Bladder cancer is a global health issue. In the endemic areas of Egypt, schistosomiasis is a leading cause of bladder cancer. Prognostic indicators are required to further identify which tumor should be treated aggressively early on, in order to improve surveillance. The Fas-Fas Ligand (Fas-FasL) system has been recognized as a major pathway for the induction of apoptosis in cells and tissues. Fas-mediated apoptosis is deeply involved in cancer cell death, brought about by the immune system. The interaction of Fas and Fas Ligand contributes to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte and natural killer-cell mediated cytotoxicity against cancer cells. This study was performed to assess the importance of the apoptosis markers (Fas and FasL) in bilharzial versus non-bilharzial bladder cancer, in order to detect the possible diagnostic &/or prognostic potentials of this factor.
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is the sixth most common cancer in the world. Oral cancer accounts for nearly 50% of all newly diagnosed cancers in India. Oral cavity cancers are the most common cancers in males and the third most common in females in India. Majority of them are associated with tobacco chewing and usually preceded by premalignant lesions.On an average, about 1% of oral lesions transform into cancer annually.15 to 20% of dysplastic lesions develop into carcinoma.One of the primary reasons for the poor prognosis is the lack of significant and unique molecular tumor markers to assess risk and prognosis. Identification of better prognostic factors is necessary to assist in more accurate lesional staging and prediction of prognosis.
Oral cancer pathogenesis is a complex process involving genetic alteration during multistep carcinogenesis, growth regulation, apoptosis, immortalization, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. Molecular markers such as p53, Cyclin-D1 and EGFR regulate cell cycle and play important role in tumor progression and development. The present study evaluates the expressions of these molecular markers & its prognostic significance with treatment response in oral cancer patients undergoing chemoradiation. The strong positive expressions of p53, Cyclin-D1 and EGFR showed significantly lower survival as compared to negative or moderate positive expressions. Hence, expression of p53, Cyclin-D1 and EGFR may serve as a prognostic marker in oral cancer patients.
Hematological malignancies are associated with hematopoietic cells that have lost the capacity to differentiate normally to mature blood cells. Intreleukin-18 (IL-8) and matrix metalloproteinases 2 (MMP-2) might be involved in the proliferation of certain leukemic cells, tumor growth and metastasis. A prognostic factor is defined as a clinical measurement that could be predicted by response to treatment associated with overall survival. Determination of prognostic factors is especially important in malignant patients. We aim to investigate the expression of IL-8 and MMP-2 in various hematological malignancies including acute lymphatic leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia to assess the relation between these markers, the clinical signs and laboratory finding, to predict the response to treatment and prognosis.
A longitudinal study with a control group designed to evaluate the role of urine, serum proteins and the immunological response in the diagnosis ,prognosis ,follow up and treatment of breast cancer patients.ELIZA test of urine protein coating antigen provide a hope for the development of non-invasive breast cancer screening and or diagnostic laboratory test. Serum IgA, C3,IL-6,and TNF-? are important prognostic indicator and could be a vital target in breast cancer therapy.CA15-3 is an important diagnostic, prognostic indicator and good predictor for disease relapse.
HCC is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. The outcome for patients with HCC still dismal, although it has improved much in the past few decades, a definitive subset is cured by surgery only, and encouraging long-term survival of patients have been obtained in some clinical centers. The life expectancy of HCC patients is hard to predict, making it difficult to decide the patient''s prognosis. Alfa- Feto protein (AFP) remains the most commonly & accepted prognostic biomarker used in the management of HCC but with no positive impact on the course of the disease. That necessitated the studying of new molecular biomarkers and their role in early detection and prediction of the clinical course of the disease. A large number of molecular biological factors have been shown to associate with the invasiveness of HCC, and have potential prognostic significance. However, these markers are not routinely available for the prediction of HCC prognosis. This book we will try to validate data about the new advances in the prognostic and predictive markers for HCC, verifying a simple prognostic model for patients with untreated HCC for use in developing countries.
Radiotherapy plus boost to the tumor bed is part of the standard treatment for early stage breast cancer. To deliver the boost by means of intraoperative radiotherapy with electrons (IOERT) is biologically twice as effective as the conventional percutaneous method. A number of prognostic and predictive markers have been described for local control, disease free and overall survival.Recently miRs, which are short non-coding RNAs, were discovered as potential predictors and prognosticators for breast cancer. As opposed to other RNA molecules, miRs are very stable and can therefore be investigated a long time after the tissue sample has been taken. miRNA 375 seems to play an important role in the development and recurrence of breast cancer and should be explored in further studies.
