The BGREI Programme made certain innovative beginnings for the first time in the history of technology transfer for crop production in India. These included the provision of “cluster approach” for organizing “Block Demonstrations. Another landmark comprised provision of cash doles to the beneficiary farmers to support the instant expenditure towards land preparation & deep ploughing and direct seeding/transplanting in lines in rice and line sowing in wheat as a component of the Block demonstrations of these crops. Deep ploughing and direct seeding/transplanting in rain-fed upland/lowland/irrigated rice cultivation and line sowing in wheat crop are recommended agronomic practices for improved productivity. These operations were hitherto not practiced by the farmers due to various pecuniary/structural reasons such as absence of financial inclusion, inability to repay loans, small size of holdings and lack of knowledge vibrancy. Besides these interventions, provision of flexibility in the form of “site specific needs” also helped the farmers as well as implementing departments in completing the agriculture operations most efficiently.
The management of rice productivity and soil salinity in the coastal areas of Bangladesh and other Asian countries needs special attention. Farmers are practicing some conventional methods to reduce the corrosive effect of soil salinity. The salinity reclamation related technologies are identified and tested. A single approach like use of Cyanobacteria may be a appropriate tool to address the problem. On the other hand a number of options have to be selected according to soil type, cropping pattern and available resources. It is desired through this dissertation and research work may be addressed for successful crop production under saline conditions.
Crop yield forecasting is an important aspect for a developing economy of a country so that adequate planning exercise is undertaken for sustainable growth and overall development of the country. Weather fluctuations affect crop yield significantly during different stages of crop growing season. The present book is the outcome of the research work carried out by the authoress during P.G. studies under the guidance of the co-author. The objective was to develop linear or/and non-linear models for forecasting the yield of rice on the basis of 19 years rice productivity data and six weather characteristics viz. temperature, rainfall, humidity, sunshine, wind velocity and evaporation. Bayesian analysis of the models is also performed. The findings of the study reveal that both the methods yield satisfactory results with a very high value of coefficient of prediction (almost 99%). The abovesaid models are applicable for estimating rice yield in the region of study and are not universally true, as the weather conditions may change from one region to another and may affect the yield of rice differently in different regions.
Rice is one of the most important food grains produced and consumed all over the world. It is the major staple food for more than two billion people in Asia and one third of the calorific intake of nearly one billion people of Africa and Latin America. Hence, rice can be rightly called as ‘The stuff of life’. Worldwide, rice is cultivated in an area of 153.8 m ha, which is more than 10 per cent of the arable land.Rice is adapted to various edaphic and climatic conditions. Rice is being cultivated from below sea level in Kuttanad of Kerala to higher altitudes as in Jammu and Kashmir revealing the heterogeneity of its environment and its different modes of cultivation. The semidry rice cultivation is prevalent in twenty per cent of rice area of our country with low productivity of one t ha-1, when compared with the normal productivity of transplanted rice, of about 5 t ha-1 (TNAU Annual report, 2000). In Tamil Nadu, semidry rice system is practiced in about one lakh hectares with a mean productivity of one t ha-1. Thus there is an imminent need to raise the level of productivity to narrow down the wide disparity.
This book is an outcome of research carried out for 4 years at Fergusson College, University of Pune (MS), India in association with Baykoula Research Centre, Neka, Mazandaran,IRAN. The research was focused on formulations of organic fertilizers and testing these fertilizers in rice farming system. The book encompasses five chapters pertaining to effect of organic fertilizers on rice productivity and soil properties. Chapter-I comprises a review on organic fertilizers, effects of organic fertilizer on rice growth, productivity,biochemicals and antioxidant enzymes as well as on soil minerals. Chapter-II incorporates effects of different formulations of organic fertilizer on rice growth and productivity. Chapter-III relates to influence of organic fertilizers on biochemical parameters and antioxidant enzymes. Chapter -IV relates to effects of organic fertilizer on soil properties. A brief summary is also included at the end. Different formulations of organic fertilizers and their effects on rice productivity and soil properties provide useful information to the students , teachers and researchers in the field of Botany and Agriculture and even to soil scientists.
