Bladder cancer is a global health issue. In the endemic areas of Egypt, schistosomiasis is a leading cause of bladder cancer. Prognostic indicators are required to further identify which tumor should be treated aggressively early on, in order to improve surveillance. The Fas-Fas Ligand (Fas-FasL) system has been recognized as a major pathway for the induction of apoptosis in cells and tissues. Fas-mediated apoptosis is deeply involved in cancer cell death, brought about by the immune system. The interaction of Fas and Fas Ligand contributes to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte and natural killer-cell mediated cytotoxicity against cancer cells. This study was performed to assess the importance of the apoptosis markers (Fas and FasL) in bilharzial versus non-bilharzial bladder cancer, in order to detect the possible diagnostic &/or prognostic potentials of this factor.
Hematological malignancies are associated with hematopoietic cells that have lost the capacity to differentiate normally to mature blood cells. Intreleukin-18 (IL-8) and matrix metalloproteinases 2 (MMP-2) might be involved in the proliferation of certain leukemic cells, tumor growth and metastasis. A prognostic factor is defined as a clinical measurement that could be predicted by response to treatment associated with overall survival. Determination of prognostic factors is especially important in malignant patients. We aim to investigate the expression of IL-8 and MMP-2 in various hematological malignancies including acute lymphatic leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia to assess the relation between these markers, the clinical signs and laboratory finding, to predict the response to treatment and prognosis.
HCC is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. The outcome for patients with HCC still dismal, although it has improved much in the past few decades, a definitive subset is cured by surgery only, and encouraging long-term survival of patients have been obtained in some clinical centers. The life expectancy of HCC patients is hard to predict, making it difficult to decide the patient''s prognosis. Alfa- Feto protein (AFP) remains the most commonly & accepted prognostic biomarker used in the management of HCC but with no positive impact on the course of the disease. That necessitated the studying of new molecular biomarkers and their role in early detection and prediction of the clinical course of the disease. A large number of molecular biological factors have been shown to associate with the invasiveness of HCC, and have potential prognostic significance. However, these markers are not routinely available for the prediction of HCC prognosis. This book we will try to validate data about the new advances in the prognostic and predictive markers for HCC, verifying a simple prognostic model for patients with untreated HCC for use in developing countries.
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is the sixth most common cancer in the world. Oral cancer accounts for nearly 50% of all newly diagnosed cancers in India. Oral cavity cancers are the most common cancers in males and the third most common in females in India. Majority of them are associated with tobacco chewing and usually preceded by premalignant lesions.On an average, about 1% of oral lesions transform into cancer annually.15 to 20% of dysplastic lesions develop into carcinoma.One of the primary reasons for the poor prognosis is the lack of significant and unique molecular tumor markers to assess risk and prognosis. Identification of better prognostic factors is necessary to assist in more accurate lesional staging and prediction of prognosis.
"After skin cancer, breast carcinoma is the most common malignancy in women. A woman who lives to the age of 90 has a 1 in 8 risk of developing breast cancer in her lifetime. It is ironic and tragic that cancer affecting an organ such as the breast which is so easily accessible for clinical and diagnostic examination, continues to claim many human lives". This retrospective study demonstrated that apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) generated by ADC maps provided by 3.0 Tesla (3T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), correlated significantly with one of the most important histological factors in invasive breast cancer: the grading. ADC seems to be a useful tool for identifying highly aggressive breast tumors and determining biological behavior to obtain more accurate prognostic information and guide therapeutic choices.
The purpose of this study is to explore how differences in breast cancer prognostic factors contribute to the diminished survival rate of African- American women in the United States with breast cancer. Relative to Caucasian women, African-American women were found to be diagnosed with breast cancer at younger ages, with more aggressive tumor histology, and at more advanced stages. Age at diagnosis was found to be the most predictive factor for survival, where African- American women were almost two times more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer before the age of 40 years. Differences in breast cancer age at diagnosis, histology, and stage are present by race. However, a unified effort from community leaders, public health educators, and clinical professionals to target underserved communities may improve mortality rates and create the social change necessary to eliminate breast cancer disparities between Caucasian and African- American women.
Oral cancer pathogenesis is a complex process involving genetic alteration during multistep carcinogenesis, growth regulation, apoptosis, immortalization, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. Molecular markers such as p53, Cyclin-D1 and EGFR regulate cell cycle and play important role in tumor progression and development. The present study evaluates the expressions of these molecular markers & its prognostic significance with treatment response in oral cancer patients undergoing chemoradiation. The strong positive expressions of p53, Cyclin-D1 and EGFR showed significantly lower survival as compared to negative or moderate positive expressions. Hence, expression of p53, Cyclin-D1 and EGFR may serve as a prognostic marker in oral cancer patients.
