PET does not create a direct hazard to the environment, but due to its substantial fraction by volume in the waste stream and its high resistance to the atmospheric and biological agents, it is seen as a noxious material. Unsaturated polyester (UP) resin based on recycling PET is widely used for the matrix of composites such as fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) and polymer concrete (PC). Consequently, inexpensive and high performance resins are important for the future of polymer composites. One recent method for enhancing the performance of polymer composites are the manufacture of MMT (montmorillonite)-UP nanocomposite synthesized by intercalating the UP resin into the silicate layers of MMT. This study investigates the mechanical and thermal properties of UP-MMT nanocomposites. The structures of UP-MMT nanocomposite were investigated by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Test results indicate that the mechanical, barrier and thermal stability properties of UP-MMT nanocomposites are better than those of pure UP. Improved performance of UP is very important for polymer concrete.
Electricity is needed every where after its invention by Edison. It is called the prime mover of a nation. Bangladesh is a developing country and it is facing huge energy crisis. Modern life and its supporting activities are impossible without proper supply of electricity at a reasonable price. To achieve desirable performance and viability of the sector, there is no alternative to bring down the system loss to an acceptable limit. Two economic growth scenarios (Low Scenario and Reference Scenario) were considered to forecast future energy demands. To ensure the electricity supply to all by 2021, the government is considering an optimum energy supply mix of gas, oil, coal, hydro, wind, nuclear and solar energy. Nuclear power is the only way with which we can solve the power problem permanently. If we remain unable to produce nuclear power, this would create a great trouble for us, because of limited reserve of natural gas and limitation of coal mining. We can''t get rid of single fuel dependency overnight. The analysis should help the concerned authority to make changes their decisions towards the development of Bangladesh.
Writing and submitting an acceptance research proposal is not a simple task and can be exasperating experience even for the most accomplished and experienced researchers. For most graduate students pursuing masters and PhD,the time for producing a research proposal and final dissertation is considered as a period of agony and utmost suffering.In most cases out rightly detest the whole idea of writing and submitting a proposal because the whole business seems to be too complex to accomplish.Arguably,in most Universities in Africa the time for producing a dissertation/thesis proposal and its final report is probably the most frustrating moment.However,despite all these challenges associated in writing a dissertation/thesis,there are still some students who write and submit acceptable dissertation proposals within the shortest time possible or within recommended time period.Students even produce their own proposals and final dissertations well before the officially stipulated time.The purpose of this book is to guide how students can successfully write their proposals.
The book largely deals with the small tea growers of Assam.Since i am a Tea Science gradutae i was deeply concerned after reading about the problems faced by them that keeps coming in the newspaper The Assam Tribune.As such i wanted to do something and while thinking what can be done the idea came to my mind that i can write a book on them.So i took up this work .Firstly the book gives an idea about the genesis of small tea cultivation in Assam state,then the present day scenario.Then the book mentions about the responsibilities of them and also the conditions that needs to be kept by them while going for tea plantation.Then the book gives an outline of the problems faced by them and also gives a list of solutions offered by various agencies and also by the author.Then the book mentions about the procedure of getting a small tea garden registered and also some figures related to small tea cultivation.Then the book also mentions about the cost of cultivation scheme for small tea cultivation.Then the book also gives an outline of the bought leaf tea manufacturers also in the end .
The present work was aimed at the development of clay-based composite as an adsorbent that it can be used in the removal of chlorophenols by adsorption to obtain equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamic parameters. The bentonite were characterized by XRD, XRF, FTIR spectroscopy, SEM and EDS. The polymethylacrylate-bentonite nanocomposite were used to study their ability to scavenge chlorophenols from aqueous solutions. Equilibration time, pH effect and initial chlorophenols concentration preceded the detailed extraction study. The dynamic data fitted to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model well. The experimental data at three temperatures (25, 35 and 45 ±0.1 ?C) for the nanobentonite and polymethylacrylate-bentonite nanocomposite for the removal of chlorophenols were obtained. The Freundlich isotherm model agrees well with the equilibrium experimental data. The thermodynamic values of ?G? are Positives in each system; indicating a nonspontaneous process. Negative value of ?H? and ?S? for polymethylacrylate-bentonite nanocomposite indicates an exothermic process and decrease of disorder of the process. The adsorption capacity for chlorophenols increase with the decrease of pH.
The field of orthodontics has straddled the barrier separating oral health care and elective cosmetology. While societal and cultural habits and practices have shifted toward facial and anterior tooth esthetics, orthodontists have continued to view the primary goal of orthodontics as correcting tooth alignment and occlusion.Although some have questioned the rationale for Evidence-based orthodontics and the opportunities associated with this approach, it is clear that the evidence-based approach raises questions about how knowledge base has been incorporated into orthodontics, both in academicia and clinical practice.The objective of this book is to analyse the current scenario and conclude that if methods of evidence-based orthodontics are followed appropriately, there is less potential for bias by researchers, academicians and other experts.
