This book describes how systems biology, pharmacogenomic and behavioral approaches, as applied to neurodevelopmental toxicology, provide a structure to arrange information in a biological model. Authors review and discuss approaches that can be used as effective tools to dissect mechanisms underlying pharmacological and toxicological phenomena associated with the exposure to drugs or environmental toxicants during development. This book presents cross-cutting research tools and animal models, along with applications to the studies associated with potential anesthetic-induced developmental neurotoxicity; the developmental basis of adolescent or adult onset of disease; risk assessment of methyl mercury and its effects on neurodevelopment; challenges in the field to identify environmental factors of relevance to autism; and the strategy and progress of epilepsy research.
Selected by Choice as a 2013 Outstanding Academic Title
The first thorough review of cyclooxygenase inhibitors, including their toxicity mechanisms and toxicopathological risks Cyclooxygenases (COXs) are enzymes responsible for the formation of an important class of biological mediators called prostanoids. Prostanoids such as prostaglandins mediate inflammatory and anaphylactic reactions. For those suffering from inflammation and pain, the pharmacological inhibition of COXs, with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen, can provide relief. Yet the use of NSAIDs can trigger toxicological effects as well, leading to potential health risks. Comparative Pathophysiology and Toxicology of Cyclooxygenases provides a comprehensive overview of how COX inhibitors affect various bodily systems, specifically the toxicity mechanisms triggered when the COX enzyme is inhibited. The book provides an introduction to the discovery of cyclooxygenases, their use as therapeutic agents, as well as an historical perspective. Shedding light on the differences in expression, pathophysiology, and toxicology of COX inhibitors across species, the book offers a systematic examination of the effects and pathophysiology of COX inhibitors and their mechanisms of toxicity, beginning with the GI tract. Subsequent chapters cover: The pathophysiology of COX inhibition on bone, tendon, and ligament healing COX inhibitors and renal system pathophysiology and mechanisms of toxicity The pathophysiologic role of COX inhibition in the ocular system COX inhibition and the respiratory and cardiovascular systems The book also sheds light on the latest research devoted to developing COX inhibitors with no adverse side-effects. The first book to offer a thorough comparative look at the toxicological effects of COX inhibitors throughout the body, this invaluable resource will help advance the research and development of safer and more effective COX drugs.
Epigenetics is the study of both heritable and non-heritable changes in the regulation of gene activity and expression that occur without an alteration in the DNA sequence. This dynamic and rapidly developing discipline is making its impact across the biomedical sciences, in particular in toxicology where epigenetic differences can mean that different individuals respond differently to the same drug or chemical. Toxicology and Epigenetics reflects the multidimensional character of this emerging area of toxicology, describing cutting-edge molecular technologies to unravel epigenetic changes, the use of in vivo and in vitro models, as well as the potential use of toxicological epigenetics in regulatory environments. An international team of experts consider the interplay between epigenetics and toxicology in a number of areas, including environmental, nutritional, pharmacological, and computational toxicology, nanomaterials, proteomics and metabolomics, and cancer research. Topics covered include: environment, epigenetics and diseases DNA methylation and toxicogenomics chromatin at the intersection of disease and therapy epigenomic actions of environmental arsenicals environment, epigenetics and cardiovascular health toxicology, epigenetics and autoimmunity ocular epigenomics: potential sites of environmental impact in development and disease nuclear RNA silencing and related phenomena in animals epigenomics – impact for drug safety sciences methods of global epigenomic profiling transcriptomics: applications in epigenetic toxicology Toxicology and Epigenetics is an essential insight into the current trends and future directions of research in this rapidly expanding field for investigators, toxicologists, risk assessors and regulators in academia, industry and government.
