This book focusses on the pharmacological and toxicological investigations of Saraca indica (Family :Caesalpiniaceae) , a well known plant in the Indian traditional medicinal system. The present investigation deals with the toxicological and biochemical evaluation of the alcoholic extract of bark of Saraca indica through acute and subacute toxicity studies. Also, The antidepressant and oestrogenic activities were evaluated. In addition, genotoxic assays were carried out to assess the effect of Saraca indica bark extract in swiss albino mice.
The use of plants in medicine goes back to pre-historic times and literally outdates human history. In the beginning, plants were used for three purposes; for ornamental purposes / clothing, for eating and treatment.The pharmacological/ biological investigations revealed that Solanum surrattense possesses significant antibacterial and moderate phytotoxic activity. It showed no antifungal and Haemagglutination activity. The pharmacological / biological investigations of Fumaria indica revealed that the plant possesses significant antibacterial and phytotoxic activities. The plant showed no antifungal and low Haemagglutination activity.
The present study was planned on prepubertal female rats to evaluate the mechanism of cadmium-induced toxicity and to evaluate the prophylactic and the therapeutic potential of Saraca indica against cadmium-induced oxidative stress in female reproductive system with the following objectives. 1) To study the mechanisms of toxicity of cadmium on female reproductive system of prepubertal rats. 2) To study the protective role of Saraca indica against cadmium induced damage to in prepubertal rats.
The study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective potential of Saraca indica (SI) herb extract on the basis of biochemical, electrocardiographic and histopathological parameters in cyclophosphamide (CP) induced myocardial toxicity. Cardiotoxicity was induced in rats by administering cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg, i.p.) single injection. SI (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) were administered immediately after administration of cyclophosphamide on first day and daily for 10 days. The general observations, ECG, Level of biomarkers, serum enzymes, Lipid profiles, antioxidant enzymes, level of myocardial infarction & Histopathological changes were estimated. The Reports indicates that Saraca indica treatment produced dose dependent protective effect in ameliorating the biochemical, histopathological and electrographic abnormities caused by CP administration.
Ashoka ( Saraca indica Linn)is an important medicinal plant used in Ayurveda indian sysytem of medicine mainly used to treat Gynaecological disorders. But unfortunately this plant is listed as one of the Endangered plant by National medicinal plants board( NMBP) govt of India but as such no scarcity is observed in the market hence it creats a doubt regarding genuinity of the market sample so present study is conducted to screen the genuinity based on the phamacognostic and phytochemical parameters.and results revealed that none of the market samples are derived from Saraca indica Linn rather of diffrent botanical sources. it shows the clearcut adulteration of this plant which will surely affect the clinical effigacy of the medicines where Ashoka is one of the ingridient.
The purpose of writing this book is to elaborate the study on the topic of Anti-Diabetic activity as well as to give more knowlegde and description of the Pharmacognostical and analytical study of plant Acalyphica Indica Linn. This book consist the whole description regarding pharmacological, pharmacognostical and other activity of acalypha indica linn. this book is the one in which all the three studies are involved of the plant. It helps for further studies also.
This book demonstrates the anti-asthmatic activity of an herbal formulation made of Piper nigrum, Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, Bacopa monnieri, Vitex negundo, and Moringa oleifera. This book provides the information about preparation, standardization by HPTLC, dosage, pharmacological studies and toxicological studies of AAF-6. The pharmacological studies include mast cell stabilization and myeloperoxidase inhibitory activity. It gives the knowledge about anti-asthmatic potential of AAF-6 and its safety profile.
The use of plants to treat diverse ailments is a practice that evolved with man and millions of people worldwide use herbal remedies and drugs discovered through study of traditional cures and folk knowledge. The patronage of botanicals is on the increase worldwide based on perceived efficacy and safety. In realization of the inherent value of herbal medicines to primary health care and the fact that over three quarters of the world’s population rely mainly on plants for health care, the WHO has advocated for proper identification, sensible exploitation, scientific development and appropriate utilization of herbal medicines. In essence, pharmacological and toxicological evaluations are considered essential to the development of standardized herbal remedies and the identification of lead compounds and/or new drugs for clinical use. Based on its use across West Africa in traditional medicine for the treatment of diverse ailments, this publication presents scientific findings on the pharmacological and toxicological actions of Byrsocarpus coccineus Schum. and Thonn. (Connaraceae). This book will be a useful guide for the design and conduct of a number of pharmacological experiments.
Tamarindus indica Linn is used as traditional medicine for the management of diabetes mellitus. The present study has been undertaken to screen the hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity of Tamarindus indica seed powder in nondiabetic and both Type 1, Type 2 diabetic model rats. Our results demonstrate that T. indica seed powder possesses significant antihyperglycemic activity in Type 2 diabetic model rats. The antihyperglycemic activity is at least, partly due to inhibition of intestinal glucose absorption. This effect cannot be attributed to the acceleration of intestinal transit. However, comprehensive chemical and pharmacological researches are required to find out the exact mechanism of this seed powder for its antidiabetogenic effect and to identify the active constituent(s) responsible for this effect.