India is the second largest producer of rice in the world. But as the rice productivity is concerned it is almost half of the world average rice productivity. In developing economies like India where resources are meager and opportunity for adopting capital intensive new technologies are limited, the best option to enhance productivity is by efficient use of the production resources as resource use efficiency is an identified important factor in enhancing the productivity level in agriculture crops. Several studies on resource use efficiency have been undertaken on paddy, wheat and other major crops sown in Punjab, but comparatively less work has been done on basmati rice which is an important crop with an area of 0.65 million hectares, in Punjab state.In Punjab’s present condition basmati rice seems to be a promising alternative of paddy, with its intensification as well as late planting not causing major damage to ground water resources due to occurrence of monsoon during sowing time. The present book will provide an insight to policy makers and researchers who can bring maximum possible gains for farmers of this region.
The main object of this book is to provide the knowledge to the poor marginal Rice growing farmers of West Bengal as Rice is the most important cereal crop in this state. But increasing in cost of cultivation in terms of fertilizer, pesticide as well as agriculture-labour the net profit gain of the poor rice growers are gradually decreasing. This book is providing the information regarding System of Rice Intensification (SRI) as an new alternative source of rice cultivation with increasing productivity and profit and minimizing the environmental hazard.
Nigeria has experienced rapid growth in per capita rice consumption during the last three decades. Local rice production has not kept up with the domestic consumption demands of the Nigerian populace in spite of the various policy measures. The enormity of the national demand for rice and the need to conserve foreign exchange has led to the urgent need to address the production constraints for increasing output to satisfy domestic consumption and even produce for export. Raising productivity per area of land is the key to achieving increased rice output. Policy measures that can enhance efficient management of resource utilization in rice production are pertinent for raising rice productivity. However, very little empirical literature exists on the measures for enhancing efficient management of resource utilization in rice production. This book, therefore, provides a useful guide on the measures for enhancing efficient management of resource utilization in rice production. This book should help shed some light on resource utilization in rice production and transformation of rice production, and should serve as a useful guide for food security policy and rice transformation agenda.
"Rice is Life" describes the importance of rice in food and nutritional security, as half of the world population depends on rice for their calorie requirements. The area under hybrid rice cultivation is very less when compared to the total area under rice cultivation. To meet the demands of increasing population and to maintain self sufficiency, the present production levels needs to be increased. This increase in production has to be achieved in the backdrop of declining and deteriorating resource base such as land, water, labour and other inputs and without adversely affecting the quality of environment. Use and deployment of semi dwarfing gene in rice during 1960’s ushered in an era of green revolution. However, the productivity has come to stagnation since last two decades and efforts have failed to give tangible results to break the genetic yield barrier in rice. Among the limited available options to increase production and productivity of rice, hybrid rice technology is the most practically feasible and readily adoptable.
This book Impact of Training the Trainers' Programme on Rice Farmers investigated the adoption and impact of improved rice packages on farmers. The book emphasises the significant and positive impact of participating in intervention programmes such as 'Training the Trainers' Programme' of USAID MARKETS programme in North Central Nigeria, for increase in productivity and income for alleviating poverty and consequently improved standard of living.
The research assesses the impact of Olam Out-Grower programme on rice farming to help improve rice production in Benue State. A sample size of 184 rice farmers comprising of 116 participating and 68 non-participating rice farmers of the programme was randomly selected. Using a ‘before’ and ‘during’ project approach the study has determined the change in farm yield, farm size under rice cultivation and income of rice farmers. The results reveal that there is 82.25% increase in land under rice cultivation while, the change in yield per hectare is 30.58% and the average income of rice farmers has improved by 60.95% in the area. The Coefficient of determination (R2) of productivity level by Olam Out-Grower intervention is 0.812 with improved seeds and the farm hecterage as the most significant predictors of the productivity achieved by participating rice farmers. Value chain analysis of the produced rice indicates that farmers’ earn only 10.04% of the total value, the large processors (including Olam Out-Grower) 40.64%, intermediaries (20.64%), small scale processors (6.98%) and exporters (21.65%).