"After skin cancer, breast carcinoma is the most common malignancy in women. A woman who lives to the age of 90 has a 1 in 8 risk of developing breast cancer in her lifetime. It is ironic and tragic that cancer affecting an organ such as the breast which is so easily accessible for clinical and diagnostic examination, continues to claim many human lives". This retrospective study demonstrated that apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) generated by ADC maps provided by 3.0 Tesla (3T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), correlated significantly with one of the most important histological factors in invasive breast cancer: the grading. ADC seems to be a useful tool for identifying highly aggressive breast tumors and determining biological behavior to obtain more accurate prognostic information and guide therapeutic choices.
When we think of cancer in general terms, we are apt to conjure up a process characterized by a steady, remorseless and inexorable progress in which the disease is all conquering and none of the immunological and other defensive forces will help leading to faltering footsteps to the grave. Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide and represents 12% of all female malignancies. Enzymes are present in much higher concentration inside cells and are released into the systemic circulation as a result of tumor necrosis or a change in the membrane permeability of the cancer cells. Elevated enzyme levels may signal the presence of malignancy.As there are very few studies on enzyme markers in cervical cancer the present study has been undertaken to assess the reliability of some of the enzyme markers namely, serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) which are inexpensive, analysed by easy methods and may be used as supportive parameters for diagnostic purpose and may add further for prognostic information.
Breast cancer is the third most common cancer in women with about 22% of all cancer incidences arise from breast cancer. Moreover, it is still the leading cause of cancer mortality in women, compare to the other common cancers. Recent several biomarkers have been associated with the disease and these include protein and genetic markers. Due to the absence of both rapid and sensitive diagnostic tools for breast cancer, it cannot be detected in its early stage which is the most crucial point in treatment. Although the disease has available and widely investigated markers, the breast cancer has scarcely been studied with biosensing technology. This book provides theoretical and practical information about electrochemical DNA biosensors for detection of genetic mutations of breast cancer.
This book was written to have an idea about prostate specific antigen and its role in diagnosis of prostate cancer which is a common cancer in men.and one of the main leading cancer death allover the world. Prostate cancer is one of the treatable cancers, if diagnosed early. Prostate specific antigen is one of ideal tumor markers for early diagnosis motoring prostate cancer, although it is not specific, but the isoforms of this markers are now used to increase the diagnostic utility of this marker.
Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignant diseases worldwide. Because the development of anti-tumor agents, therapeutic options have considerably improved. we Studied the expression of E-cadherin and Her- 2/neu in colon carcinoma trying to correlate between their expression and the prognosis of this disease.100 specimens of colorectal carcinomas were subjected to H&E staining and immunohistochemical staining for E-cadherin and Her2/neu. E-cadherin expression in colorectal carcinoma seemed to pass in chronological stages starting from its gradual absence from the membrane then its appearance in the cytoplasm and lastly its total loss. Also the over-expression of Her-2/neu protein and its positive relation with the poor prognostic variables may favor its role as prognostic marker in colorectal carcinoma and may become of great value in predicting the poor out come of the tumour. So both agents may act as prognostic markers to forecast the clinical course and outcome in colon cancer and as a predictive marker to predict the therapeutic response.
Cancer is one of the fatal diseases and its early prognosis would be highly beneficial in curing it. CRP could be a profound tool in early diagnosis and prognosis. The present study proved that CRP levels are a consistent indicator of cancer risk than some tumor markers. In addition, CRP level show a strong association with risk of cancer incidence recurrence and death. The association between cancer incidence and CRP maybe tumor type specific.
Digestive tumours are the most frequent malignant tumours in the world and the leading cause of a cancer-related death. They are tough to treat once they have formed and many are not found until they have already spread to other parts of the body. Therefore, new biomarkers enabling early diagnosis of asymptomatic disease, accurate differentiation among particular clinical stages and individualization of therapy are sorely needed. With improved methods to explore the transcriptome, different types of non-coding RNAs have been identified. It was proved that these molecules are highly deregulated in cancer tissue and involved in important molecular and biological processes such as differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, migration or cell cycle. Moreover, detailed analyses revealed that they could serve as new molecular markers useful for cancer classification, prognostic stratification, and drug response prediction. Non-coding RNAs in Gastrointestinal Cancer offers a comprehensive collection of current information about the role of non-coding RNAs in gastrointestinal cancer pathogenesis and illustrates, how this knowledge may be useful in medical practice.
The purpose of this study is to explore how differences in breast cancer prognostic factors contribute to the diminished survival rate of African- American women in the United States with breast cancer. Relative to Caucasian women, African-American women were found to be diagnosed with breast cancer at younger ages, with more aggressive tumor histology, and at more advanced stages. Age at diagnosis was found to be the most predictive factor for survival, where African- American women were almost two times more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer before the age of 40 years. Differences in breast cancer age at diagnosis, histology, and stage are present by race. However, a unified effort from community leaders, public health educators, and clinical professionals to target underserved communities may improve mortality rates and create the social change necessary to eliminate breast cancer disparities between Caucasian and African- American women.