This monograph studies the variation in performance of firms from the ‘embeddedness'' perspective. In three chapters, we independently investigate how the embedded reality and the context - which includes a firm''s value net, stakeholders, and other socio-economic factors - do affect its profit potential. The first chapter deals with the issue of measuring profit potential of firms in economic networks. In this chapter, we develop an index called ‘nodal power'' and study how inter-firm dependencies among firms in the embedded structure affect their profit potential. The next chapter focuses on how change in structural characteristics and/or relational content affects firms'' economic performance. Especially, we investigate how strong relationships contribute to value appropriation. In the third chapter, we present a case survey on CSR actions, internalization, and competitive advantage to show why and how some firms gain from CSR actions while others do not. This monograph should help strategy scholars and practitioners to appreciate how a firm''s socio-economic embeddedness and the nature of interactions therein affect its economic performance.
With the economic growth post - financial slowdown, the industrial expansion has augmented the energy demand, raising the ambitions and goal of the developing societies. The oil firms, specifically Indian have been growing but with mixed results, where the future energy relations between India and the Middle East & Africa are going to be significantly influenced by its performance. The book analyzes the performance of the Indian oil firm with the help of a SWOT analysis. India enjoys historical and civilizational linkages with the region which indeed provides a source of strength, but the legacy as a baggage also acts as a cause of weakness. Indian oil firms are trying to act together, to increase their leverage. In order to leverage India's buying power, Indian oil firms as well as multinational corporations such as British Petroleum, ExxonMobil, British Gas and Sodeco of Japan have teamed up together in overseas projects. The volume does a micro - study of Indian NOCs strategy and its performance towards acquiring overseas assets in Qatar, Nigeria, Sudan, Libya and Angola.
Nigeria Small Scale Enterprise(SSE) sector is largely underdeveloped due to financial constraints. Therefore, this study (i) examined the socio-economic characteristics of small scale entrepreneurs (ii) evaluated factors influencing their access to use of credit from formal and informal credit institution (iii) investigated the characteristics of their demand for credit and (iv) analyzed their credit constraints. Stratified sampling technique was employed to select 350 respondents in the study area as the small-scale enterprises were scattered all over the study area in form of one man businesses, family businesses and cooperative societies. The objectives were addressed using (i) descriptive statistics (ii) multinomial logit regression (iii) probit and tobit models. The results showed that demand for credit is strongly influenced by gender, age, education, location, value of assets owned and other dwelling characteristics at 1%, 5% and 10% level of significant. Moreso, the availability of different sources of credit has impact on demand for credit.
Oil multinationals and Social Responsibility in Niger Delta, Nigeria: Evaluating Poverty Reduction Interventions is more or less a seminal work that is designed to examine the frosty relationship between oil multinationals and host communities. The book investigates the factors determining the scale of social responsibility of oil firms; it evaluates the impact of development interventions on poverty reduction and assesses the perceptions of host communities vis-a-vis the community development programmes of oil multinationals. The audacious empirical analyses in the book reveals that the social responsibility initiatives of foreign oil firms, in general, leaves little to be desired. However, the recommendations contained herein, if implemented, can reverse the violence, militancy and youth restiveness in oil bearing communities and provide the social license required for profitable and sustainable oil production in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. This will in turn impact positively on the international oil market.
This book examined the relationship between earnings management and performance of acquiring firms in Malaysia during period of 2004-2010. Earnings management measured by discretionary accruals derived from modified Jones model and firm’s performance estimated by monthly Cumulative Abnormal Return. Firms are selected from both listed cash and share acquirers firms on Bursa Malaysia in the period of 2004-2010. This study consists of two steps. In the first step, it examines whether acquirer firms manipulate their earnings prior to acquisition announcement dates and in the second step, it measures the effects of earnings management on performance of acquirer firms by means of simple regression. The results indicated that share acquirer firms unlike cash acquirers manipulated their earnings preceding acquisition announcement date. Furthermore, they presented a negative relationship between earnings management preceding and performance of firms following the acquisition date for share acquirer firms.
Commercial banks are widely recognized as financial institutions that mobilize, allocate, and invest much of every economy savings. Conversely, their activities have substantive repercussions on capital allocation, firm growth, industrial expansion, and economic development. In recent years, the consolidation of banks around the globe has intensified public debates on the influences of market concentration on banking performance. In Nigeria, the CBN 2005 consolidation policy and recapitalization policy as well as post-consolidation reforms have not only led to reduction in the numbers of commercial banks but has also ensured re-alignment of market shares from the “traditional big three” and banking quality. Thus, its implication over banking performance was examined using ten commercial banks listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange market within the period of 1998-2010. It was observed that the industry is static and collusive in nature, mainly driven by minimum capital base and not service rendered and/or technological innovation, which have led to low rate of entry and high exit. The study provides policy implications based on the outcomes that could move the industry forward.
The book examined Primary Health Care in Nigeria with the aim of finding out whether the Alma-Ata declarations have been achieved .The various contributions of the three tiers of government and international donor agencies were examined in terms of finance, infrastructure and regulations.The study observed that major health indices such as health education, immunization,water and sanitation,maternal and child health care were very low.Health and economic growth were found in Nigeria to be moving in opposite direction.The author has drawn heavily on the writings of a vast galaxy of Health Economists and Health Practitioners who have done much to enrich the subject matter of Primary Health Care within the last two decades.It provides a robust study material for the undergraduate and graduate students on Primary Health Care issues.Practitioners in the field of health and related courses will also find the book useful.
