This monograph is a very timely publication as it highlights the very important issue of Food Quality and Safety especially for the developing countries plagued by food shortages, food contamination and nutritional deficiencies. Research findings reveal a strong possibility of providing safe and nutritious food from pesticide contaminated legumes using simple domestic processing techniques. Infact this study provides valuable insights into the complex issue of food quality and safety. Germination can serve as a simple technique for naturally fortifying legumes with essential minerals and vitamins. Presence of pesticide residues may also hamper the bioavailability and assimilation of micronutrients by human body. Therefore in depth investigation on effect of different pesticides commonly used in grain storage systems on food safety and bioavailability of micronutrients is an important research area. In view of contamination of food resulting in numerous health problems, dissipation of pesticide through processing techniques would prove a boon during the transient phase of agriculture system moving towards sustainable agriculture.
Chickpea contains good amount of nutrients like protein, fat, crude fiber, carbohydrate, energy, calcium, phosphorus, iron and B-complex vitamins. Presence of certain anti-nutritional factors like phytate, flavonoid and trypsin inhibitor reduces the nutritive value of chickpea by inhibiting digestibility. Various processing methods like soaking, dehulling, pressure cooking, roasting, germination and fermentation etc. are known to reduce the level of antinutrients.
Crop residues have high percentages of lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses in a macromolecular complex and this intricate association makes a barrier to these lignocelluloses utilization by the livestock. Hence, they have poor digestibility, low in protein and palatability. When the soil fungi are employed for the biodelignification, the nutritive value of the straw improved remarkably but the voluntary intake of the treated straw is very low. Various types of edible white-rot fungi available in the market are used for biodelignification of straws. P.ostreatus is found to degrade about 18% of lignin, 20% of cellulose and 40% of hemicelluloses with only 10% loss in the dry matter of the straw. As a result the IVDMD of the straw improved by 60% and the protein percentage by 10 folds. The effect of various inorganic and organic feed additives on the nutritive value of the straw and delignification ability of the organism emphasized that the nutritive value of the treated straw has tremendously increased by the combined effect of chemical and fungal treatments.Feed formulations are made using fungal treated straw, cereals, mill byproducts and oil cakes in proper proportions.
This book displays a vital and importance topic that is features more benefit related with producing new and functional products and solving environmental problems. Pumpkin one of the most important fruits that are characterized as rich in nutritional value and high health benefits. From the remnants of food processing produced in the world, high quantities of residues are presented and causes different environmental problems. This article will focus on the main medicinal properties and technologies of pumpkin and their residues. Also, deals with ways to utilize of pumpkin and their residues as antioxidants, antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer and antimutagenic as well as shows how to extract the phytochemical components such as phenolic, flavonoid and dietary fiber from pumpkin and their residues. Moreover, shows the medical uses for the extracted oil from pumpkin seeds. However, different applications of plant extracts from pumpkin fruits and their residues in food processing and human nutrition were presented.
This book contains 7 chapters.Chapter 1 concern with the introduction. chapter 2 showing the lieterature review. Chapter 3 is an experiment conducted to evaluate the effect of including different levels of raw seeds on broiler performance,carcass characteristics and plasma constituents. Chapter 4 examined the effect of processed cowpea by roasting and enzymes addition to seeds in attempt to reduced the anti nutritional factors that present in cowpea seeds on performance , carcass characteristics and plasma constituents of broiler chickens.Chapter 5 is an experiment in which we included different levels of cowpea seeds in layers diets to study their effects on layers performance, internal and external egg characteristics. Chapter 6 is an experiment in which we processed the seeds by roasting or enzymes addition and studied the effect on layers performance and egg characteristics. Chapter 7 is a general discussion
Vegetables are an inseparable part of our daily diet and the vast reserves of growth promoting factors. Among vegetables, tomato occupies a key position with respect to their usage in human diet and cultivated area. Vegetables are prone to insect attack and thus get spoiled easily. To combat insect-pests of these crops and to achieve higher production, many pesticides are used. Bifenthrin and ?-cyhalothrin are the two new pyrethroids which have been used extensively in fruits and vegetables. Common household processing such as washing, peeling, cooking, blanching, concentrating can reduce residue levels in food and then reduce impact on human health. Persistence behaviour and reduction of residues by processing is also affected by storage conditions. Keeping these facts in view, present study was carried out to know the persistence and effect of processing on reduction of bifenthrin and ?-cyhalothrin residues in tomato fruits at two different temperatures i.e. at room temperature and under refrigerated conditions.
Yogurt is a cultured, semisolid and curdled food product. It is made from fermented milk by a bacterium. Whereas, fruit yogurts are the milk products that are fermented by special cultures of lacto-bacteria. The consistency of fruit yogurts are jelly like and containing different types of fruits as additives and flavor. Four samples, in three replicates of fruit yogurt and fruit curd was prpared. The strwaberries were used to made fruit yogurt and curd. The purpose of the study was to examine the nutritional quality by proximate analysis and find out microbiological status by total bacterial and plate count of fruit yogurt and fruit curd. The variation in nutritive value and microbiological load among fresh and stored fruit yogurt were also evaluated. The resulting data had been subjected to analysis of variance.Significant results will be subjected and compared in this book.
It is very profound to observe the zenith scarcity of qualitative and quantitative feedstuffs for feeding large numbers of animals in the world especially in South Asian countries like Bangladesh. Rice straw is the basal and most common feed lacking available energy, protein, minerals and vitamins reduces voluntary intake and rate of digestion. So, Extensive research carried out and prioritizes for improving nutritive value of cereal straws using physical, chemical and biological treatments and we are in the new era of different technologies for succession of new feeding systems as well as want to be a part of feeding standard that should be furnished for. This experiment was conducted to study the effect of treatment of straw with urea and urease sources. Successfully, I found that addition of chickpea and midden soil improved nutritive value of rice straw in terms of nutrient composition, digestibility, TDN value, body weight gain and meat yield, reduced the rearing cost of animals significantly. Therefore, I want to make scope and opportunity for those animal rearers who are struggled with the roughage feeding and looking for innovation in livestock development.