Prostate cancer is the third most common cancer diagnosed in men and one of the leading causes of cancer related death. In view of the increasing number of patients with prostate problems as the prostate cancer (PCa) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) among the Sudanese population, and due to difficulties in the trans-rectal ultra sound (TRUS) biopsy taken which is unpleasant for the patients, this book aimed to achieve the evaluation of Serum Prostatic acid Phosphatase (PAP), Total Prostatic Specific Antigen (TPSA) and Free Prostatic Specific Antigen (FPSA) as markers of prostate cancer in Sudanese patients. This study concluded that determination of FPSA/TPSA ratio improves differentiation of PCa from BPH when serum Total Prostatic Specific Antigen level of 4 to10 ng/ml. and recommends a cut-off value of 18% to be applied to Sudanese patients to decide whether to biopsy the prostate.
Sell ?cancer? Markers – Diagnostic & Developmental Significance
When we think of cancer in general terms, we are apt to conjure up a process characterized by a steady, remorseless and inexorable progress in which the disease is all conquering and none of the immunological and other defensive forces will help leading to faltering footsteps to the grave. Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide and represents 12% of all female malignancies. Enzymes are present in much higher concentration inside cells and are released into the systemic circulation as a result of tumor necrosis or a change in the membrane permeability of the cancer cells. Elevated enzyme levels may signal the presence of malignancy.As there are very few studies on enzyme markers in cervical cancer the present study has been undertaken to assess the reliability of some of the enzyme markers namely, serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) which are inexpensive, analysed by easy methods and may be used as supportive parameters for diagnostic purpose and may add further for prognostic information.
Breast cancer is a well-known malignant tumor that remains to be one of the major public health problems and the main cause of death for women all over the world. Its diagnosis relies on medical history, physical examination, imaging techniques and biopsies. Tumor markers, though not good diagnostic tools because of lack of sensitivity, can provide valuable information in aiding early diagnosis, determining prognosis, prospectively predicting response or resistance to specific therapies, surveillance after primary surgery, and monitoring therapy in patients with advanced disease as reviewed in this book.
Malignant melanoma is one of the most malignant types of skin cancer. Incidences are on the rise worldwide.Early detection and early surgical removal are associated with reduced mortality.The strong aggressiveness of this malignant disease is caused by its local invasive growth and tendency to metastasize early. Malignant melanoma is highly metabolically active tumor that releases a number of enzymes, cytokines, growth hormones and other molecules. The aim of this work was to determine the usability of preoperative and postoperative serum and plasma levels of biomarkers in primary diagnosis of tumor activity and in the postoperative follow-up care. We measured circulating levels of several biomarkers in a group of 77 patients with malignant melanoma and cohort of 34 patients without cancer as a control group. Using routine immunoassays and novel multiplex xMAP technology, we measured: thymidine kinase, tissue polypeptide specific antigen, protein S100A, osteoprotegerin, osteopontin , insulin-like growth factor binding proteins 1 and 3, epidermal growth factor, interleukin -2, -6, -8, -10, vascular endothelial growth factor.
Digestive tumours are the most frequent malignant tumours in the world and the leading cause of a cancer-related death. They are tough to treat once they have formed and many are not found until they have already spread to other parts of the body. Therefore, new biomarkers enabling early diagnosis of asymptomatic disease, accurate differentiation among particular clinical stages and individualization of therapy are sorely needed. With improved methods to explore the transcriptome, different types of non-coding RNAs have been identified. It was proved that these molecules are highly deregulated in cancer tissue and involved in important molecular and biological processes such as differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, migration or cell cycle. Moreover, detailed analyses revealed that they could serve as new molecular markers useful for cancer classification, prognostic stratification, and drug response prediction. Non-coding RNAs in Gastrointestinal Cancer offers a comprehensive collection of current information about the role of non-coding RNAs in gastrointestinal cancer pathogenesis and illustrates, how this knowledge may be useful in medical practice.
Radiotherapy plus boost to the tumor bed is part of the standard treatment for early stage breast cancer. To deliver the boost by means of intraoperative radiotherapy with electrons (IOERT) is biologically twice as effective as the conventional percutaneous method. A number of prognostic and predictive markers have been described for local control, disease free and overall survival.Recently miRs, which are short non-coding RNAs, were discovered as potential predictors and prognosticators for breast cancer. As opposed to other RNA molecules, miRs are very stable and can therefore be investigated a long time after the tissue sample has been taken. miRNA 375 seems to play an important role in the development and recurrence of breast cancer and should be explored in further studies.
This book reviews the history and pathogenesis of IgA Nephropathy. In addition, it compares the two existing classification systems of IgA Nephropathy. An exhaustive study of the various prognostic markers of this disease in Indian population is analyzed. An attempt is also made to compare various existing Indian studies with similar studies in other countries. Based on this study, IgA Nephropathy appears to be aggressive in Indian patients and is associated with poor renal survival rate.