The vast majority of modern criminal investigations involve some element of digital evidence, from mobile phones, computers, CCTV and other devices. Digital Forensics: Digital Evidence in Criminal Investigations provides the reader with a better understanding of how digital evidence complements “traditional” scientific evidence and examines how it can be used more effectively and efficiently in a range of investigations. Taking a new approach to the topic, this book presents digital evidence as an adjunct to other types of evidence and discusses how it can be deployed effectively in support of investigations. The book provides investigators/SSMs/other managers with sufficient contextual and technical information to be able to make more effective use of digital evidence sources in support of a range of investigations. In particular, it considers the roles played by digital devices in society and hence in criminal activities. From this, it examines the role and nature of evidential data which may be recoverable from a range of devices, considering issues relating to reliability and usefulness of those data. Includes worked case examples, test questions and review quizzes to enhance student understanding Solutions provided in an accompanying website Includes numerous case studies throughout to highlight how digital evidence is handled at the crime scene and what can happen when procedures are carried out incorrectly Considers digital evidence in a broader context alongside other scientific evidence Discusses the role of digital devices in criminal activities and provides methods for the evaluation and prioritizing of evidence sources Includes discussion of the issues surrounding modern digital evidence examinations, for example; volume of material and its complexity Clear overview of all types of digital evidence Digital Forensics: Digital Evidence in Criminal Investigations is an invaluable text for undergraduate students taking either general forensic science courses where digital forensics may be a module or a dedicated computer/digital forensics degree course. The book is also a useful overview of the subject for postgraduate students and forensic practitioners.
Get federal investigative insight and guidance on conducting thorough investigations and case-building The ability to conduct thorough and effective investigations is a skill that has become increasingly in-demand across many industries. At the same time, investigative resources are dwindling as markets recede. Regulation and financial hurdles impede traditional investigation processes. Even seasoned professionals are finding themselves overtasked or lacking the experience to pursue the types of cases that are accumulating. In Investigator and Fraud Fighter Guidebook: Operation War Stories, author Charles E. Piper, CFE provides insight and guidance on how to conduct thorough and complete investigations while juggling a caseload. Piper served over 30 years in law enforcement-including 20 as an award-winning Federal Special Agent-Criminal Investigator. His wide array of experience allows him to lend a high-level perspective to the art and science of professional investigations of criminal, civil, and administrative cases. In the book, Piper provides guidance on conducting thorough and complete investigations (even with fewer resources) and spotting red flags that often indicate big-picture problems. Piper also shows how to: Identify the suspect's other wrongful acts (similar and otherwise) Identify similar wrongful acts committed by others, and predict future occurrences Identify systemic weaknesses, waste, and abuse Identify changes and corrections necessary to prevent future occurrences The book includes Piper's real-life investigative examples to illustrate important concepts. Whether the matter is public, private, or military, the same basic investigative principles apply. Things that may seem totally unrelated may hold the keys that crack the cases. The Investigator and Fraud Fighter Guidebook: Operation War Stories provides the acumen and judgment required to pick up on these clues and successfully conclude investigations.
This book examines genotoxic impurities and their impact on the pharmaceutical industry. Specific sections examine this from both a toxicological and analytical perspective. Within these sections, the book defines appropriate strategies to both assess and ultimately control genotoxic impurities, thus aiding the reader to develop effective control measures. An opening section covers the development of guidelines and the threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) and is followed by a section on safety aspects, including safety tests in vivo and vitro, and data interpretation. The second section addresses the risk posed by genotoxic impurities from outside sources and from mutagens within DNA. In the final section, the book deals with the quality perspective of genotoxic impurities focused on two critical aspects, the first being the analysis and the second how to practically evaluate the impurities.
Steroid dimers are an important group of compounds produced by various marine organisms, and also synthesized in the laboratories. This group of compounds possesses various pharmacological and biological properties, and can also be used to create “molecular umbrellas” for drug delivery. Steroid Dimers: Chemistry and Applications in Drug Design and Delivery provides an up-to-date overview on the chemistry and applications of steroid dimers of natural and synthetic origins. The book includes easy-to-follow synthetic protocols for various classes of important dimeric steroids, source details, valuable spectroscopic data and depiction of unique structural features of natural steroidal dimers, and the Structure-Activity-Relationships (SARs) of some pharmacologically active dimeric steroids. Topics covered include: introduction to steroid dimers synthesis and chemistry of noncyclic and cyclic steroid dimers naturally occurring steroid dimers – cephalostatins, ritterazines and crellastatins biological and pharmacological functions of steroid dimers and their application in drug design and discovery steroid dimers as “molecular umbrellas” for drug delivery Steroid Dimers: Chemistry and Applications in Drug Design and Delivery is an essential guide to this important class of natural and synthetic compounds for researchers and students of natural products chemistry and biochemistry, synthetic organic and medicinal chemistry, and drug design, discovery and delivery.