As a result of crushing and processing hard rock, some unwanted fines, known as 'waste quarry dust', are generated. Accumulation of wastes has adverse environmental and financial effects. Currently, industry is investigating method of utilisation of such wastes in roads. In addition to giving the wastes an economic value, the idea will reduce the demand for the use of primary aggregates and the associated environmental and financial impacts of rock extraction. Content of this book can provide a full scientific guide for investigation on the feasibility of developing sustainable utilisations of waste materials in road pavements. Application of limestone dust in road base and subbase layers in corporation with two other industrial wastes of pulverised fuel ash (PFA) and air pollution control (APC) residues have been studied as an example in this book. Successful blend of PFA and APC residues created a slow-setting cement to stabilise the dust within aggregates and develop a novel, high quality material. The book also suggests the ways of investigating the philosophy behind the performance of the waste materials using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
The word biomass is the combination of two “Bio”, which is the prefix indicating the action of living organisms and the “Mass”, which is the matter in the body. The Waste Agricultural Biomass (WAB) is the agricultural residue, assorted as field residues and the process residues. It is a clean, renewable source of energy, and is one of the replacements of a non-renewable energy sources. This book focuses on the management, quantification, characterization and energy potential of WAB in district Sanghar of Pakistan, which is one of the largest districts of province Sindh. For characterization seven field residues and four process residues were collected and after processing as per standard methods they were analyzed for density, volatile and organic matters and calorific values. The volatiles and organic matters were determined by using Thermo Gravimetric Analyzer (TGA) and calorific value was determined by Adiabatic Bomb Calorimeter. A field survey was performed in order to know the status of WAB in each taulka of district Sanghar, on the basis of survey, total nine residues were identified for energy conversion stand point and their energy potential was determined.
Milk is one of the essential product in human diet, rich in nutritive components. Goat milk is of great economic concern to producers, manufacturers and consumers. The quality of milk is closely related to its physiochemical and biological composition. Both groups were comprised of eight samples each. Milk samples were collected and filtered. Filtrate of all samples were stored at -4°C in small aliquots. Spectrophotometer was used to measure total oxidant and total antioxidant status, thiocyanate, lipase activity and lactoperoxidase activity. Kit method was used to measure thyroid level, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase. Proximate analysis was done to compare the composition of goat milk during different stages of lactation. From present study it is concluded that parturition affect enzymatic activities and hormonal concentration in milk. It also affects oxidant and antioxidant level of milk on different stages. But there is no affect of parturition on nutritional value of milk. It remains unchanged after fifteen days and three months of parturition.
Diet selection is an important requirement for evaluating the effects of herbivores on their environments; this would increase understanding of plant–herbivore interactions and help to achieve optimal management strategies and profitable animal performance. The development of a sound understanding of diet selection will be a key to improving the management of pastures. Diet selection describes the decisions animals make with regard to the plant material (plant parts, plant species and patches) they choose. The aim of this book was to investigate how plants characteristics, chemistry and the nutritive value are relate to the diet selection patterns.
Total area of Egypt is about million Km2, about 97% desert and only 5% of the land area is actually occupied with less than 4% of the land is suitable for agriculture. Today, the biomass extractions are reused for a number of purposes, such as organic fertilization, energy production, forage and value-add products. For the utilization of biomass, a raw bio-material is selected among various kinds of biomass by taking into consideration of its utilization purpose, demand and availability. Then, the raw material is converted to new sustainable products. In Egypt, the Biomass comes mainly from plants and their debris as well as their industries. With intensive population as well as the introduction of modern technologies in the agricultural process, residues/wastes has become a burden because of the entailed destruction and pollution of the environment. The type and quantity of biomass in Egypt is locally varied from one year to another. However, there have been insuf?cient investigations regarding the production of biomass in Egypt and an analysis of existing and potential biomass sources will be required well before the start-up of sustainable production of such outcomes.
In Kenya the Tamarind fruits are not fully utilized despite their abundance in Nyanza, Rift valley, Coast and Eastern Provinces. Most of them go to waste. This work, intended to determine the composition of the fruit pulp from Mwingi, Kitui and Makueni districts in Ukambani,to enhance their utilization. Knowledge on the nutritive value could assume greater commercial importance as communities will be advised on supplement foods in cases where there is nutrient deficiency; and how to regulate the amounts where there is sufficiency. Its utilization as a food source in arid and semi – arid regions could therefore be based on a more sound scientific information. The edible portion of Tamarindus indica fruit (“Ukwaju” – Kiswahili) when analysed for its chemical and nutritional composition showed appreciable levels of all nutrients. With a potential of providing all nutritive ingredients, it can be be promoted as a food supplement in the Arid and semi - arid areas where it grows.
Meat consumption in developing countries has been continuously increasing. Quantitatively and qualitatively meat and other animal foods are better sources of protein than plant foods. Meat processing is the manufacture of meat products from muscle meat, animal fat and certain non-meat additives such as binders and extenders. Additives are used to increase the product volume. Additives are added to develop certain technological and quality characteristics in terms of taste, flavour, appearance, colour, texture, water binding, counteracting fat separation and preservation. Soybean powder, a plant protein can be used in cost reduction enabling the manufacture of low-cost but still nutritive meat products. Mixtures of seasonings can be used for enhancing the flavour of different meat products. Herbs such as dried mint leaves can be used as a natural flavouring agent in meat products.