches have shown that classic approach of irrigant delivery results in ineffective irrigation in areas like anastomoses between canals, fins and most apical part of the main root canal. Therefore, technological advances have brought new agitation devices that rely on various mechanisms of irrigant transfer, soft tissue debridement and removal of smear layer through manual and machine assisted agitation systems. Overall review has been concluded that these new agitation systems have proved better canal cleanliness as compared to traditional syringe needle irrigation system.