As life expectancy increases and population ages, the already enormous impact of neurodegeneration on society will become even larger without better prevention and treatment. Developing strategies to prevent degeneration of neurons and to promote a healthy nervous system is, thus, critical. The development of pharmacological agents that would increase production of new neurons was recently facilitated by the identification of the hormonal regulators of various steps of adult neurogenesis. The proposed book is writen by a group of top world experts involved in the study of the mechanisms of hormonal control of brain damage and repair. The effects of thyroid and steroid hormones (estrogens, androgens, progestins, gluco-mineralo-corticoids, various neurosteroids) or polypeptide hormones (CRF, urocortins, somatostastin, GH/IGF, leptin, prolactin, PACAP, erythropoetin) on neuronal survival and neurogenesis in various neurodegenerative conditions and in brain aging will be discussed in detail. The proposed book is unique because it gives a comprehensive account of the neuroprotective and neurogenic effects of steroid and polypeptide hormones. Furthermore, new pharmacological approaches for treatment of neurodegenerative conditions are presented, based on the neuroprotective and neurogenic properties of natural and synthetic hormones.
Wildlife Forensics: Methods and Applications provides an accessible and practical approach to the key areas involved in this developing subject. The book contains case studies throughout the text that take the reader from the field, to the lab analysis to the court room, giving a complete insight into the path of forensic evidence and demonstrating how current techniques can be applied to wildlife forensics. The book contains approaches that wildlife forensic investigators and laboratory technicians can employ in investigations and provides the direction and practical advice required by legal and police professionals seeking to gain the evidence needed to prosecute wildlife crimes. The book will bring together in one text various aspects of wildlife forensics, including statistics, toxicology, pathology, entomology, morphological identification, and DNA analysis. This book will be an invaluable reference and will provide investigators, laboratory technicians and students in forensic Science/conservation biology classes with practical guidance and best methods for criminal investigations applied to wildlife crime. Includes practical techniques that wildlife forensic investigators and laboratory technicians can employ in investigations. Includes case studies to illustrate various key methods and applications. Brings together diverse areas of forensic science and demonstrates their application specifically to the field of wildlife crime. Contains methodology boxes to lead readers through the processes of individual techniques. Takes an applied approach to the subject to appeal to both students of the subject and practitioners in the field. Includes a broad introduction to what is meant by 'wildlife crime', how to approach a crime scene and collect evidence and includes chapters dedicated to the key techniques utilized in wildlife investigations. Includes chapters on wildlife forensic pathology; zooanthropological techniques; biological trace evidence analysis; the importance of bitemark evidence; plant and wildlife forensics; best practices and law enforcement.
In this provocatively compelling new book, Michael Luntley offers a revolutionary reading of the opening section of Wittgenstein’s Philosophical Investigations Critically engages with the most recent exegetical literature on Wittgenstein and other state-of-the-art philosophical work Encourages the re-incorporation of Wittgenstein studies into the mainstream philosophical conversation Has profound consequences for how we go on to read the rest of Wittgenstein’s major work Makes a significant contribution not only to the literature on Wittgenstein, but also to studies in philosophy of language
Having worked with Erik on some of the most challenging computer forensic investigations during the early years of this industry's formation as well as having competed with him earnestly in the marketplace…I can truly say that Erik is one of the unique pioneers of computer forensic investigations. He not only can distill complex technical information into easily understandable concepts, but he always retained a long-term global perspective on the relevancy of our work and on the impact of the information revolution on the social and business structures of tomorrow. —From the Foreword by James Gordon, Managing Director, Navigant Consulting, Inc. Get the knowledge you need to make informed decisions throughout the computer forensic investigation process Investigative Computer Forensics zeroes in on a real need felt by lawyers, jurists, accountants, administrators, senior managers, and business executives around the globe: to understand the forensic investigation landscape before having an immediate and dire need for the services of a forensic investigator. Author Erik Laykin—leader and pioneer of computer forensic investigations—presents complex technical information in easily understandable concepts, covering: A primer on computers and networks Computer forensic fundamentals Investigative fundamentals Objectives and challenges in investigative computer forensics E-discovery responsibilities The future of computer forensic investigations Get the knowledge you need to make tough decisions during an internal investigation or while engaging the capabilities of a computer forensic professional with the proven guidance found in Investigative Computer Forensics.