Rice (oryza sativa L.) is the most important staple food crop for more than 60% of the global population and forms the cheapest source of food and energy. Rice occupies 44.80 million ha area with 99.180 million tones production which is 42.4% of total food grains and productivity of 2214 kg/ha, In Andhra Pradesh it is grown in an area of 43.75 lakh ha is under rice cultivation with a production of 14.210 lakh tones and productivity of 3248 kg/ha. Rice yields are low in Telangana region during rabi season. In Telangana region the low temperature vary from 8oC to 16o C starting from December to first fortnight of February. optimum day temperature before heading is 31o-32o C and optimum night temperature is 21o-22o C and in the period for 15 days after heading vary from 8o to 16oC. Even after about three decades of the release of variety Tella hamsa. It is ruling variety for its cold tolerance during seedling stage and no other varieties developed are able to replace it. To develop cold tolerant rice varieties and to increase the present levels of heterosis for yield and utilize genetically divergent parents for inter and intra sub-specific crosses in rice.
Rice cultivation has become less profitable in recent years due to increasing production cost and plateauing yield levels. Although direct seeding of rice in the low lands is a cost effective and labour saving method of crop establishment, excessive weed growth, leading to high production costs and low productivity, is a major constraint and it dramatically reduces the nutrient use efficiency. Scarcity and high costs of organic manures also constrain rice productivity. Concurrent growing and incorporation of green manure crops at 30 days after sowing either by cono weeding or by spraying herbicides could provide the organic manure requirement of rice besides reducing weed infestation of the crop field, which is a major problem in direct seeded rice culture. The peak nitrogen release from concurrently grown green manure crops coincides with the critical growth stages of rice, the panicle initiation stage, and thereby ensure availability of N at the critical stages and can reduce the N requirement up to 25% and increase the soil fertility status and the yield of succeeding transplanted rice crop. This technology is a cost effective practical model for sustainable rice production.
The historical productivity data at block level contained aggregated from various land use forms viz., upland, lowland and medium land situations. As such, it has been difficult to assess the exact influence of climatic parameters alone on productivity of the entire block, as the situations under lowland may be quite different compared to upland and medium land situations. Similar work at micro (block) level for other rainfed production systems can be useful in planning management strategies for enhancing productivity. The model underestimated the yield during 1989 for Derabasi and Rajanagar stations in Orissa and overestimated for other station for all the years of data recorded under high yield and low yield scenarios. There is a good agreement between the simulated and observed values for all the years of study in all the states selected for the study. The low yield in different state is attributed to the fairly high temperature during the reproductive stages. This indicated that the model output was significant for these stations also. Therefore, the model is able to predict the values of dry matter and yield for various blocks of Orissa state with good accuracy.
In Rice based cropping system after harvest of Rice crop left over stubbles not suitable for animal feed because it mixed mith mud so it could be converted as organic source of nutrients by introducing decomposing organisms. Livestock population is in diminishing trend and it caused lot of demand on Farm yard manure and recycling of Paddy stubbles is an viable alternative to supply nutrients as well as eco friendly.In Rabi rice cultivation low light intensity is an major concern for rice productivity. Foliar spray of growth harmone Brassinolide at panicle initiation and flowering stages to overcome low light intensity and increase the productivity of rice. Foliar spray of DAP,potassium chloride and Zinc sulphate to minimize the nutrient deficiency at critical stages of crop growth. Indescriminate use of nitrogen leads to losses in the soil plant system in addition to this reduced nitrogen use efficiency and also caused water pollution. The neeed based approach of Leaf color chart (LCC) based nitrogen scheduling would synchronize crop demand and soil supply.LCC reflectsleaf N concentration. It is an simple, easy handling cost effective tool to manage nitrogen top dressings in rice.