A few decades ago, market issues were the centralfocus of executive suites and the academia. However,recent developments appear to be increasingly drawingattention to softer issues including the design,deployment and sustainability of employee performancemanagement systems as a means of institutingtransparent corporate performance tracking platforms,that seek to meet the expectation of keystakeholders, while ensuring competitive corporatepositioning. This book is a monograph that presentsan updated extension of the Newman (2008) study whichproposed integrated employee performance managementas a phenomenon that could influence practices and possibly lead to generation of a newconcept on the subject. Given that Nigeria is agrowing Next Eleven [N-11] country with veryinteresting developments in the economy and financialservices sector generally, corporate executives and members ofthe academia with interests in improving currentpractices while expanding boundaries of knowledge onthe subject of the employee performance managementwould find this book interesting and useful.
The purpose of this study is to analyse the performance of insurance firms whilst adapting to external shocks and changes in regulations imposed by Solvency II, bearing in mind strategic redirection and organisational learning, risk management, control systems, characteristics of top management teams and past performance. We will base our analysis on information provided from both the annual reports of the firms and their financial data. The results indicate that some of the measures we analyse will link to the performance, redirection and learning of the insurance firms. The performance of the firm is affected by environmental factors. Managers have the task to redirect the strategy of the firm in accordance to the requirements of a changing environment, and thereby adapt and learn. There are several examples from the relation between a firm’s strategic redirection and organisational learning with performance. In the case of insurances, recent changes in regulations imposed by Solvency II resulted in a need for adaptation in order to comply with the new standards.
Discover the four traits of the best performing, but least known, breakout firms in BRIC countries «Rough diamonds» are the best performing firms in the BRIC (Brazil-Russia-India-China) countries. These firms compare favorably with the top 500 firms and the top 25 manufacturing firms in their countries and comparable firms worldwide, exceeding them profit margins and return on assets over an extended time period. This book outlines who these firms are and explains their exemplary performance through the Four Cs for Sustaining High Performance: Capitalizing on late development; Creating Market Inclusive Niches; Crafting Operational Excellence; and Cultivating Profitable Growth. Offers a description of the four major traits that high performance companies in Brazil, Russia, India and China have in common Contains company profiles from BRIC countries that have proved to be successful Written Sam Park the president at Skolkovo-Ernst & Young for Emerging Market Studies and Chair Professor of Strategy at Moscow School of Management Skolkovo This important resource outlines the four traits of the best performing, but least known, breakout firms in BRIC countries.
State, Society, and Privatization in Turkey, 1929– 1990
This book examines the effect of divorce on academic performance of students in some selected secondary schools in idi-Ayunre local government in Ibadan Oyo state. This is with a view of enlightening people about negative consequences of divorce on children's academic performance The study adopts a self developed questionnaire as an instrument of data collection. Non-experimental research design was used to obtain answers to the research question. The sample size which consists of 200 students with fifty each from four selected schools in the study area was derived through stratified random sampling technique. Data collected was analyzed using frequency and percentages. The study revealed high correlation between marital status and students’ performance in school. it was, therefore, suggested that the society should embrace cultural and religious value that protect the institution of marriage and couple should try as much as possible to tolerate and respect each other so that divorce rates could be reduce to the barest minimal
The efficiency and productivity performance of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) has been in questioned for years until now. Not only because they owned by the government, but also because they must adhere to multiple goals,such as serve the public interest, known as social goals and business goal. This condition makes it unfair to compare their performance to their counterparts: private firms. This book provides a decent method to evaluate SOEs, so their performance be comparable to the private ones. The method provides a tool for measuring and evaluating firm’s performance beyond those available from accounting ratios measure, that are not sufficient to judge efficiency. Therefore the author also adopted production efficiency measures for performance assessment of state and private firms,using the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Therefore, it is possible to compare these different types of firms. This ratio is thought to be superior to the use of common productivity measures from financial ratios, which is often partial productivity without controlling the effect of capital productivity.
From Human Resource Point of view, Intellectual Capital is an Investment in the organization and it is perceived to be strategic resource and a source of competitive advantage and therefore not indicated on the statement of the financial position of the firm. Intellectual Capital in conventional accounting is indicated as a cost rather than an investment. The purpose of this book is to show the relationship between Intellectual Capital Accounting and Business Performance of Pharmaceutical Firms in Kenya and why these firms do not account for human resources as competitive and strategic assets which offer firms a competitive advantage.
Understanding and explaining the performance differences among organisations have always been a central goal of strategic management research.The strategic management literature indicates two main theoretical streams to explain the performance differences among firms: industrial organisation (I/O) economics and resource-based view (RBV). Whilst the industrial organisation economics view theorises that performance variation of firms should be attributed to the structural characteristics of the industries in which they operate, another stream RBV explains the performance differences among firms in relation to internal or firm specific factors.Hence, while not altogether excluding industry structure, the RBV considers the internal, idiosyncratic resources as the most important factors to explain the performance variation among firms competing within the same industry. The RBV has substantially grounded the understanding of the differences in the performance levels of the firms and has emerged as a very popular theoretical perspective. This book aims to investigate the RBV in all its aspects.