Written by a leading expert on Aspirin-related research, this is the first comprehensive treaty of the history, pharmacological effects and clinical applications of one of the most successful drugs ever. The text is written with a wide audience in mind and to be readily understandable for clinicians as well as biomedical researchers and pharmacologists alike. The content is up to date and includes the latest results of clinical and academic research, with a balanced view on the disputed properties of this famous drug.
Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide commercially produced by the deacetylation of chitin. It is non-toxic, biodegradable, biocompatible, and acts as a bioadhesive with otherwise unstable biomolecules – making it a valuable component in the formulation of biopharmaceutical drugs. Chitosan-Based Systems for Biopharmaceuticals provides an extensive overview of the application of chitosan and its derivatives in the development and optimisation of biopharmaceuticals. The book is divided in four different parts. Part I discusses general aspects of chitosan and its derivatives, with particular emphasis on issues related to the development of biopharmaceutical chitosan-based systems. Part II deals with the use of chitosan and derivatives in the formulation and delivery of biopharmaceuticals, and focuses on the synergistic effects between chitosan and this particular subset of pharmaceuticals. Part III discusses specific applications of chitosan and its derivatives for biopharmaceutical use. Finally, Part IV presents diverse viewpoints on different issues such as regulatory, manufacturing and toxicological requirements of chitosan and its derivatives related to the development of biopharmaceutical products, as well as their patent status, and clinical application and potential. Topics covered include: chemical and technological advances in chitins and chitosans useful for the formulation of biopharmaceuticals physical properties of chitosan and derivatives in sol and gel states absorption promotion properties of chitosan and derivatives biocompatibility and biodegradation of chitosan and derivatives biological and pharmacological activity of chitosan and derivatives biological, chemical and physical compatibility of chitosan and biopharmaceuticals approaches for functional modification or crosslinking of chitosan use of chitosan and derivatives in conventional biopharmaceutical dosage forms manufacture techniques of chitosan-based microparticles and nanoparticles for biopharmaceuticals chitosan and derivatives for biopharmaceutical use: mucoadhesive properties chitosan-based systems for mucosal delivery of biopharmaceuticals chitosan-based delivery systems for mucosal vaccination chitosan-based nanoparticulates for oral delivery of biopharmaceuticals chitosan-based systems for ocular delivery of biopharmaceuticals chemical modification of chitosan for delivery of DNA and siRNA target-specific chitosan-based nanoparticle systems for nucleic acid delivery functional PEGylated chitosan systems for biopharmaceuticals stimuli-sensitive chitosan-based systems for biopharmaceuticals chitosan copolymers for biopharmaceuticals application of chitosan for anti-cancer biopharmaceutical delivery chitosan-based biopharmaceuticals scaffolds in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine wound healing properties of chitosan and its use in wound dressing biopharmaceuticals toxicological properties of chitosan and derivatives for biopharmaceutical applications regulatory status of chitosan and derivatives patentability and intellectual property issues quality control and good manufacturing practice preclinical and clinical use of chitosan and derivatives for biopharmaceuticals Chitosan-Based Systems for Biopharmaceuticals is an important compendium of fundamental concepts, practical tools and applications of chitosan-based biopharmaceuticals for researchers in academia and industry working in drug formulation and delivery, biopharmaceuticals, medicinal chemistry, pharmacy, bioengineering and new materials development.
A practical, hands-on guide to forensic accounting Careers in forensic accounting are hot-US News & World Report recently designated forensic accounting as one of the eight most secure career tracks in America., Forensic accountants work in most major accounting firms and demand for their services is growing with then increasing need for investigations of mergers and acquisitions, tax inquiries, and economic crime. In addition, forensic accountants perform specialized audits, and assist in all kinds of civil litigation, and are often involved in terrorist investigations. Forensic Accounting For Dummies will track to a course and explain the concepts and methods of forensic accounting. Covers everything a forensic accountant may face, from investigations of mergers and acquisitions to tax inquiries to economic crime What to do if you find or suspect financial fraud in your own organization Determining what is fraud and how to investigate Whether you're a student pursuing a career in forensic accounting or just want to understand how to detect and deal with financial fraud, Forensic Accounting For Dummies has you covered.