Modern precision laboratory procedures have a profound edge over traditional laboratory procedures in fabricating more ideal and precise restorations. Electrical discharge machining (EDM, known as spark erosion in Europe),is one such procedure and is a non conventional, industrial technique that has which has gained momentum in the dental field from the 1990's. EDM is a metal removal process using a series of sparks to erode material from a work piece in a liquid medium under carefully controlled conditions.This book deals mainly with its applications in dentistry.
The work recorded in this book is aimed at providing all round information on HIV/AIDS, like its History, Discovery, Origin, Sign and Symptoms, Transmission, Virology, Diagnosis, Prevention, its Economic impacts and Researches on HIV/AIDS. It is hoped that this book will serve as a reference to staffs and students of microbiology and other related disciplines. It is written for educational and information purpose only.
Diabetes mellitus is the major metabolic disorder being faced throughout the world. The various types of diabetes are being reported with different type of symptoms and causes. To combat this metabolic disorder which has a number of complications associated with it various therapeutic molecules are available. But till date this disorder is not cureable with the available therapies. So there is still need for the invention of new molecules to overcome this disorder along with its complications with the help of various existing experimental animal models.
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) has been referred to in the medical literature for centuries. Trigeminal neuralgia is the most common neurologic cause of facial pain. The first step is to make the correct diagnosis. Initial therapy should be low-dose carbamazepine, with upward titration of the dose to relief of pain. Baclofen is a good choice for second-line therapy. Most patients will respond to anticonvulsant therapy, but its effectiveness decreases with time. Newer medications have shown promise, but none has been shown to be more effective than carbamazepine and need not be used for firstline therapy. Effective surgical options are available for cases that do not respond to medical treatment. There are serious risks associated with the surgical procedures, which should be reserved for the most resistant cases of TN.
Aircraft drag reduction is a great challenge but there is certainly room for improvements. The drag breakdown of a civil transport aircraft shows that the skin friction drag and the lift-induced drag constitute the two main sources of drag, approximately one half and one third of the total drag for a typical long range aircraft at cruise conditions. This is why specific research on this topics have been initiated and it seems that Hybrid Laminar Flow technology and innovative wing tip devices offer the greatest potential. The aim of this review manuscript is to highlight the state of the art in aeronautical drag reduction, and also describe several emerging drag-reduction approaches that are either active or reactive/interactive.
Our past is a series of lessons that advance us to higher levels of living and loving. The relationships we entered or ended taught us necessary lessons.Community Policing requires the responsibility that falls to every police officer regardless of role or rank, as policing cannot be successful in their objectives without the full cooperation of the community but such cooperation will not be forthcoming without significant efforts to change community perceptions of police.It will be useful for research students,scholars &police all over the world.Thanks
Post Harvest losses of Agricultural Materials are abnormal from last two decades in developing countries. Drying is one of the best methods used traditionally for preservation of food products. Sun Drying is oldest method used for drying agricultural materials because sun is best energy source for under developed and developing countries. Solar dryers are most efficient dryers for developing countries due to costing. Recently many solar dryers developed worldwide with proper feasibility of different materials.Nowadays Photo voltaic and heat pump solar dryers are more efficient.
The content describes some of the technologies of Industries to produce nanomedicine in order solve problem of insolubility, or low bioavailability, and increase the therapeutic efficacy of the drug along with the equipment and methodology to produce them. It also summaries the merits and demerits of technology.The five blockbuster marketed products manufactured by nanotechnology are also discussed here.This book shall prove to be useful for the pharmaceutical scholars who are interested in patented technologies for manufacturing for nanomedicines.
Like it or not, we live in a beauty conscious society. The advertising community has always pushed the idea that ‘beautiful is better’. Esthetics is now a catchword among people. Self improvement is no longer the domain of the rich and the famous. Nor is it considered a sign of self - indulgence or vanity. Quite contrary, taking steps to improve one’s appearance today is considered an investment in health and well being, and it is as socially acceptable as personally gratifying.With their ever increasing awareness about the need to look good (read normal) “at all times”, even a speciality like orthodontics which had traditionally given more importance to treatment objectives than anything else had to rethink its approach towards such patients.Gone are those days when alignment of teeth was considered a treatment only for children and adolescents. With more and more adults opting for orthodontic treatment,these adults have special esthetic demand as regards their orthodontics treatment and don’t want visible braces and Lingual Orthodontics caters to this segment. This book is an overview of various aspects of Lingual Orthodontic treatment.