The roots of Typha elephantina (Fam:Typhaceae) was subjected to phytochemical screening and pharmacological examination.The phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids,quinones,glycosides and carbohydrates. The methanolic extract and its partitionate of roots of Typha elephantina were subjected to pharmacological investigations such as antioxidant activity,cytotoxic activity, antimicrobial assay, analgesic activity(peripheral and central), antipyretic activity,CNS depressant activity and thrombolytic activity.The study showed that the plant can be used for various purpose.
Recent years have witnessed that there is a revival of concern in drug discovery from medicinal plants for the maintenance of health in all parts of the world. The aim of this work was to investigate 4 plants belonging to 4 families (Calotropis gigantean, Mimosa pudica, Achyranthes aspera and Hibiscus rosa-siensis variety: Kalyani, which were collected from different places in Bangladesh (Faridpur) for their in vitro antibacterial, antioxidant and toxicological evaluation. The 4 plants were extracted with methanol and chloroform to yield 8 extracts by Soxhlet’s extraction. Antimicrobial activity was tested by agar diffusion & broth micro-dilution assay. Antioxidant activity was investigated by measuring the scavenging activity of the DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical. Evaluation for in vitro toxicological screening was done against MDCK (Madin-Darby Kanine Kidney) cells by using an established microtiter plate assay based on cellular staining with trypan blue. The results will guide the selection of some plant species for further pharmacological and phytochemical investigations.
Drugs’ enantioresolution is one of the emerging areas as the enantiomers of a chiral drugs have different pharmacological effects as only one enantiomer of the drug often exhibits the desirable therapeutic activity, while the other shows an antagonistic function, side effects, or even toxic effects. These properties of the enantiomers have created an interest to study the pharmacological and toxicological behaviors of the individual enantiomers of drugs, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. The United States Food and Drug Administration has issued guidelines to pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries to specify the enantiomeric purity of the optically active compounds prior to their marketing and hence demanded a systematic investigation of the biological behavior of their individual enantiomers and signi?cantly encouraged the development of single enantiomer drugs. In view of these facts, the enantioresolution of a variety of drugs is gaining importance continuously.
Microbial control of insect pest of crops using entomopathogens is pest management strategy. Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t) has a great potential for this purpose. The focus of the present study was to determine the individual and combine effect of different insecticides such as Saraca indica,as a botanical insecticide, Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t), and chemical insecticide against larvae and adults of Tribolium castaneum and results were analyzed by SPSS probit analysis, LC50 was noted for all these insecticides and results were compared with each other. Study was conducted on the enhancement of pathogenicity of Bacillus thuringiensis by 1% sodium citrate and different insecticides such as Bifenthrin+Cypermethrin, Leaves of Saraca indica will also be screened as grain protactant against Tribolium castaneum. Strain of Bacillus thuringiensis SD1 was cultured to use as a toxic agent. Biotoxicity assays were performed to check the mortality rate of Tribolium castaneum which damage the food grains and have become a worldwide problem.
This research work was conducted with the peel and seed of Baccaurea ramiflora to investigate the Phytochemical constituents and Pharmacological activities. The powdered peel of B. ramiflora was extracted with methanol and seed was extracted with n-haxane. The methanolic peel extracts indicates the presence of Carbohydrate, Tannins, Alkaloids, and Steroids. The crude extract of peel of B. ramiflora was found to show mild lethality against the brine shrimp naupli. In comparison with standard, peel of B. ramiflora was showed no thrombolytic activity, but seed was showed mild thrombolytic effect. So, seed of B. ramiflora can be further used as mild thrombolytic agent. Based on the findings of thrombolytic and toxicological activity, the obtained results can support for the uses of this plant parts as traditional medicine.
This study protocol, we have investigated antimicrobial, cytotoxic, antidiarrhoeal, analgesic and CNS depressant activity of the ethanolic extracts of leaves and fruits of Dillenia indicia. In the test of antimicrobial and antibacterial activity, it had been confirmed that leaf and fruit extract have inhibitory property for the growth of micro organism and it was also established by the test of MIC. The LC50 values of Dillenia indica in brine shrimp lethality bioassay were found significant. The plant parts showed antidiarrhoeal activity which was measured by castor oil induced method and charcoal plug method. All the samples showed significant analgesic activity. In the hole cross test for CNS depressant studies, the extracts also showed a decrease in locomotion in the test animals and in the open field test, the crude ethanolic extract of leaves and roots of D. indica showed a noticeable decrease in locomotion in the test animals. In the pentobarbitone induced hypnosis test, the crude ethanolic extract of leaves of D. indica at the doses 400 mg/kg significantly induced the sleep and also prolonged the duration of sleeping time in test animals as compared to control.